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all sense of shame, and, relying on more properly, so impossible to be the subtlety of his contrivance, he true, that it ought not to have been wa's not startled with enterprizes the believed if it had come from the most hazardous and most criminal." mouth of Cato ; and upon such eviIt is unnecessary here to enter into dence, from such witnesses, were a detailed view of this horrid con- innocent men condemned to death spiracy, the reader is referred to my and executed. Prosecutors, whether 6 Historical Narrative," selected attornies and solicitors general, of from the most authentic protestant managers of impeachment, acted historians, where he will find a miwith the fury which in such circumpute elucidation of the unparalleled stances might be expected ; juries deeds which arose out of it; suffice partook naturally enough of the nait to say, that, notwithstanding the tional ferment, and judges, whose gross absurdities, the utter impossi- duty it was to guard them against bilities, and endless contradictions, such impressions, were scandalously contained in the depositions of Oates | active in confirming them in their before the parliamentary commitiees prejudices, and inflaming their pasand criminal courts, he was not only sions. -The king, who is supposed credited in his unsupported tales, to have disbelieved the whole of the but a guard of honour was placed plot, never once exercised his gloriover his person, a pension of 12001. lous prerogative of mercy.... It is was granted for his maintenance, said, that he dare not. His throne, and he was dignified with the title of perhaps his life, was at stake." 6 The Saviour of the Nation!"- Such is the representation given by But this is not all: proclamations one of the greatest statesmen and were issued, and rewards were of politicians this country has to boast, fered for other miscreants to come of the means pursued by protestant forward and display their talents in judges, juries, prosecutors, and wit. the science of false swearing, and / nesses, to convict innocent men of the lives of innocent men were at treason, which had no existence, the mercy of every abandoned wretch and of engaging in a plot invented for who sought revenge for a supposed the ruin of the catholic religion, but injury, or wished to raise himself which the then houses of parliament from a state of indigence to one of solemnly and unanimonsly decreed, plenty. Thus protestant indul. l on the evidence of Oates alone, was gences were granted to commit sins,“ contrived and carried on by the and those too of the most horrid na- popish recusants, for assassinating ture. 'That the picture I have drawn the king, for subverting the goversimay not be thought exaggerated from ment, and for rooting out and des the prejudices of education, I shall stroying the protestant religion.” 1 here quote au extract from the pen of an eminent protestant statesman, CATHOLICS EXCLUDED FROM PARwhose memory is still fresh in the LIAMENT AND Civil Oprices. mind of every intelligent reader. For the space of two years did the The late Mr. Fox, in his history of credulous nation labour under this the earlier part of the reign of James delirium, and the first use which II. p. 36, speaking of this nefarious Shaftesbury and his faction made of transaction, says, " Witnesses of the circumstance was to exclude the such a character as not to deserve catholics from sitting in parliament, credit in the most trifling cause, which privilege they enjoyed up to upon the most material facts, gave this epoch, and had zealously exertevidence so incredible, or, to speaked it in defending the prerogatives

of their protestant sovereigns, and i ry,says, that sixty-five statutes the true principles of the constitu- were found insufficient in 1791 to tion. This laudable and loyal preserve the freedom and independconduct, so contrary to the repub ence of parliament, and to prevent lican principles of the then intoler- | bribery, frauds, &c. The reader ant faction, of which Shaftesbury will mark the contrast. was the leader, proved so harrass- It should here be observed, that ing to all the measures which they this act of parliamentary exclusion, proposed for retrenching the just in- which passed in the 30th year of fluence of the crown, that they re- Charles II. was preceded by ano. solved to get rid of the evil at once ther in the 25th of the same mo. by framing 40 act which should naroh, called the Test act, for the effectually prevent the catholic purpose of excluding catholics from from entering in futare the threshold all offices under government. By of the senate. Notwithstanding the this act it was provided that all judges were at that moment sending persons holding any office, civil, forth the most groundless iovectives military, or naval, or receiving apģ against the religious principles of fee or wages from the king, at the catholics from the bench, barefaced next term or quarter sessions after ly asserting that these principles his admission, must take the oaths taught them to lie and practice all of allegiance or supremacy, iu open sorts of equivocations; that the doc- | court, in the chancery or king's trines of their church were so false bench, or at the quarter sessions, and pernicious, so destructive and and, within three months, must rebloody, and the way they took to ceive the sacrament in some open come off from all vows, oaths, and church on a Sunday. Of their comsacraments, by dispensations before pliance with this latter provision, hand, or indulgences and pardons they are required to deliver a certiafterwards, was so much worse, that ficate into court, signed by the mithey were really unfit for human nister, church-warden, and two resociety. Notwithstanding these spectable witnesses. In addition to coarse falsehoods were delivered by this, they are commanded to make lord chief justice Sçrogys on the and subscribe, at the same time, a detrials of the victims in this diabolicallclaration against transubstantiation. case, the faction were so well aware | It is further required by this act, of the groundlessness of the charge, that a register of those persons who and of the punctilious integrity of have complied with these propisions catholics in their oaths and engage should be publicly exhibited at the ments, that they deemed the simple different courts, to which all persons enactment of a declaration against may refer without fee or reward. two of the principal articles of their Those who refused or neglected to faith, a sufficient barrier to any fur-comply with these conditions, and ther intrusion on their part among yet remained in office, were liable to the members of either house. Nor a penalty of five hundred pounds, to were the opponents of popery dis- be recovered by whoever might think appointed in their estimation, this proper to sue for it.' “ Were this single act has efficaciously exclud- act (exclaims Mr. Brown, in his ed the catholics from the enjoyment History of the Penal Laws) to be of their parliamentary privileges, shewn to any individual totally unşince it became a law of the land, acquainted with the mutual jeaalthough a small work now before lousies of protestants and catholics, me, called “ Thę Tạblet of Memo- / which for so many years have pre

tented the growth and even the ex-clusively in the hands of protestants, istence of christian charity in these with the exception of the short-lived kingdoms, would he not naturally rule of the unfortunate James. ask with the utmost surprise, what connexion there could possibly ex-! CAUSES WHICH PRODUCED THE ist between a speculative belief in

EXCLUSION. the doctrine of transubstantiation, This plain siatement of facts inand an actual incapacity to serve our contestibly prove, that during the country in the cabinet, or to defend space of a century and a half from her cause in the field ? We should the commencement of protestantism, find great dificulty in persuading a the catholics were in possession of man thụş uņprejudiced, that, be- those privileges which they claim at cause some furious bigots holding the present day, without any real among others this doctrine, had danger to the national church, in wielded without mercy the two. spite of the idle apprehensions of edged sword of persecution, whilst “No-popery” bigots; for, to their others, by the exercise of a proscrip great credit, they were always found, tion little less rigorvus on the pro- as I have hitherto observed, coa. fessors of their faith, had been driven lesciog with the true friends of the into acts of treason and rebellion, constitution in church and state, it was therefore highly necessary and opposing the encroachments of that no person entertaining 'such an factious innovators. In the reign of opinion (innocent as every one James I. religious and party dissenmust admit it to be, however appa- sions began to distract the country; rently ridiculous) should enjoy any the monarch, sensible of the fidelity civil office, even that of the lowest and fealty which swayed the conclerk in the treasury, or be enabled duct of his catholic subjects, employ, to bear the standard of his country ed many of them in places of trust; in the field of battle.” The passing this aroused the jealous and intoof this act caused the immediate re- lerant spirit of the various hordes signation of Thomas, first baron of puritan reformers, who assailed Clifford of Chudleigh, who, after the throne with clamourous repre signalizing himself in the house of sentations against the increase of commons, as member for Totness, by popery and the consequent dangers several remarkable speeches in fa- which threatened the liberties of the vour of the royal prerogative, and country, by the employment of its evincing his courage and abilities adherents.-James thought to paunder the duke of York, afterwards cify them with promises, but withJames II. in a number of desperate out effect. Discontent and dissatisnaval engagements, was raised to faction continued to increase, which the peerage, and advanced to the at length, in the reign of his son and dignity of lord high treasurer. Pre- successor, broke out into open referring, howeyer, the rectitude of bellion and civil war. A reference conscience to the emoluments and to the recorded proceedings of those rank of office, he retired in conse: turbulent times will shew, that every quence of the operation of the act to complaint of the 6. puritan” faction a private station on his patrimonial then, like those of the " intolerants!! estates, in which example he was now, was grounded on the supposed followed by all the other catholics danger which threatened the constitu, who held situations under govern- tion, from the relaxation of the penal ment, leaving the reins of power laws against the papists, whom they and patronage from this period ex- / represented as the abettors of arbi, trary power and the enemies of lia ed all the unreasonable fears and jeaberty. But the test of experience lousies of the bigotted and intolerant proved, that those who were most faction, and he found himself beset vociferous in proclaiming their ap- l with the same merciless remonprehensions for the fate of the con-, strances to enforce the laws against stitution, were the most active in papists, which annoyed his prede. their endeavours to subvert it, and cessors. Charles contented himself raising upon its ruins an odious with issuing proclamations, and oligarchy, afterwards moulded into granting indulgences to those who a protectorate, during which the did not obey them, on the appearnation was tyrannized over by a set ance of the outcry; and thus stood of upstart demagogues, and canting | matters until the duke of York openhypocrites. Every semblance of the ly professed his conversion to the constitution, as derived from their catholic faith. As he was beir ap. catholic forefathers, under which parent to the throne, this circumthe people enjoyed happiness and stance added fuel to the already infreedom, was abolished, and a sys Hamed prejodices of the people tem of rule was substituted, if a sys- against popery, and favoured the tem it could be called, without jus- | malignant designs of the republican tice, without law, and without mer- leaders to revenge themselves on the cy. To prevent these disasters, and catholics, whom they considered the to preserve the monarchal and ec- | king's steadiest friends. The duke clesiastical establishments, the ca- avowed his abjuration of protestanttholics patriotically offered their | ism in 1671, and in 1673 he married property and their lives, but their a catholic princess of the Modena efforts, united to those of their pro- family In the interval of these two testant brethren who espoused the events, namely in 1672, the king is. same cause, proved unavailing, and sued out a proclamation, wherein be they became the joint victims of re• granted an indulgence for liberty of publican fury. Tired with the op-conscience to all who dissented from pressions and injustice of the Crom- the established church, which still tellian sway, the people returned to further increased the malignancy of a sense of duty, and the son of their the intolerants, and moved them to former monarch was recalled to fill strong measures of opposition to the the throne of his ancestors, and re-monarch's benevolent intentions. store the constitution to an oppress- | Accordingly, addresses were sent ed nation. It must here be up to him by both houses protesting noticed, that Charles Owed his against the lenity shewn by his malife, after the fatal battle of Wor- jesty to papists as fraught with imcester, to the fidelity of his ca-minent danger to the protestant retholic subjects, and he also found ligion, and so well did the houses an asylum in the dominions of ca- ) play their part by refusing the suptholic sovercigos, when Lanished plies required, that Charles at last from his rightful estate by, his pro- found himself under the necessity of testant people; it was therefore na. recalling his proclamation of indultural, on his restoration, that he gence, notwithstanding he was at should feel a bias towards those who one time warmly bent upon its exehad so faithfully served him, and cution. From this time the easy honour them with a share of his con monarch resigned up his tried friends fidence and favours. This inclina- to be vilified and persecuted by their tion of the monarch, however, pror- enemies, without making any further ed fatal to his repose, for it a wake- effort to stem the torrent which was rushing on them. The first fruit of who transgressed against and viothis victory was the passing of the lated these statutes. Test act, in which the papist and dissenter were each involved in its A CATHOLIC KING CANNOT DISpenal and disqualifying operations. PENSE WITH THE TESTS. This took place in 1673, but not Twelve years after the test act having the effect which its framers was passed, and seven after the and abettors anticipated, a plot enactment of the declaration against was devised, as the surest expedi popery, the nation found a popish ent of inlaming the people, and it sovereign on the throne, who, conwas not long before one was found, ceiving himself authorised, by virtue which for the absurdity and incon- of his kiogly prerogative, as head of sistencies of its ramifications, can the church and state, to exercise the only be exceeded by the infamy of dispensing power, very naturally those by whom it was supported, I used it in favour of some of his own and the stupidity of the people who religion, and gave commissions in gave credence to it. In August, the army to several catholics, with1678, the couspiracy of Oates was / out, of course, their qualifying themannounced by means of a deposition selves under the former statute, or before a magistrate, so little did the complying with the conditions of the king and privy council believe the latter. Such proceedings soon atexistence of the tale, and care having tracted the notice of the protestants, been taken to make the most of it and several noblemen and gentleamong the people, the nation was men of that persuasion highly re. presently in a state of delirium, from sented them. This induced the the dread of popery, during which king on the first meeting of parlia. phrensy, that is, in the November ment after the rebellion of the duke following, the act to disquali. of Monmouth, to notice the appointfy papists from sitting in parlia ment of catholic officers in his ment, by enacting a declaration speech, in the following words: against transubstantiation and the 6 Let no man take exception, that invocation of saints, to be made there are some officers in the army by every member previous to the ] not qualified according to the late taking his seat, received the royal | tests for their employment. The assent. This concise detail of oc- gentlement I must tell you, are most currences will enable the reader to of them well known to me; and, form a just conclusion of the causes having formerly served me on seveand motives which produced the ral occasions, and always approved Test act and Declaration against Po- the loyalty of their principles by pery, both which now form a part their practice, I think them fit now of the statute. law of the land, and to be employed under me, and will are considered by many as the pillars | deal plaioly with you, that after and bulwark of the constitution. having had the benefit of their serIt is not my design here to enter into | vices in time of such need and dan. the merit of these two productions ger. I will neither expose them to of protestant legislation ; this part disgrace nor myself to the want of of the subject must stand over for them, if there should be another reanother opportunity, that I maybellion), to make them necessary to proceed to shew how short a period me." This intimation of James elapsed before our protestant law-/ did not please the members, and givers found it necessary to grant warm debates arose upon the subindulgences and absolutions to those (ject; an address, however, was at

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