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Sæpe levi somnum suadebit inire susurro. parti** Hinc altâ sub rupe

canet frondator ad auras.
Nec tamen interea raucæ, tua cura, palumbes,
Nec gemere aëriâ cessabit turtur ab ulmo.

Tit. Antè leves ergo pascentur in æthere cervi,
Et freta destituent nudos in litore pisces :

Antè, pererratis amborum finibus, exul info
65. At nos expulsi Aut Ararim Parthus bibet, aut Germania Tigrim,
hinc, alii nostrum ibi- Quàm nostro illius labatur pectore vultus.
mus ad sitientes Afros,

MEL, At nos hinc alii sitientes ibimus Afros, pars nostrûm venieinus Pars Scythiam, et rapidum Cretæ veniemus Oaxem, ad Scythiam,

68. En unquam mi. Et penitùs toto divisos orbe Britannos. rabor videns videns patrios En unquam patrios longo pòst tempore fines,




bla, a town and mountain in Sicily, famous divided the opinions of commentators, apfor honey.--Vicino limite : from the neigh- pears to be this: that these two nations, boring field. Hinc : on the one hand. It the Germans and the Parthians, shall.exis opposed to the Hinc in line 57. infra;, change countries with each other (finibus which is to be rendered : on the other hand. amborum pererratis) sooner than (ante quam)

57. Ad auras : to the air-aloud, so as to the image of that youth should be effaced pierce the air.

from his breast. But the former could never 60. Antè. The ante in this line is mere- be; therefore, the latter would remain. Perly expletive; the sense is complete without erratis, in the sense of permutatis. it.

65. Sitientes: thirsting or parched. This 61. Destituent : in the sense of relinquent. epithet is peculiarly proper for the inhabi

62. Antè, pererratis, &c. Parthus, by tants of Africa, the greater part of which lies Synec. for the Parthians collectively. They between the tropics. were a people descended from the Scythians, 66. Scythiam. The Scythians were and possessed that part of Asia, which is brave and warlike people, leading a wanbounded on the west by Media, on the north dering life. They extended their conquests by the Caspian sea, on the east by Bactri- over a very considerable part of Europe and ana, and on the south by the deserts of Car- Asia. Hence the term Scythia came to mania. In process of time, they became be used indefinitely, to denote any part or very powerful, and were the most formida- the whole of the northern parts of Europe ble enemies of the Persians : and from their and Asia. Oaxis: a river of Crete; a large frequeni conquests over that people, are island in the Mediterranean. It is celebra sometimes confounded with them. Germa- ted for having been the birth-place of Jupi nia. An extensive country in Europe, put, ter, and for its having once had a hundred by meton. for the inhabitants of that coun- cities. Veniemus, in the sense of ibimus. try. Ararim. A river of France arising 68. En unquam. Alas! shall I ever wonfrom mount Vogesus (hodie Vauge) and run- der, beholding, &c. Germanus, Ruæus and ning in a southern direction, falls into the Davidson connect aliquot aristas with mea Rhodanus at Lyons, and along with it, into regna. But Dr. Trapp takes post aliquot the Mediterranean. It is famous for the aristas to mean after some years ; and conbridge built over it by Julius Cæsar. Its strues mea regna with culmen tuguri. It is present name is the Soane. Tigrim. This is true, aristæ may be taken for years. But a very rapid river of Asia, rising in Arme- aliquot aristas does not very well answer to nia, and taking a southerly direction, pass- the longo tempore post, mentioned just being by Mesopotamia and Assyria, unites fore. And if it did, it would be only a usewith the Euphrates, and with it falls into less repetition. But connect aliquot aristas the Sinus Persicus. The Araris is not in with mea regna, as in the ordo; any improGermany properly

so called. But it is well priety of this kind is removed; and we have known that the Germans extended their a beautiful representation of Melibeus's conquests beyond that river, and effected possessions ; which consisted in a few acres settlements ainong the Sequani, and other of land, lying adjacent to liis cottage, the nations of Gaul. Nor is the Tigris in Par- roof of which just rose above the corn that thia proper. But the Parthians extended was planted around it, and might not imtheir conquests as far west as the Euphra- properly be said to be concealed among it, tes. Not far from this river they vanquished or behind it. Tuguri, by apocope, for tuCrassus, the Roman general. The mean- gurii. Congestum cespiti : covered over with ing of this passage, which hath so much turf.

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Pauperis et tuguri congestum cespite culmen,

fines longo tempore post, Post aliquot, mea regna, videns mirabor aristas ? 70 et culmen pauperis tuImpius hæc tam culta novalia miles habebit?

guri, congestum cesp ite,

stans post aliquot aris. Barbárus has segetes ? En quò discordia cives

Am Midte tas, tola mea regna.
Perduxit miseros!' en queis consevimus agros !
Insere nunc, Melibæe, pyros, pone ordine vites :*

Ite'meæ, felix quondam pecus, ite capellæ. 4*** 75
Non ego vos posthac, viridi projectus in antro,

76. Ego posthac pro"Dumosâ pendere procul de rupe videbo.

jectus in viridi antro,

loot - Carmina nulla canam : non, me pascente, capellæ

non videbo vos procul

pendere Florentem cytisum et salices carpetis amaras. 79

Tit. Hic tamen hanc mecum poteris requiescere nocu
Fronde super viridi. Sunt nobis mitia poma, [tem
Castaneæ molles, et pressi copia lactis.
Et jam summa procul villarum culmina fumant,
Majoresque cadunt altis de montibus umbræ.


th the

71. Novalia : fallow-ground.

had labored, and had improved his lands, to 72. Quò: whither to what state of mi- ' be now possessed by a cruel soldier. sery. Perdusil : hath reduced, or brought. and cheese. "Molles, may here mean ripe, or

82. Copia pressi luctis : a plenty of curds 74. Insere nunc,

&c. Melibeus says this soft and smooth, in opposition to the hirsuironically to himself, being vexed that he , or rough.


What is the subject of this pastoral?

To reward his troops, what did Augustus do?

Who is represented under the character of Tityrus?

Who under that of Melibeus?

Where is the scene of the pastural laid?
What is the time of the day?
What is the state of the atmosphere?
To what is otium opposed ?

Were the Romans a superstitious people?



The subject of this charming pastoral is the passion of the shepherd Corydon for the

beautiful youth Alexis. The shepherd complains of the cruelty of the boy in slighting his overtures; and withal advises him not to trust too much to his complexion and beauty. He endeavors to prevail on him to visit the country, where he promises to entertain him with music, nuts, apples, and flowers. But when he finds nothing will avail, he resolves to seek another lover. By Corydon some understand Virgil himself, and by Alexis a beautiful slave, belonging to his friend and patron, Mæcenas. In several parts of this pastoral, the poet is indebted to Theocritus. The scene is laid in Sicily.

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1. Ardebat: he greatly loved-he burned 2. Delicias : the darling-the deligh for. This word very forcibly marks the his master. It is placed in apposit degree of his passion.

Alexim. It is used only in the pl



3. Inter densas fagos Tantùm inter densas, umbrosa cacumina, fagos
habentes umbrosa cacu- Assidue veniebat : ibi hæc incondita solus 64

Montibus et sylvis studio jactabat inani.
O crudelis Alexi, nihil mea carmina curas :
Nil nostri miserere : mori me denique coges.
Nunc etiam pecudes umbras et frigora captant;

Nunc virides etiam occultant spineta lacertos :
10. Thestylis contun- Thestylis et rapido fessis messoribus æstu
dit allia serpyllumque, Allia serpyllumque herbas contundit olentes.
olentes herbas, messori- At mecum raucis, tua dum vestigia lustro,
bus fessis rapido æstu,
At, dum lustro tua ves-

Sole sub ardenti resonant arbusta cicadis. tigia, arbusta

"Nonne fuit satius tristes Amaryllidis iras,
Atque superba pati fastidia ? nonne Menalcan?
Quamvis ille niger, quamvis tu candidus esses.
O formose puer, nimium ne crede colori :
Alba ligustra cadunt, vaccinia nigra leguntur. ġ
Despectus tibi surn, nec qui sim quæris, Alexi :

Quàm dives pecoris nivei, quàm lactis abundans. 23. Canto carmina,

Mille meæ Siculis errant in montibus agnæ : que Dircæus Amphion

Lac mihi non æstate novum, non frigore defit. solitus est cantare, Canto, quæ solitus, si quando armenta vocabat,

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4. Ibi solus jactabat, &c. There alone he flowers themselves, by meton. Vaccinia : poured forth these indigested complaints. Jac- the blackberries or bilberries. Some take tabat: he threw them away—they were of them for the Hyacinth of Theocritus, whom no avail to him, because they were unheed- Virgil here imitates. The meaning of the ed by Alexis.

poet is this : as the privets, though white and 5. Inani studio : with unavailing pleasure, fair, (cadunt,) lie neglected because they are or fondness. He speaks the language of a useless; and the blackberry is gathered and lover. The beauty and accomplishments of saved for its usefulness : so, Alexis, shall the boy had taken possession of his affec- you, though fair and beautiful to the sight, tions. He dwells upon them with rapture be neglected for your pride; while Menalcas, and delight. But all this is vain and una. though black and swarthy, shall be loved vailing. The boy regards him not. He for his good disposition, and his conciliating then breaks forth: O crudelis Alexi, nihil temper. mea carmina curas, &c.

21. Siculis. The mountains of Sicily are 7. Nil. This word is often used in the mentioned, either because they are famed sense of non, as a simple negative. So also for excellent pastures, or because the scene is nihil.

of the pastoral is laid in that country. 9. Lacertos : lizards. Spinetum : a place 22. Æstate : in summer. Frigore : in where thorns and prickly shrubs grow: here winter. put for the thorns themselves, by meton. 23. Siquando : the same as quando. When

10. Thestylis. The name of a servant; he called his herds. It was usual with sheptaken from Theocritus.

herds to walk before their sheep, and call 11. Allia : plu. of allium, an herb called them. garlic. Serpyllum: wild-thyme, or running- 24. Amphion.

A celebrated musician, betony; an odoriferous herb.

said to have been the son of Jupiter and An13. Cicadis. The cicada is an insect of tiope, and born on mount Cythera. He was the species of the grasshopper, making a king of Thebes, and is said to have built the very hoarse and disagreeable noise, particu- walls of that city by the music of his lyre. larly in the heat of the day. Satius : in the We are to understand by this, perhaps, his sense of melius.

persuading, by his eloquence, à barbarous 15. Menalcan. A Greek acc. of Menal- people to unite, and build a city for their cas. See Ecl. 3. Fastidia: plu. of fastidium: common safety. His mother was wife to disdain-haughtiness. Pati : to bear-en- Lycus, king of Thebes, and put away by dure.

him for the sake of Dirce, whom he married. 18. Ligustra : plu. of Ligustrum: a privet Dirceus: an adj. either from Dirce his stepor with-bind, a species of shrub or plant mother, or from a fountain of that name in bearing very white flowers; taken for the Beotia. Aracyntho: a town and mountain

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Amphion Dircæus in Actæo Aracyntho.
Nec sum adeò informis: nuper me in litore vidi,
Cùm placidum ventis staret mare : non ego Daphnim,

1 Judice te, metuam, si nunquam

fallat imago.
O tantùm libeat mecuin tibi sordida rura,
Atque humiles habitare casas, et figere cervos,
Hædorumque gregem viridi compellere hibisco!
Mecum unà in sylvis imitabere Pana canendo.
Pan primus calamos cerà conjungere plures
Instituit : Pan curat oves, oviumque magistros.
Nec te pæniteat calamo trivisse labellum.
Hæc eadem ut sciret, quid non faciebat Amyntas ? 35
Est mihi disparibus septem compacta cicutis
Fistula, Damætas dono mihi quam dedit olim :

38. Nunc ista fistula Et dixit moriens : Te nunc habet ista secundum

habet te secundum doDixit Damætas : invidit stultus Amyntas.

minum. Prætereà duo, nec tutâ mihi valle reperti,

40 40. Duo capreoli reCapreoli, sparsis etiam nunc pellibus albo,

perti mihi, nec tutâ valle, Bina die siccant ovis ubera : quos tibi servo.

siccant bina ubera ovis

in die, pellibus etiam Jampridem à me illos abducere Thestylis orat :

nunc sparsis albo. Et faciet : quoniam sordent tibi munera nostra. Huc ades, ô formose puer. Tibi lilia plenis


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in Beotia. But why it should be called Ac- terpretation is attended with difficulty. Dr. tæus, there is a difference of opinion. Ser- Trapp takes it for a large plant or little tree, vius thinks it is so called from a Greek word out of which wands were made. He obo which signifies the shore. Probus derives it serves, Virgil no where mentions it as food froin Aclæon, who, hunting near this moun- for cattle.' Compellere, &c.: to drive them tain, was torn in pieces by his dogs, for hav- with a green switch. ing discovered Diana bathing herself. Mr. 31. Pana. Pan, the god of shepherds and Davidson places the mountain in the con- hunters, is said to have been the son of Merfines of Attica and Beotia ; and thinks it is cury and the nymph Dryope. He was edu80 called from Acta or Acte, the country cated in Arcadia ; and wrapped in the skin about Attica. Ruæus interprets Actæo by of a goat, he was carried up to heaven by maritimo.

Jupiter, where all the gods ridiculed his ap26. Daphnim. A beautiful shepherd. pearance. He chiefly resided in Arcadia. See in Ecl. 5. Placidum: in the sense of He is said to have invented the pipe with tranquillum.

seven reeds. He was worshipped in Arca27. Imago. His image reflected from the dia, and is said to have given out oracles on water. Nunquam: in the sense of non. mount Lycæus. His festivals, called by the

28. O tantùm libeat tibi : O that it would Greeks Lyce, were introduced into Italy by please you to inhabit with me, &c. These Evander, and established at Rome under are sweet lines. Sordida rura. Most com

the name of Lupercalia, and celebrated the mentators join tibi to sordida, disdained or 15th of February. He was the chief of the despised by thee. But there is no need of Satyrs. this refinement. Sordida is a very proper

34. Trivisse labellum: to have worn the epithet for cottages and country villages, lip. From the verb tero. which in general are indifferent in them- 36. Cicutis. Cicuta, an herb much like selves, and poorly furnished, when compar- the Hemlock. Hence used for any hollow ed with the splendor and luxury of cities. reed: hence also, by Meton. for a pipe. FisOr, we may suppose the poet to speak in the tula : a pipe connected together with seven character of a lover, who thinks nothing unequal reeds, &c. These were put togegood enough for the object of his affections. ther with wax, as mentioned 32 supra. Rus is opposed to urbs.

41. Duo Capreoli : two young goats. Ca30. Viridi hibisco. Ruæus takes these preoli : a diminitive noun, from capra or words to be in the dative case, and under- caper. These were undoubtedly wild kids, stands by them: to green or verdant pasture; taken from their dams, which he esteemed ad virentem hibiscum, says he: taking the very much; and not those lost by him, and hibiscum for a kind of plant. But this in- recovered again. Servius says: kids have 0


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Ecce ferunt Nymphæ calathis : tibi candida Naïs
Pallentes violas et summa papavera carpens,
Narcissum et florem jungit benè olentis anethi :
Tum casiâ, atque aliis intexens suavibus herbis,
Mollia luteolâ pingit vaccinia calthâ.

Ipse ego cana legam tenerâ lanugine mala,
Castaneasque nuces, mea quas Ainaryllis amabat.
Addam cerea pruna : et honos erit huic quoque pomo:

Et vos, ô lauri, carpam, et te, proxima myrte : 55. Quoniam vos po- Sic positæ quoniam suaves miscetis odores.

55 sitse sic miscetis

Rusticus es, Corydon ; nec munera curat Alexis : 58. Quid ego volui Nec si muneribus certes, concedat Iolas. mihi misero? Perditus immisi austrum floribus, Eheu, quid volui misero mihi ? Aoribus Austrum et apros.

Perditus, et liquidis immisi fontibus apros.

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at first white spots, which afterwards change, he killed himself. His blood was changed and lose their beauty. If it be so, this into a flower, which bears his name. circumstance will explain the words, sparsis 47. Summa papavera carpens : gatheretiam nunc pellibus albo : which also denotes ing the heads of poppies. Papaver and that they were young.

Anethus were two beautiful youths ; who, 46. Ecce ferunt: behold the nymphs bring according to Servius, were changed, the for you lilies in full baskets, &c. The fole former into the flower, which we call the lowing lines are extremely beautiful. Mr. poppy; the latter into the herb, which we Warton observes, they contain the sweetest call anise or dill. Benè olentis : sweetgarland ever offered by a lover. The agi- smelling: tation and doubts of a lover's mind are

50. Pingit mollia, &c. She adorns or sets finely set forth : nec munera curat Alexis, off the soft hyacinths with saffron-colored &c. At length he seems to come to himself, marygold. Vaccinium, here is plainly the and to reflect upon the state of his affairs: Hyacinthus of Theocritus, whom Virgis here vilis semiputata est, &c. Nymphæ. They copies ; so say Turnebus, Salmasius, and were a kind of female Divinities supposed

Ruæus. to exist for a very great length of time; but 51. Mala. Malum signifies several kinds not to be altogether immortal. They were

of fruit, such as apples, peaches, quinces, divided into two general classes Nymphs &c.

The last is here meant, as appears of the land, and Nymphs of the water. from the cana tenera lanugine : white with Each of these classes was divided into seve

soft down, or fur. Mr. Dryden renders ral others. The former into Dryades-Ha- mala, peaches. madryades-Oreades_Napæce-Limoniades,

53. Cerea : of waxen-color. &c. The latter into Oceanides-Nereïdes

54. Myrte. The Romans used crowns or Naïades or Naides-Potamides-Limniades, garlands of laurel in their most splendid &c. All of which are of Greek derivation. triumphs : and those of myrtle, in the ovatio.

which was on horseback, and considered the The nymphs were further distinguished lesser triumph, or triumph of less honor and by an epithet taken from the place of their dignity than that in which the conqueror residence. Thus the Nymphs of Sicily are rode in a chariot. The myrtle tree was called Sicelidesthose of Corycus, Coryci- sacred to Venus, and the laurel to Apollo. ades or Corycides, &c.

Proxima: next in honor to the laurel. Echo is said to have been formerly a 56. Rusticus : in the sense of stultus. nymph; but falling in love with a beautiful 57. Iolas. The owner or master of Alexis. youth called Narcissus, who refused her ad- 58. Eheu, quid volui, &c. Lit. what have dresses, at which she was so much grieved I done to myself, a miserable man? Alas! that she pined away, till every part of her ruined, I have let in the south winds, &c. was consumed but her voice, that continued These expressions are proverbial, and apto haunt the woods and fountains, which plicable to those who wish for things that she once frequented. Narcissus, stopping to prove ruinous to them. Dr. Trapp explains repose himself by the side of a fountain, the passage thus: By my folly in indulging where he chanced to see his image reflected this extravagant passion, I have ruined my in the water, became enamoured with it: peace and quiet, and permitted my affairs to taking it for a nymph, he endeavored to go to decay, which were before well managed, approach it; but all his attempts being un- flourishing, and prosperous. Volui. Ruæus availing, he was so much disappointed that interprets it by feci.

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