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Beginning Arithmetic. "Minus" is thanked. We trust that the article from Mr. Martin, which appears in the present number of " The Governess," will be satisfactory to " Minus," and to other subscribers.

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(Continued from p. 11.)

In education, as in everything else, it is easier to point out and deprecate an evil than to suggest a practical method for its eradication. Educational writers are commonly prone to generalisation, and thus many an earnest, conscientious teacher, although fully concurring with what she reads in their works, feels herself entirely at a loss to know how to reduce their philosophical theories to practice; and it must be confessed that it would require no small share of penetration, patience, and perseverance to do so even in a modified form. "We are conscious of the fact that more than one professor of education will be ready at any time to question the truth of these remarks, but that will in nowise invalidate their verity. Let us not bolster ourselves up with self-satisfaction, and complacently arrogate to ourselves as educational theorists that attribute which pertains not to humanity—perfection.

The philosophy of the human faculties has been discussed by some of the most profound and logical reasoners that have ever written; and many educationists of the present age evince a knowledge of the moral and intellectual faculties which it were vain to look for in the works of philosophers of former ages;—they draw the nicest discriminations, and the most subtle metaphysical distinctions are explained by them with such logical accuracy and with >nch learned eloquence that we have but little reason to wish for any more educational works, except they be such as may assist na in carrying out practically the principles with which we have been or should be indoctrinated. Here lies the difficulty: educa"O" depends not only upon the recognised educators (be they whom they may), Dut also upon circumstances with which the pupils are in any way connected; and the circumstances with which every child is associated are so many and so multiform that it would be a moral impossibility to particularise as to modes of proceeding on general principles. It is in the ready adaptation of the best methods as well as in the application of the best general principles that the art of education consists.

Amongst the many thousands of female schools in Great Britain it would perhaps be a difficult matter to find two, private or public, circumstanced alike in every particular; it necessarily follows that however universally recognised principles may be, the practical application of them must be modified in some degree, however small, by circumstances.

Who that has had anything to do with practical education, but knows that in a very large school there may not be two pupils whose dispositions and natural temperaments fully accord? Still all have the same moral and mental faculties,—the same impulses and passions,—it is to the circumstances which have surrounded them from the moment of their birth,—in other words it is to education that such variation is mainly attributable. The infant mind has been compared to a blank unsullied sheet of paper; whether this comparison be just or not we shall not attempt to determine. We have the irrefragable word of Him who cannot err, that some " as soon as they are born go astray," and that generally "the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth" (that is from the earliest period of his life). The doctrine of the natural depravity of the human heart is, we know, an unpalatable one. M. Aime-Martin, in his work "Sur VEducation des Mbres" says, "Man inclines always to that which is most great and beautiful; and again he says "all our first movements are good." Now, heterodox as these sentiments may be considered, and as doubtlessly they are, they are not of that dangerous tendency as may on the surface appear; they would tend to make an educator alert in watching and guiding the development of the child's inclinations and movements, for she would be impressed with the idea of her responsibility for any unchecked disposition to evil. The Christian teacher, who believes that original sin " is the fault and corruption of the nature of every man that naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam" has, however, no less, if not a much greater, incentive to the faithful discharge of her duties, She need not trouble herself with knotty questions of polemical controversy. Whether the mind of the child is by nature inclined to what is good, whether it is entireb7 neutral or inert, until operated upon, or whether it is inclined to evil, are questions with which she need not necessarily interfere. Whether the child has free will, or is the subject either of election or of reprobation, are also questions to which her inclination may, but neither her duty nor necessity do, lead her. It is hers to obey the precepts of God, not to endeavour to be wise above what is written. Not God's purposes with regard to her pupils, but His precepts concerning them, should be the subject of her diligent inquiry and pursuit. As an educator she should feel herself untrammelled by the qnibblings or differences of sectaries, or by the dogmas of any system. Principles—Christian principles—should guide her, and as for her plans for carrying out those principles, it matters not to what religious denomination they pertain; they are but means to an end, and if they involve no compromise of principle, she need not scruple to adopt them whether they were proposed by the Pope in the V atican or by an itinerant preacher in a barn.

There are few, very few, popular educators who have not a leaning to, a predilection for, some particular system in preference to others, and of course it will be that system which, in their judgment, enunciates practically what appear to them the most important educational principles. This is, to a certain extent, as it should he; but the adoption of a system, unless it be a correct and wellunderstood system, involves disadvantages of no trivial nature as regards educational progress. Examine the educational systems now in vogue, or rather look to their results; have they, has any one of them answered the expectations so sanguinely raised in the public mind from time to time? We are aware that the advocates of conflicting systems, and of principles diametrically opposed to each other, will severally answer in the affirmative. Would that the candid and impartial inquirer could do the same! No one can deny that many generous efforts have been made, much labour has been bestowed, large sums of money have been expended, and that much good has been effected by zealous philanthropists and by a liberal and discerning public. No one will deny that of late years a large number of elementary educational institutions have sparing np and have proved, and doubtlessly will long prove a real blessing to our land and to the world, but has the country reason to be fully satisfied with the working of these institutions? Are the results of My one of them sufficiently satisfactory, especially with regard to female education, to warrant educationists to urge on the governmeat the adoption and extension of its system both with regard to principles and practice? Unhesitatingly we reply, No. At the same time we give those who have the management of these institutions in their hands full credit for the zeal, integrity, persevering patience, and self-denial which have distinguished them, and marked the progress of their laborious and praiseworthy career. Future ages will say of such, as we say of the Reformers of the 16th century, they did their best—they did, not what should have been done, nor what might have been done, but what expediency and policy seemed to warrant them in doing. We have numerous model schools, but where are the model children? We admit that the public expenditure for popular education is insignificant in comparison to what it should be, but it is enormous in comparison to what it ever was before j and the fact cannot be disguised that, with the exception of those interested pecuniarily or otherwise in the various educational institutions and systems, there exists much dissatisfaction on the part of the nation. The knowledge of this fact occasions the publication of countless works on education, gives rise to popular lectures, to practical experiments, and to many other modes of bringing the subject before the public.

Those who have striven arduously and well to promote education in public schools perceive that very many masters and mistresses of private schools have laboured more effectually than trained and certificated teachers who have had every facility afforded them for carrying out the educational theories inculcated at the training institutions; they find here and there an elementary school, in which no pretensions to superiority are assumed, equal to if not excelling many a model school in many or all particulars. In elementary schools mistresses as well as masters, excelling in intellectual attainments, are not unfrequently found to be indifferent and consequently inefficient teachers. Again, it is no uncommon circumstance to find those who are sound scholars and good teachers sadly deficient in educating power; by " educating power" we mean that well-directed moral influence which can sway "wayward childhood" and guide every passion aright.

Dr. Edmund Calamy justly observes, "All the passions in themselves, simply considered, are neither good nor evil. Love, hate, hope, fear, joy, sorrow, and the rest, as they are parts of our nature, are things indifferent; but when they are fitly circumstantiated and ordered, they become morally good, and serve many excellent pur

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