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"over whom they are set: some for the amend', ment and benefit of their subjects: and some *' for fear and punishment: for reproof and "contempt as the people shall have deserved: "the just judgment of God reaching equally to "all." Tertullian, St. Ambrose, St. Augustin.St: Gregory Nyssen, Optatus Milevitanus, in fine,, all the fathers declare, " that kings have none "above them but God alone, who made them "kings: that God bestows the heavenly felt"city on the godly onjy, but the kingdoms of "the earth on both godly and ungodly: and "that to him alone, the cruel Marius and the "gracious Cæsar, Augustus the best of prin'li ces, Nero one of the worst, Constantine the "Christian, and Julian the apostate are equally ** indebted for their authority and power."

Jf from the fathers you continue the long chain of venerable antiquity through the suc1 ceslive reigns of the Roman pontiffs, you will find the deposing power assumed by few; the pre-eminence of kings, and their dependence on God alone, asserted by the mildest and most learned, and those by far the greatest number.

St. Gregory the Great, not only disclaims any temporal power over kings, but even acknowledges himself their subject; The emperor peror insists on the publication of a law. The pope writes to him: "I being subject to your "command, have caused the law to be sejit "into several parts, and because the law agrees "not with God omnipotent, I have by letter "informed my serene lord. Wherefore I have *' in both done what I ought, obeyed the em"peror, and not concealed what I thought "for God." Eleutherius, Analtasius 2, Ge!asius, Symmachus, Gregorys, Leo4, Nicholas 3, Adrian 1, Nicholaswz, John 8, and Celestin 3, call the king "God's vicar on earth:" forbid the priest to "usurp the regal dignity;" and confine the power of the church' " to the "dispensation of divine, that of the prince to "the administration of temporal things."

If you consult cardinals, who have heightened the glory of their purple by their learning, and piety, you will meet with numerous and steady asserters of regal independence. "I pre"suppose what is known even to the vulgar," fays cardinal Cusanus, " that the imperial cel*' situde is independent of the sacerdotal power, "having an immediate dependence on God.* '* Between the kingdom and 'priesthood, the *' proper offices of each are distinct, that the *' king may make use of the arms of the world,


• Cus. 1. 3. Cone. c. 5. /

"and the priest be girt with the sword of the "spirit, which is the word of God," says cardinal Damianus.* In answer to some objections drawn from the conduct of a pope, regular and exemplary in other respects, but too ready to interfere 'in temporal concerns, this great man replies: "I fay what I think, that "neither Peter obtained the apostolical princi"pality, because he denied Christ; nor David "deserved the oracle of prophecy, because he "defiled another mrn's bed." As much as to fay, that this pope committed a fault, which he afterwards cancelled by repentance.

If you still fear that the long-fam'd British throne should be overturned by syllogisms, or that the jars of schoolmen may silence the English cannon, (for you have nothing more to apprehend from the pope) I can inarch to your aid a formidable army of scholastic divines armed cap-a-pee in support of regal pre-eminence.—Navar, Durandus, Joan. Paris, Almain. Gerson, Victoria, Thorn. Waid. Anton, de Roselli, Ægidius Rom. Ambros. Catharinus, &c. &c. some of whom qualify the deposing power with the epithets of horrible and seditious:' aiid others style it downright madnefs.f Add to the foregoing authorities, the council of Constance

* Damianus, Lib. iv. Epist. 9.

f Ambros. Cathar. in 13 Rom. Roselli, de pot. pap.

stance in the year 1415. The declaration of the provincial congregation of the Jesuits at Ghent in the year 1681, and that of the clergy of France in 1682; who declare that " kings *' and princes by God's ordinance are not sub*' ject in temporals to any ecclesiastical power, *' and that they cannot be deposed directly nor "indirectly, by the authority of the keys of t* the church, neither can their subjects be "freed from fealty and obedience, nor ab« '' solved from their oath of allegiance." "Re** ges ergo et principes in temporalibus nulli "ecclefiasticae poteltati Dei ordinatione subjici, "neqye authoritate clavium ecclesiae diiecte vel '* indirecte.deponi, aut illorum subditos eximi "a fide atque obedientiat ac praestito fidelitatis *' sacramento solvi posse: eamque sententiam, "ut verbo Dei, patrum traditioni, et sanctorum 44 exemplis consonam, omnio retinendam." * Even in. the canon law it is declared, that *' kings' acknowledge no superior in tempo"rals:" and that "appeals concerning tem"porals should not be .brought to the pope's "tribunal."!

In fine, the deposing power was so unknown in primitive times, that Bellarmin, who has ransacked the works of the fathers, and enriched


* Declaratio Cleri Gallicani, anno 1682. f Cap. si duobas. Extra dc appel.

himself with their spoils, in defending the doctrine of the church, could cite none but St. Bernard in support of the novel doctrine of deposition: and yet this father, who mentions two swords in the church, only means that in the church are Christian princes invested with the right of the sword: For, in writing to pope Eugenius, the faint uses these remarkable words; ** Earthly kingdoms have their judges, *' princes and kings. Why do you thrust your "sickle into another man's harvest? St. Peter "could not give what he had not: did he give "dominion? It is the saying of the Lord in the "gospel, the kings of the gentiles have domi"nion over them, but you not so. It is plain, "dominion is forbid to apostles. Go now and "dare •usurp either dominion with the apostle"ship, or with the apost'eship dominion. You "are plainly forbid the one. If you will have "both, you will Jose both; you will be of the "number of those of whom God complains, "they have been princes, and I knew them "not." *

Bellarmin's misapplication of St. Bernard's text, was not the only mistake his antagonists have censured. His wild conjecture, that" the "Christians would have deposed Nero and Ju"lianthe Apostate, and the like, had they had


* St. Bernard, Lib. 2. de Consid.

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