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Concretam patitur radicem affigere terræ.
Optima vinetis satio est, cùm vere rubenti
Candida venit avis longis invisa colubris :

320 Prima vel autumni sub frigora, cùm rapidus Sol

Nondum hyemem contingit equis, jam præterit æstas
323. Aded ver est utile Ver adeò frondi nemorum, ver utile sylvis ;
frondi nemorum, ver esl Vere tument terræ, et genitalia semina poscunt.

Tum pater omnipotens fæcundis imbribus æther 325
Conjugis in gremium lætæ descendit, et omnes
Magnus alit, magno commixtus corpore, fætus
Avia tum resonant avibus virgulta canoris,
Et Venerem certis repetunt armenta diebus.

Parturit almus ager: Zephyrique tepentibus auris 330 331. Omnibus arvis

Laxant arva sinus: superat tener omnibus humor :
Inque novos soles audent se germina tutò
Credere : : nec metuit surgentes pampinus Austros,
Aut actum cælo magnis Aquilonibus imbrem :

Sed trudit gemmas, et frondes explicat omnes. 335 336. Non crediderim

Non alios primâ crescentis origine mundi
alios dies illuxisse in Illuxisse dies, aliumve habuisse tenorem
prima origine crescentis
inundi, habuisseve alium Crediderim : ver illud erat, ver magnus agebat
tenorem : illud tempus Orbis, et hybernis parcebant flatibus Euri;

Cùm primùm lucem pecudes hausere, virûmque 340
Ferrea progenies duris caput extulit arvis,
Immissæque feræ sylvis, et sidera cælo.
Nec res hunc teneræ possent perferre laborem,

erat ver

NOTES.

319. Rubenti : blooming—blushing ; in zephyrs. This is extremely beautiful, and the sense of purpureo.

highly poetical. 320. Canılida avis : the Ciconia, or stork.

332. Germina. The usual reading is So esteemed was this bird on account of its gramina. Heyne reads germina. Burmadestroying serpents and noxious reptiles, nus, Martyn, Vossius, and some others, do that in Thessaly, Pliny informs us, it was a

the same.

It is evidently the better. capital crime for any person to kill one;

340. Cum primum, &c. This is an alluhence, invisa longis colubris.

sion to the deluge, which, the poets say, 325. Tum omnipotens pater: then almighty happened in the reign of Deucalion, king father Æther descends into the bosom of his of Thessaly, of which he and his wife Pyrrha joyous spouse in fructifying showers, and great himself, mingling with her great body, the general destruction of men, they were

were the only survivors. Being grieved at nourishes all her offspring. These lines are extremely beautiful, as

directed by an oracle to cast behind them well as this whole description of spring. understood to be stones, and they should

the bones of their great mother, which they The Æther, or air, by the poets, is frequently instantly spring up into men. See Ecl. vi.41. called Jupiter, on account, perhaps, of its great utility, and its necessity to life and 341. Duris arvis: stony fields. Ferrea : vegetation; and because of the intimate because they sprang up all armed and connexion between the surrounding air and equipped for war. the earth, the poet represents the latter as 343. Res teneræ. It is not certain whe. Juno, calling it the spouse of Jove.

ther the poet here speaks of spring at the 328. Avia virgulta : the sequestered creation of the world, or returns to his de. woods, or thickets. Avius is evidently com- scription of spring in general. In the for pounded of the Greek alpha, negativum, mer case, res tenere will be the tender and and via, a way. We meet with several in- infant creation; in the latter, the tender stances of the like composition in the Latin productions of nature. Dr. Trapp takes it language: as demens, of de and mens, in this latter case, and understands by teamens, &c.

nere, frail, an epithet, says he, which was, 331. Arva laxant, &c. The fields open and ever will be, proper for all sublunary their bosom to the warm breezes of the things. Ruæus seems to take it in the for

GEORGICA. LIB. II.

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Si non tanta quies iret, frigusque caloremque
Intèr ; et exciperet cæli indulgentia terras.

345
Quod superest ; quæcumque premes virgulta per agros,
Sparge fimo pingui, et multâ memor occule terrâ :
Aut lapidem bibulum, aut squalentes infode conchas.

348. Infode circuin ea Inter eniin labentur a quæ, tenuisque subibit

bibulum lapidem aut

conchas : Halitus, atque animos tollent sata ; jamque reperti, 350 squalentes

enim inter eas Qui saxo super atque ingentis pondere testæ

350. Reperti sunt hoUrgerent: hoc effusos munimen ad imbres ;

mines, qui urgerent illa, Hoc, ubi hiulca siti findit canis æstifer arva.

super saxo, atque Seminibus positis, superest deducere terram

352. Hoc est muniment

ad effusos imbres : hoc Sæpiùs ad capita, et duros jactare bidentes; 355

est munimen, ubi æstifer Aut presso exercere solum sub vomere, et ipsa

canis findit Flectere luctantes inter vineta juvencos: Tum leves calamos, et rasæ hastilia virgæ,

358. Superest tum apFraxineasque aptare sudes, furcasque bicornes:

tare vitibus Viribus eniti quarum, et contemnere ventos

360 Assuescant, summasque sequi tabulata per

ulmos. Ac, dum prima novis adolescit frondibus ætas, Parcendum teneris : et dum se lætus ad auras

363. Parcendum est Palmes agit, laxis per purum immissus habenis,

tibi teneris vitibus, dum Ipsa aciê nondum falcis tentanda ; sed uncis

365. Ipsa vitis nondum Carpendæ manibus frondes, interque legendæ.

tentanda acie falcis Inde ubi jam validis amplexæ stirpibus ulmos

365 prima

NOTES.

mount up

mer sense. Mundus adhuc tener, says he. gating the vine by the layer, the top was Heyne follows the opinion of Dr. Trapp, placed into the ground, which consequently and by tenerc res understands the young became the root. Ruæus says, radices. Biand tender vegetation in general. David- dentes : Bidens was a kind of rake or hoe; son is of the same opinion. Hunc laborem: having two teeth or forks—a grubbing hoe; this suffering, viz. the extremes of heat and compounded of bis and dens. Seminibus cold.

positis: in the sense of surculis defossis, vel 345. Exciperet : in the sense of excepisset. plantatis. So iret in the preceding line, for ivisset. 358. Hastilia : poles pointed like spears. Exciperet : had favored-visited.

Rasæ virgæ: of peeled wood—the bark taken 346. Premes : in the sense of plantabis. off to render them more smooth. Virgis Virgilta : in the sense of surculos.

decorticatis, says Ruæus. 348. Infode bibulum lapidem : bury around 359. Bicornes furcas : two-pronged forks. them the spongy stone, and rough shells. Bicornis, of bis and cornu.

349. Tenuis halitus, &c. This is said 360. Quarum viribus : by whose support probably from an opinion, that a circulation they may accustom themselves to rise, or of air about the root was necessary to the growth of the plant or scion. Sata : in the 361. Tabulata. These were branches of sense of surculi. Animos : in the sense of elms extended at proper distances, to susvires.

tain the vine and enable it to spread. We 352. Effusos imbres: excessive, or immo- have no word in English answering to it. derate rains.

364. Immissus laxis habenis : rushing 353. Æstifer canis: the sultry dog. This forth with loosened reins. This is a metais a star in the mouth of the great dog, a phortaken from the horses in the race. Agit constellation in the heavens. It is said to in the sense of erigit. have a considerable influence, while in con 365. Arie falcis. This is the reading of junction with the sun, upon the heat of the Heyne, Valpy, and some others. Acies, in weather. This space of time is usually the nom. is the common reading. The vine denominated the dog-days. The name of is not to be attempted with the pruningthe star is Sirius.

knife, but the leaves are to be plucked and 335. Capita : here plainly means the carefully culled by the bending hand, interroots; which are so called, either because legendæ. by them they draw nourishment from the 367. Validis stirpibus : with strong earth as by a mouth; or because, by propa- wreaths--stems. Stringe: thin-trim off.

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Exierint ; tum stringe comas, tum brachia tonde
Antè reformidant ferrum : tum denique dura

Exerce imperia, et ramos compesce fluentes. 370 371. Sepes texendæ Texendæ sepes etiam, et pecus omne tenendum, et loireùm viles, et omne Præcipuè dum frons tenera, imprudensque laborum. pecus tenendum est ab Cui, super indignas hyemes, Solemque potentem, illis :

Sylvestres uri assiduè capreæque sequaces
Illudunt :

: pascuntur oves, avidæque juvencæ. 375 376. Nec frigora con: Frigora nec tantùm canâ concreta pruinâ, gravis æstas incumbens Aut gravis incumbens scopulis arentibus æstas ; årentibus scopulis, no- Quantùm illi nocuere greges, durique venenum

vitibus tantùm, Dentis, et admorso signata in stirpe cicatrix. quantùm illi greges Non aliam ob culpam Baccho caper omnibus aris 380

Cæditur, et veteres ineunt proscenia ludi ;
Præmiaque ingeniis pagos et compita circùm,
Theseidæ

posuere : atque inter pocula læti
Mollibus in pratis unctos saliere per utres.
Necnon Ausonii, Trojâ gens missa, coloni

385
Versibus incomptis ludunt, risuque soluto:
Jadi Oraque corticibus sumunt horrenda cavatis.

Et te, Bacche, vocant per carmina læta, tibique
Oscilla ex altâ suspendunt mollia pinu.

cuere

NOTES. 370. Exerce dura imperia: exercise rigid 383. Theseidæ : the Athenians, so called sway-rule them imperiously. Fluentes: from Theseus, one of their kings, the son of superfluous—wide-spreading.

Ægeus and Æthra. He taught them to live 372. Imprudens laborum: unused-unac- in cities, and contributed much to their cicustomed to hardships.

vilization. Tragedy is said to have origi373. Indignas : in the sense of duras, vel nated among the Athenians. Thespis, one sævas. Super : in the sense of præter. of their poets, hath the honor of inventing

375. Illudunt : in the sense of nocent. it. It is said he performed in a kind of 377. Gravis a.stas : excessive heat.

cart. 381. Proscenia. The Roman theatre was 384. Uncios utres. The utres were bags of a semi-circular form, and divided into of goat skins filled with wind, and besmeared four parts. The porticus, or gallery. Here with oil. At the feasts of Bacchus, it was were the seats for the cominon people, in the custom to leap upon them with one foot, the form of a wedge, and were called Cunei. and being slippery, often caused the leaper The Orchestra was the inner part, or centre or dancer to fall, which always excited of the theatre. Here the senators and mirth and laughter in the by-standers. equitus sat, and the dancers and musicians 385. Coloni. Colonus signifies both a performed. The Proscenium was the space tiller of the carth, and any inhabitant of a between the Orchestra and Scena, more ele- country. In this last sense it seems to be vated than the former, but lower than the used here, denoting the Roinans generally. latter. Here the actors performed. The They were originally a colony of Trojans, Scena was that part over against the specta- led into Italy by Æneas. Hence the protors. The Postscenium was the place be- priety of their being called gens missa Troja. hind the Scena, or curtain, where the actors Ausonii: an adj. from Ausonia, the origi. retired. The amphitheatre was built in a nal name of Italy: in the sense of Romani, circular form, wiih nothing to obstruct the vel Itali. view from any part. Seats were all around 386. Soluto: in the sense of immodico. it, and in the middle was a large open space

337. Ora : in the sense of larvus, masks. or area, where the gladiators and wild beasts 389. Oscilla. These most probably were used to fight.

small earthen images of Bacchus, hung upon 382. Ingeniis: to genius, or wit. The the branches of trees, where they swung, common reading is ingentes, an epithet en and were turned about by the wind. They tirely useless. Davidson, on the authority were supposed to confer fertility to the vine, of Pierius, reads ingeniis. He says he in whatever direction they chanced to turn found it so in the most ancient manuscripts. their faces. Mollia : moveable, because they It is also the reading of Heyne and Bur. turned easily, and obeyed every breeze; or,

perhaps, effeminate, because Bacchus was

mannus.

Hinc omnis largo pubescit vinea fætu :

390 Complentur vallesque cavæ saltusque profundi, Et quòcumque Deus circùm caput egit honestum.

392. Et locus, quòcumErgò ritè suum Baccho dicemus honorem

que Deus circuinagit
Carminibus patriis, lancesque et liba feremus;
Et ductus cornu stabit sacer hircus ad aram : 395
Pinguiaque in verubus torrebiinus exta colurnis.

Est etiam ille labor curandis vitibus alter,
Cui nunquam exhausti satis est ; namque omne quotannis
Terque quaterque solum scindendum, glebaque versis
Æternùm frangenda bidentibus, omne levandum 400
Fronde nemus. Redit agricolis labor actus in orbem,
Atque in se sua per vestigia volvitur annus.
Et jam olim seras posuit cùm vinea frondes,
Frigidus et sylvis Aquilo decussit honorem;
Jam tum acer curas venientem extendit in annum 405
Rusticus, et curvo Saturni dente relictam
Persequitur vitem attondens, fingitque putando.
Primus humum fodito, primus devecta cremato
Sarmenta, et vallos primus sub tecta referto :
Postremus metito. Bis vitibus ingruit umbra : 410
Bis segetem densis obducunt sentibus herbæ :
Durus
uterque labor. Laudato ingentia rura,

413. Aspera vimina

rusci cæduntur per sylExiguum colito. Necnon etiam aspera rusci

vam, et fluvialis arundo Vimina per sylvam, et ripis fluvialis arundo

cæditur ripis

NOTES.

always represented as youthful and de- of Saturn. The scythe, or pruning-hook, bauched. Mobilia, says Heyne.

was the badge of Saturn. Relictam: de390. Fætu: in the sense of proventu, says prived of its fruit and foliage, like a forlorn Heyne.

mother bereaved of her children. Nothing 393. Honorem : in the sense of laudes. can surpass this in force and beauty. Dente:

S96. Colurnis verubus : hazle-spits. The in the sense of falce. hazle seems here to be mentioned, as the 408. Primus. The poet here advises the instrument on which the sacrifice was to be vintager to be the first to perform every roasted, because it was injurious to the vine. piece of business belonging to his vineyard; The goat was sacred to Bacchus, and usu such as digging and mellowing the ground, ally offered to him. See 380, supra. carrying home and burning the useless

397. Est etiam ille alter : there is also branches (sarmenta) of the vine, and carryanother labor. Curandis : in the sense of ing home and securing from the weather colendis. The dat. is here painly used in the stakes and poles (vallos) that supported the sense of the gen. But this construction the vine; but to be the last to gather his is common with the poets.

grapes, as they would grow better by re398. Satis exhausti: enough of pains maining on the vine, and having a longer laken. Exhaustum, though properly a part time to ripen. of the verb exhaurio, is here used as a sub 410. Bis umbra, &c. The vine requires stantive, governed by the adv. satis. to be cleared of its superfluous leaves twice

400. Æternùm: in the sense of assiduè. in the season, and twice to be cleared of Bidentibus : the same with ligonibus. Ne- weeds and grass. This circumstance will mus: in the sense of vinea, vel vinetum. explain the words of the poet.

401. Actus in orbem: that is, perpetuus, 411. Sentibus: with weeds-briars. vel continuus: because there is no end or 412. Laudato. The poet here means : termination in a circle.

you may admire a large farm, but be sure 402. Annus: in the sense of annuus la to till a small one: or, you may praise a bor, vel annua opera. The same labor or large one in the possession of another, but work is to be done every year, and it re you should prefer a small one yourself, beturns in the same order and course.

cause you will find it in the end more pro404. Decussit honorem: hath shaken from fitable. the trees their beauty and foliage.

413. Rusci: the shrub called the butcher's 406. Curvo dente: with the crooked knife broom.

..

Cæditur ; incultique exercet cura salicti.

415 416. Vites vinctæ ul- Jam vinctæ vites, jam falcem arbusta reponunt, mis jam reponunt falcem Jam canit extremos effætus vinitor antes :

Sollicitanda tamen tellus, pulvisque movendus:
Et jam maturis metuendus Jupiter uvis.
Contrà, non ulla est oleis cultura : neque

illæ 420 Procurvam expectant falcem, rastrosque tenaces ; 422. Radices hæserunt Cùm semel hæserunt arvis, aurasque tulerunt. arvis, verticesque earum Ipsa satis tellus, cùm dente recluditur unco, tulerunt auras.. Tellus ipsa, cum recluditur unSufficit humorem, et gravidas cùm vomere fruges.

425 co dente, sufficit humo- Hoc pinguem et placitam paci nutritor olivam. rem satis oleis: et sufi- Poma quoque, ut primùm truncos sensere valentes, ciet gravidas fruges cùm Et vires habuere suas, ad sidera raptim recluditur vomere:

Vi propriâ nituntur, opisque haud indiga nostræ.

Nec minùs intereà fætu nemus omne gravescit,
Sanguineisque inculta rubent aviaria baccis.

430 Tondentur cytisi: tædas sylva alta ministrat, 432. è quibus noctur- Pascunturque ignes nocturni, et lumina fundunt.

Et dubitant homines serere, atque impendere curam ?
Quid möjora sequar ? salices, humilesque genistæ,
Aut illæ pecori frondem, aut pastoribus umbram 435

Sufficiunt; sepemque satis, et pabula melli. 439. Juvat videre arya

Et juvat undantem buxo spectare Cytorum, non obnoxia rastris, non Naryciæque picis lucos : juvat arva videre, ulli curæ hominum. Non rastris, hominum non ulli obnoxia curæ.

ni ignes

NOTES.

415. Salicti: willow-ground. The pron. considering it as an hyperbole, denoting te, is to be supplied after exercet.

that the fruit would be alınost coeval with 416. Reponunt. In the language of po- the ploughing. Statim cum ipso vomere, etry, the vines are said to lay aside the says Ruæus. pruning knife, when they no longer stand 425. Hôc: with this—the plough. Or ob in need of its being applied to them. This hoc, according to Servius, on account of takes place when they have sufficiently em this facility in propagating. Placitam paci : braced or entwined around the elms, and delighting in peace. other trees planted in the vineyard for the 426. Poma : the fruits: by meton. put for purpose of supporting them. Vinctæ : in the trees that bore them. the sense of ligatæ, says Ruæus. Arbusta: 429. Omne nemus: Heyne says, omne gein the sense of vineta. See Ecl. i. 40. nus arborum.

417. Effætus vinitor: the wearied vinta 431. Cytisi tondentur. This may mean ger sings his last rows—that he hath gotten either browsed upon by catlie, or cut and to his last rows. Pervenit ad extremos or- prepared for their use. The cytisus was a dines (antes) vitium, says Heyne.

shrub much esteemed for its property of 419. Jupiter: the air, or weather. causing cattle to give excellent milk. To423. Unco dente. Dens is any instrument das: torches-materials for making torches. of one tine or fork for opening the earth 433. Serere : to plant them. about the roots of trees or plants, or for 434. Salices: the willows. Genistæ : the loosening the ground in any way. The brooms. Sequar majora: in the sense of meaning of the poet is: that the earth of commemorem majores arbores. itself, if opened and kept loose with this in 436. Pabula melli: materials for honeystrument, will afford sufficient moisture to flowers for the bees. the olives (satis) lately planted; but if 437. Cytoriim: Cytorus, a mountain in opened and kept loose with the plough, it Paphlagonia, in the neighborhood of the will render the olive more thrifty, and cause Euxine sea, abounding in the box-tree. at to bear a fruit full, large, and good. 438. Naryciæ : an adj. from Naryx, or Ploughing the land, says Mr. Martyn, is al. Narycia, a city in that part of Italy called ways considered to increase the produce of Magna Græcia. It abounded in trees of the the olive. This circumstance fully explains pitch and resinous kind. the poet's meaning; which Ruæus, and 439. Non obnoxia : not requiring.-not Dr. Trapp after him, evidently mistook, exposed to. Ruous says, non egentia.

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