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"Nee lex æquior u!la est,

"Quam necis artifices arte perire sua."


However, the Irish Catholics can never sufficiently thank him, for not punishing with halter, gibbet, and exenteration, a requiescat in face.

To this long train of Stuart hostilities James the Second is the only exception. As Dissen-r ters and Roman Catholics were equally disqualified, he removed all penal restraints. Religion influenced him, doubtless. But did not his favours and indulgence, extend to Scotch Dissenters, as well as to Irish Catholics? Did not the good of the state, strengthened by the affections and power of its subjects, ever and always weakened by their tepidity and indigence, require then, as it does now, a relaxation of oppressive laws? And was it not the king's interest to endeavour to render all his subjects prosperous and happy i Did he but proceed on a legal plan with the consent of his parliament, without arrogating to himself a dispensing power, which the nation vests in the aggregate body of king, lofds, and commons? But can the conduct of James the Second stand the test? Or must not an Irishman be blind in not perceiving the partiality of this cherished twig of the Stuart stem r


Ambition, or love for their subjects, induces kings to exchange the gaieties of a palace for the fatigues of the field, and to fly into the arms of death, from the bosom of sensuality and voluptuousness. But more especially in those critical junctures, when the crown is at stake, and the majesty of the monarch on the point of sinking into the subject, the springs of nature play with an extraordinary elasticity; the radiancy of the throne, glistening in the monarch's eyes, absorbs and eclipses the perception of danger: pride supplies the place of valour, and despair metamorphoses the coward into the hero.

In the vicinity of an army of thirty thousand men, master of the strong holds and garrisons of his realms, at the first report of the Prince of Oranges arriyal in England, James the Second, with the apathy of a Stoic, or the timidity of an old woman, throws the royal seals into the Thames, disappears, leaves three kingdoms in the utmost anarchy and confusion, the reigns of government without a hand to manage them, and his subjects uncertain to whom they are to transfer their allegiance.

Instances of the kind are scarce to be met with in the chronicles of kings; a hand that would not unsheath a sword in defence of tliree realms

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is better calculated for a muff than a sceptre. Queen Elizabeth almost in sight of an army of fift-y thousand Spaniards, reviews her troops, rides through the ranks, animates, incites, encourages her men: "Behold your queen I Vie-""•torious, I mail reward you: defeated, I wiU '* die with you." But Buchanan's contrast of James the First to queen Elizabeth, is, applicable to Tames the Second.

Kex suit Elizabeth, mine veroregina Jacobus. Error naturae par in u'troque suit.'

'•i.^ ,,' {• • ','.,' • * •'

VFh English: "Nature was mistaken in tliofe "two -extraordinary productions: Elizabeth was a man; James a woman."

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: Recalled by Tyrconnel From France to Ireland, our Alexander lays siege to Londonderry, from whence he is repelled by a Protestant mi-' nister, at the head of a handful of men half Famished. This was a glorious contest between a king and a priest r the sword and the gown. Cedant arma togæ.

The banks of the Boyne are quite as inauspicious to his laurels. Here, contrary to the ad-' \-ice of his officers, he compels them to encounter * formidable army oF Fifty thousand veterefts, commanded by the ablest generals of



that age. Remark his orders and dispositions. With a select party of his army he places himself on Dunmore hill,-cut of cannon reach; and gives a strict charge to Sarsfield, (lord Lucan) not to fire at h\s son, who was come sword in hand to deprive him of his crown. A boding omen of future victory! In battle, let a general ride up and down to animate his troops, never fire into his quarters: you will gain the field. Seeing the Irish, though dispirited by his partial commands, and unanimated by his example, repel the - enemy, and keep the battle in futpence, he cries out "Spare my ** English subjects, spare my English subjects." Lo, the most beloved king of the Stuart race! Pious, and tender-hearted, he would not have scrupled to repossess himself of the throne at the expence of Irish blood, but the purchase would have been too dear, when acquired with the loss cf English subjects.

His daughter, queen Mary, during her husband's absence, ordered all Papists and reputed Papist?, to depart ten miles from London. Her reign would have swelled the code of penal laws, and expanded the ten miles into a wider circuit, had not king William controuled the spirit of oppression, so co-natural to the Stuarts. Exposed to the power of Lewis the four-, teenth, ready to back the claims of an abdiH / ca ted

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cated king, stil! grasping at the remains of expiring royalty, William the third never deprived the Catholics of their property. He even allowed the most part of the Catholic gentry, the use of such arms as were necessary for their defence and diversion: a sword and a. gun.''Their total destruction was completed by the last sovereign of the Stuart line.

Queen Anne, by reducing the leases to 31 ytfars, and introducing the bills of discovery, thfe'w1 the' natson into a convulsion, from whence it can never recover, until more lenient' hands slacken the stiff chain of penal restraints.. Under the happiest of constitutions, she has "made Ottoman slaves, and impressed one of her kingdoms with the traces of Turkish misery.'

"Under this sort of government." fays Mon- * tesquieu, speaking of the Ottoman empire, "nothing is repaired or improved. Houses are "built only for the necessity of habitation: "every thing is drawn from, but nothing re"stored to, the earth: the ground lies untilled, "and the whole country becomes a desert." Whoever travels over the most part of Ireland, can fee the description realized. One of her laws, whereby jt is decreed, "that where the ^tson and heir of a Papist, shall become a Pro


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