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Teachers, yours is a holy trust; be faithful to it. Consider that the tender hearts and plastic minds of the mothers, the EDUCATORS of the succeeding generation, of the generations every day springing into existence, are committed to you to be moulded and strengthened. Be faithful. Do not depreciate intellectuality ; do not despise accomplishment; promote both to their fullest extent; but, above all, do not neglect moral culture, and remember that if you attempt to cultivate the hearts of children on any other than religious principles, your labour will be in vain ; you do but daub with untempered mortar if you attempt to educate intellectual faculties only. In your intercourse with your pupils set God before them in all His love, fulness, and majesty, and in your intercourse with God set your children before Him. Seek His aid, and persevere in His strength; then indeed you will do great service to your country by promoting female education, by training female educators.


ENGLAND UNDER the head of “Notes and Queries relative to the Reign of Henry VII.," we propose giving the plan of a half-year's course of instruction for young ladies in boarding-schools and for pupil teachers and the advanced classes in elementary schools.

The era of the Tudor dynasty is one of the most remarkable in the history not of England only, but of the world. This fact, if not already impressed on the minds of our readers, is one which we are persuaded must be so established to their satisfaction, in studying history according to the system we propose, that arguments in proof are not necessary.

History, if well taught, is pleasing to the young. Children are, as a general rule, interested by tales, especially by such true tales as they can understand, and history properly taught is a series of tales calculated both to amuse and to instruct. Whilst we deprecate the plan of compelling children to learn by rote a number of dates, unimportant facts connected with individual sovereigns, and stereotyped answers to stereotyped questions, we confess ourselves averse from the notion that history is made easy by being written with puerility and meagreness, or that it is rendered more attractive by being told as if it were a mere romance, or a concoction of comicality.

Out of the vast variety of school-books offered to the profession by publishers it is no easy matter to select those in every way best adapted as text books for the teacher, or as class or lesson books for the pupils. Still there are few well-known school-works which do


not present some points of excellence peculiar to themselves. The plan we now suggest was, we believe, first recommended by a French educationist, M. Julien, editor of the Revue Encyclopédique ; it is to make extracts from various works and arrange them systematically—an idea which has to a certain extent been carried out by Mr. Charles Selby, of theatrical celebrity, in his “Events to be Remembered,” a work which every teacher should possess. M. Julien's theory and Mr. Selby's practical example are admirable, but we consider them both capable of improvement. We proceed then to lay before our friends. especially our subscribers, of many of whom we have reason to be proud—the scheme by which we believe this improvement can be effected.

I. In the present number of “THE GOVERNESS we give extracts or notes from various authors relative to the reign of Henry VII., and we also propose a number of queries which we trust will prove interesting to many of our subscribers' pupils if submitted to them not as tasks but as historical recreations.

II. It will be perceived that the notes are numbered; the object of this is, that ready reference may be made to them from other notes intended to explain or amplify the information contained in them. This plan will obviate the necessity of arranging the notes strictly systematically at first, which for the following reason would be undesirable : we wish our correspondents to select from any works within their reach notes relative either directly or indirectly to this reign, taking care :

1. To extract such passages as give a full but succinct account of any particular facts or circumstances.

2. That they contain no expressions which they would not like to be read aloud by their pupils in school, and no objectionable sentiments.

3. That they give the author's name with each note. In many cases this requisition cannot be complied with, for it may be necessary to consult a large number of works in order to answer one query, such, for instance, as Query 3; but even then it will be well to keep a private memorandum of the works consulted, for this reason: biographies often differ; thus some give 1455 as the year of Henry of Richmond's birth, others give 1456, and others again given 1457. (See also note to Query 3.)

IIL We propose to make for at least a half-year the reign of Henry VII. a station-era (if we may be pardoned for coining a word), to which we shall study the history of England both anteriorly and subsequently.

IV. We propose to consider the geography of Great Britain as inseparably connected with its topography, and its topography as inseparably connected with its history. It must be borne in mind that we are studying the biography of a king, so far only as it is connected with the history of a country and of a nation.

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V. We propose that by friendly communications a council of teachers may select such notes and compile such tabulated and classified statistics of this reign as may be a model for a really good text-book on the HISTORY of England. To this end we propose :

VI. That when the notes and queries relative to the reign of Henry VII. are completed, they shall be published separately from "THE GOVERNESS," in a systematically arranged form-some notes being of course rejected or substituted by preferable ones. It will contain, in addition to judiciously selected notes, a variety of very interesting tabulations, such, for instance, as “Churches and other Public Buildings erected in the Reign of Henry VII.," "Geographical Discoveries in the Reign of Henry VII.,” &c. &c.

We now beg to submit to our readers our first instalment of Notes and Queries, feeling assured that if the project which we have suggested meets with their approbation it will receive their support, and that if it is disliked by the Profession it is not worthy to be entertained.

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The Administration of the Plantagenets and that of the Tudors. 1. In the disorderly state of England under the Plantagenets, who governed it from about the middle of the 12th till towards the end of the 15th century, one district might be in plenty, while another, at no great distance, by having its crop destroyed, either by some accident of the seasons, or by the incursion of some neighbouring baron, might be suffering all the horrors of a famine ; and yet if the lands of some hostile lord were interposed between them, the one might not be able to give the least assistance to the other. Under the vigorous administration of the Tudors, who governed England during the latter part of the 15th and through the whole of the 16th century, no baron was powerful enough to disturb the public security.-Dr. Adam Smith.

[Note 34.] Henry, Earl of Richmond, chosen by the People. 2. The late wars having cut off all the direct claimants through the house of Lancaster, the friends of that house had long turned with natural partiality to Richmond.Gleig.

3. The day fixed for the general rising was the 18th of October, and on that day Henry was proclaimed at Exeter, Devizes, Maidstone, Newbury, and Brecknock.- Farr.

4. Richmond was an exile in France when these events happened, but on receiving the invitation he collected a force.-Ib.

5. It was on the 7th of August, 1485, that Henry, Earl of Richmond,

landed at Milford Haven with about 5000 men, and was joined by a great number of Welshmen, whó regarded the grandson of Owen Tudor as a countryman.-- Corner.

6. Henry, after crossing the Severn, was joined by the Talbots and a ' few other families, but his force was still very inconsiderable compared with the army under his bold and experienced rival. But Henry knew that not a man in ten would fight for Richard, and he continued to press forward.—Cabinet Hist. of Eng.

The Battle of Bosworth Field. 7. On the 21st of August he moved from Tamworth town to Atherstone, where he was joined by swarms of deserters from the enemy. On the same day, Richard marched from Leicester, and encamped near the town of Bosworth. Early on the following morning, Richard, with his crown on his head, mounted his horse, marshalled his troops ; Henry, at the same time, moved from Atherstone ; and the two armies met in the midst of a fine and spacious plain, nearly surrounded by hills, which commence about a mile to the south of Bosworth.- Cabinet Hist. of Eng.

8. A battle took place, in which Lord Stanley went over to his sonin-law; and Richard, seeing that all was lost, rushed into the thickest of the fight and was slain.-Hist. of Eng., S. P. C. K.

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The Crown in a Hawthorn Bush. 9. The crown was hidden by a soldier in a hawthorn bush, but was soon found, and carried back to Lord Stanley, who placed it on the head of his son-in-law, saluting him by the title of Henry VII., while the victorious army sang Te Deum on the blood-stained heath.

“Oh! Redmore, then it seemed thy name was not in vain !" It was in memory of this picturesque fact--that the red-berried hawthorn once sheltered the crown of England—that the house of Tudor assumed the device of a crown in a bush of fruited hawthorn. The proverb of “ Cleave to the crown though it hang in a bush,” alludes to the same circumstance.— Agnes Strickland. 10. “ In FOURTEEN EIGHTY-FIVE, the Tudor race From the seventh Henry chronicles its place.”George Raymond.

Coronation of Henry VII. 11. On the 30th of October, the ceremony of coronation was performed by Bouchier, Archbishop of Canterbury, who had also crowned the two preceding sovereigns, Edward IV. and Richard III.-G. G. Cunningham.

[Notes 12, 13, 14.]

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Beef-Eaters. 12. On the day of Henry's coronation were established the yeomen of the guard, who, besides guarding the king's person, waited at the table; and from attending the duties of the buffette, or the royal sideboard, received the name of buffetiers, now corrupted into beef-eaters.Ince's Outlines of Eng. Hist.

[Notes 11, 13, 14.]

Arms. 13. On the first formation of the yeomen of the guard in 1485, one half were armed with bows and arrows, the other with arquebuses. At the battle of Fournoe, in 1495, we read of mounted arguebusiers.Penny Cyc.

[Notes 11, 12, 14 ] First Standing Army. 14. The first standing army was established in the reign of Henry VII. ; it consisted of fifty yeomen, each six feet high; who were required to attend the king both at home and abroad. - Dr. Brewer's Allison's Guide to Eng. His.

[Notes 11, 12, 13.]

Archery. 15. In my time, my poor father was as diligent to teach me to shoot as to learn me any other thing, and so I think other men did their children: he taught me how to draw, how to lay my body on my bow, and not to draw with strength of arms as divers other nations do, but with strength of the body. I had my bows bought me according to my age and strength ; as I increased in them, so my bows were made bigger and bigger, for men shall never shoot well except they be brought up in it; it is a worthy game, a wholesoine kind of exercise, and much commended in physic. - Bishop Latimer's Sermons.

[Notes 35, 13.)

Rebellions. 16. By a long course of civil war, the people had become so restless, that the mere love of change led them to frequent insurrections during his reign.-Geo. Hogarth.

[Note 1.) Lord Lovell's Rebellion. 17. The first of these broke out in April, 1486, during the king's progress towards the north.

Viscount Lovel, one of the nobles whom he had attainted and plundered, put himself at the head of it; but possessing neither courage nor conduct, failed in producing any impression, and his followers soon deserted him.-Gleig.

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