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ing, that consistently with the pre- and confided in by too many of his niises laid down by the queríst, I readers, as Voltaire, cannot but be should be inclined to draw the fol. useful; and as this has been a sublowing conclusion. If his religious ject of much contention and inrecopinions may be collected from his tive by all of the numberless modero. language, any unprejudiced person sectaries, perhaps an account of the will pronounce him to be a wolf in origin of the papał power may not sheep's clothing. I cannot conceive be found uninteresting. I remain, his object for thus laying before the sir, your most obedient sertant, public his sentiments upon the work
.: F. J. LAMBERT. of Mr. Dallas
* Norwich, 1816. · If he be a true catholic, he will tejoice at the success of Mr. Dallas's THE ORIGIN OF THE TEMPORAD enieavours ių the vindication of a POWER OF THE POPES., most respectable and persecuted body of men. Although he do not choose It is towards the age of Charlemagne to tisk his name, still I hope that a that the temporal power of the popes lawyér's snieer will never prove detri. | began, we shall now, therefore, mental either to the jesuits, or aoy treat of this point of ecclesiastical other body of religious men. He is history. Voltaire, in the sixteenth at föll liberty to call me a jesuit: and twentieth chapters of his Hisbut since he was not convinced by toire Générale, speaks very much at the asseveration of Mr. Dallas, he length of the origin of this power : will not perhaps believe me when i. aät all that we learn from him is, sincerely inform bim, that I ani no- that this power had vo other origin thing but
than the artful policy of the roinan A CATHOLIC LAYMAN. pontiffs, and an usurpation which is
palliated by no title. To the Editor of the Orthodox Voltaire, in treating the donation Journal.
of Constantine as an iniaginary do
nation, only tollows the steps of all SIR,--Having lately perused with modern critics; but in making no great pleasure an excellent work, | more account of that which Pepin written by the learned Abbé Non- and Charlemagne made to the roman notte, refuting the vile calumnies church, is another thing: he will and unfounded assertions of Vol-permit us to be of a different opi. taire, the hater and enemy of all nion, and demonstrate the falsity of christian religions, but especially the his notion. . . catholic religion, I have been in- ' " Is it probable," says Voltaire, duced to undertake a translation of “that Pepin should have twice passsome parts of this work, which I ed the Alps with no other intention thought might afford amusement to than to give cities to the pope? some of your numerous readers, ne- The librarian Anastasius, who lived a ver having seén a refutation of any hundred and forty years after the exof his writings in our language. - pedition of Pepin, is the first who The following account, whilst it speaks of this donation, and the best points out the errors of Voltaire as civilians of Germany refute it now a an historian, shews bỹ what theads days. They tell us that the Lomthe popes have acquired their tempo- bard Astolphus, jutimidated merely ral power. To expose the historical | by the presence of the Frank, imme. errors of an author so much read, diately ceded to the pope all the exand, unfortunately, so much admired arcbate of Ravenna ; but if the popes
had had the exarchate, they would regard it. as an usurpation, or we have been sovereigna of Ravenna and must be very unfaithful to conceal of Rome. Nevertheless, in the will the proofs which we have of the doof Charlemagne, which Eginhard has nations made to the roman church preserved to us, this monarch names by the French conquerors, and the at the head of the cities which be- high degree of authority, power, and longed to hiyn Rome and Ravenna, soyereignity, to which they raised to which he makes presents. As for them. “Is it possible," says Vol. Benevento, the holy see did not pos- taire, " that Pepin can have twice sess it till a long time afterwards by passed the Alps, merely to give cities the donation of the emperor Henry to the pope ?" Not only is it possithe black, towards the year 1047" ble, but it is very probable, that so
All these grave and important facts ambitious and generous a prince as he confirms by the detail of some | Pepin, who aspired to royalty, and proofs, which he relates, of the de- who employed so well the pontifical pendence which the popes were in, a authorily, in order to ascend the . long time after Pepin and Charle throne; - it is very probable that lic magne. In the twentieth chapter he would have been willing to make a speaks as follows:-. i r return. He made very handsome
" The popes possessed at Rome preseuts to the pope, it is true; but, rather a great credit than a legisla- | after all, he only gave some cities tive power; they had to manage, at which did not belong to bim, and the same time, the roman senate, the which only cost him the trouble of people, and the emperor.. Loibai: going to make himself feared and rerius, in the year 844, passed the spected. Besides, this new king, wbo Alps, in order to get his son Louis was sensible touw much the French crowned, who came to judge in of ibat time respected the body see, Rome pope Sergius II. The pontiff followed in that respect the views of appears, juridically answers the accu. a very just policy. It was of consisalions of a bishop of Metz, justities derable importance to biin to have -himself, and afterwards takes an oath the pope in his interest in case of reof fidelity to this same Lothairius, volution, and be effectually secured who was deposed by the bishops that interest by magnificent gifts Lothairius even made this celebrated which cost bien potbiny. “But," and useless ordonnance, that the continues Voltaire, " Anastasius, pope shall be no longer elected by who wrote a hundred and forty years the people; that they shall apprise after the expedition of Pepin, is the the emperor of the vacancy of the first who spraks of it.” It Voltaire holy see.”
: had gone to the fountain bead of the It is thus that Voltaire demon- truth, he would not have formed all strates the falsehood of wbaj all his. these weak arguments, and these pititorians relate of the donations made fui reflexions; he would have known by our kings to the church of Rome. that Eginhard,* historiographer, seLet us now examine the force of this cretary, and son in law to the empedemonstration. We cannot deny ror Charleinagne, speaks of this dothat the policy of the roman pontifts nation in his annals of the imperial has always been extremely enlight- house. Pepin," says tre, “ caused ened, and that it bas very much con- Ravenna, Pentapolis, and all the 'extributed to establish and strengthen archate which depended upon Rathe sovereigu authority which they veuna, to be given up, and made a enjoy at the preseut day (1767); but we must be very ill-informed to *. Eginbart, Annal. ad. un 756. '
present of them to saint Peter. He saying; that Benevento was the popes ..would have known that the annals of I only by the donation of Henry the Fulda* announce the same thing black. It was not a donation, but about the year 756;t he would have an exchange.*. T'he emperor ceded : known that Paul the deacon; secre- / to the pope all his right won the tary of Didier, last king of the Lom | duchy of Benevento, and the pope bards, gives also Dearly the same tes ceded to the emperor the lands wbich timony, and supposes the såve dona- | the roman church possessed in Gertions. Voltaire, therefore, is in er- many, and his rights upon Fulda-and Tor, and he leads others into error, Bainburg. He is mista en in saying when he affirms, that the first writer that the pope was obliged to answer who has spoken of these donations juridically to a bislop of Metz. lived one hundred and forty years af- This bishop, son of Clrarlemagne, iler , they were made. There are and uncle to the reigniog emperor, some French historians and contem- though he could assume an air of poraries of Charlemagne who have consequence at the court «f Ronie; spoken of them a long time before but his attempts were without effect. Anastasius.
The pope disdained the accusations What he afterwards says of the will of the bishop; he refused 10 compel of Charlemagne proves absolutely no- the Romans to take the oath of fidething. This prince, making by.bis -lity which the bishop woulit have ex. will some donations to all the archi- acted for king Lewis ; he declared episcopal sees of the empire, did not that the Romans owed it only to the wish to exclude the two which were emperor. This firmness stopped the in the hauds of the popes, for whom bishop, and the pupe atierwards he had so much attachment, respect, crowned young Lewis king of Italy. and gratitude ; besides, he had re-l. As for that ordonnance to which served to himself the rights of lord Voltaire gives the epithet' of celeparamount. Thus these pious lega- brated, that the pope should be no cies by no means prove that Rome longer elected by the people, and and Ravenna weré, not given to the that they should apprise the empea roman church.
ror of the vacancy of the holy see ; · Neither is any thing proved by the this was a demand of the bishop made conduct which the popes were ob- on the part of Lethairius, and no religed to observe towards the enipe- spect was paid to it. We may judge rors. When these princes, appeared by this bow far we may trust to the near Rome with great armies, the most positive assertions of Voltaire. popes did at that time what the mi. After having shewn all these devinor princes of Italy do now a days. ations in treating of the origin of the When a powerful French or, Ger- pontifical power, we will now give an man army appear in their provinces, idea of them, historical, certain and the weaker pays his court to the capable of satisfyiog those who seek, stronger. In fine, Voltaire is not in an exposé, the characters of truth. -more fortunate in the facts that he It was the great Constantine who advances, than in the arguments laid the first foundation of this power; which he forms; he is mistaken in
it was the French emperors who
| raised it to the state at which it. af. * Aon. Fuld.—The annals of Fulda gol terwards arrived; and it is time as far as the year 900; but they are by which has given it that consistency in different authors, who have each written what passed in his own time.
which we see it now a days.. Vol. . t. App. Frang. -
* Hist. d'Allemagne, Hepri le Noir. . Chap. 5, Hist: Générale. - We
fáire himself owas, that Constantine I was favourable to re-occupy it. gave a thousand marks of gold to the They sent a solemn embassy to Peroman church, thirty thousand marks pin, to demand it as a province of of silver, and fourteen thousand sols Their empire. Pepin having heard yearly, and some lands in Calabria, their long harangue, answered them All this together making near two briefly, that he had taken Nothing million, four or five hundred thousand from the Greeks; that he had only livres, according to the present value made conqnests from the Lombards ; of money ; each emperor: augmenting and that, having the right of dispothis patrimony." Italy afterwards, sing of them as he pleased, he had baving been invaded by the bar- given them, as he gave thein still, to barians, the roman church lost seves St. Peter. It was with this answer ral cities and possessions which be- that the Greeks were obhged to re- longed to it, but it never was in tire; and Pepin, having caused to greater danger than under Astolphus, be put in execution all the articles of one of the last Lumbard kings. the peace, set out again for his king. This prince aimed at Rome itself: dom. After the death of Pepin, Dethe popes immediately sent to Con- siderius, the last king of the Lomstantine, in order to obtain some as- | bards, made fresh efforts to put himsistance, ibut the empire of the east self in possession of what his prede. was too weak and too ill-governed focessor had been obliged to cede ; be able to save ltaly': they gave but he was still more unfortunate: he fine words to the deputies, and no- | found in Charlemagne a hero still thing more. Rome, abandoned by more formidable than Astolphus had its sovereigns, was not so by its pop- found in Pepin. After a war which - tiffs ; they addressed themselves to was of short duration, but which was the French princes. : Pepio, whom very rapid, Desiderius was despoiled the popes had so well served, in as- of all his states, and he was sent to -sisting bim to the throne, served | France and placed in an abbey, them in whis turn; he passed into where he finished his days. Charles Italy at the head of an army, beat the took possession of his kingdom, asLombards, and obliged Astolphus to sumed the title of king of the French give up to the roman churcli the ex- and Lombards, and left the popes'in varshate of Ravenna, and some other the peaceable enjoyment of all that provinces. The Lombard king pro- bis father had ceded to them. 3 mised whatever they wished ; but af | Some years afterwards, that is to terwards, not being able to resolve to say, in 801, pope Leo III. caused make such great concessions to the him to be proclaimed emperor by the - pope, be took up arms again as soon Romans, and crowned him in that as the French had repassed the moun | quality. The people took the oath tains., The activity of Pepin soon of tidelity to the new emperor, who made him repent of his infidelity in contented himself with the rights of breaking his word. The Lombards lord paramount. Things remiained having again, been beaten in eyery | in this state till the time of Charles part, and driven from their best the bald, grandson of Charlemagne ; -places, Astolphus was obliged faith the latter ceded all the rights of the fully to execute the conditions which emperors in Rome to the pope, Joha the French king bad imposed upon | VIII. as all contemporary historians him. :-) (* ..W .'
inform us. Thus is what the most in13 Iu-the mean time, the Greeks, contestible and certain monuments seeing the Lombards driven from the inform us of the origin of the tempoexarchase, thought the opportunity ) ral power of the popes.“-. ..
For the Orthodox Journal. I ago the catholics on this side of the
water to whom I allude, a few of MR. EDITOR.-Among the storms | them knowingly, the rest unwittingly, which the bark of Peter has encount- entered into a pledge to make arered during these eighteen centuries: rangements in their own religion, for Titubat, sed nun quam mergitur illa securing the protestent established ratis: none have been so dangerous religion, and though a form of salvo as those which have been raised by for the integrity of the catholic docsome of her own crew, or pretended trine and discipline, was inserted in assistants. The council of Rimini, i the pledge, yet it was plain to every collected by the christian emperor person of reflection and experience, Constautius was ten times more fa- ihat, tbis security, in the opinion of tal than the exterminating persecu the protestants to whom the pledge tion of the pagan emperor Diocle- was given, could not otherwise be sian; so also was the jansenistical | effectual than by sbackling and cripreforns of the church by the late pling the catholic religion; still they, tyrannical Joseph II. which we ca one and all, contended that they had tholics of England and Ireland are entered into no engagement at all, threatened with, under the mockery | but had barely testified wbat they of emancipation, in the report be called a spirit of conciliation. After fore the two houses of parliament at four years spent in this unworthy the present day. This variegated quibhliog or stupid delusion, the code of persecution has been col- plain sense of the FIFTH RESOlected abroad and imported into this LUTION glared furth, beyond the country by a gentleman, who, during power of quibbling in the bill of pain many years, passed for our warm and penalties, of bribery and corpod disinterested friend, and who, l ruption,* of irreligion and schism, under that visor, was admitted into which some men had confidence to the councils of prelates, cardinals call a bill for CATHOLIC EMANand popes. It is patronized and pro- CIPATION. What now was the moted by several other distinguished conduct of the catholics above depersonages, equally professiog them- scribed? They said they disliked selves our friends. Still the con- | the bill, but that they could not duct of these personages may be ac- prevent it now, that it had gone so counted for, because though they far, that it was a protestant not a profess themselves the friends of the catholic bill, &c. &c. &c. lo the catkolics themselves, and are so, as mean time it was notorious beyond to temporal benefits, yet they pub- denial, that, if they had loved their licly protest, upon oath, against our holy religiou more than their exreligion, as idolatrous aod it would pected worldly distinctions and ebe scandalum magnatum to say, that moluments, they might, by a single they swear what ibey do not believe word or line addressed to Mr. Gratto be true. The wonder, however, tan or Mr. Elliot, have quashed the and the great mischief to our reli- bill in iis course, and at once have giop at present is, that a certain num stopped all the mischief which they ber of her own children, (who pos- had set agoing on the 1st of Feb. sessing the grealest share of worldly 1810, at the St. Albau's tavero. advantages are thereby stimulated to grasp at more) join in the con- ! * The committee, which was to consist
their follow pavi chiefly of catholic noblemen and gentleinen, gators and the vessel itself into the had the disposal of £1000 per apbum, in
uoder a protestant president, was to have hands of an enemy. Seven years cach island, for undefined purposes !