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It was a parti-colored dress
Of patched and piebald * languages;
'Twas English cut on Greek and Latin,
Like fustian* heretofore on satin.
It had an odd promiscuous tone,
As if h’ had talked three parts in one;
Which made some think when he did gabble
H' had heard three laborers of Babel,
Or Cerberus* himself pronounce
A leash of languages at once.
This he as volubly would vent
As if his stock would ne'er be spent;
And truly to support that charge,
He had supplies as vast and large;

61. parti-colored, colored part by part, I fristian (a coarse twilled cotton

having various tints and colors. stuff), that the satin in a gar62. piebald, diversified in color.

ment might appear through it. 63. English ... Latin.. The leading 66. three parts. The expression al.

men of those times were fond ludes to the old musical catches
of appearing learned, and com- in three parts.
monly mixed Latin and even 69. Cerberus, the three-headed dog at
Greek terms and phrases with

the entrance to Hades.
their speech. This was es 70. Jeash, literally a rope. In the
pecially the case with the coun technical language of hunting,
try justices, of whom Hudibras it signifies three greyhounds,
was one.

or three creatures of any kind, 64. Like fustian ... satin: that is, like the hounds in hunting having

the fashion which formerly been in former times held with
(“heretofore") prevailed of a rope or string.
pinking or cutting holes in 173. charge, burden, duty.

LITERARY ANALYSIS.–61. It was ... dress. What is the figure of speech? (See Def. 20.)

63, 64. Observe how the specific illustrations in these lines carry out the general idea in lines 61 and 62.

64. Like fustian, etc. Explain the comparison. 69. What apposite classical reference is made in this line?

For he could coin or counterfeit
New words, with little or no wit-
Words so debased and hard, no stone
Was hard enough to touch them on;
And when with hasty noise he spoke 'em,
The ignorant for current took 'em,
That had the orator who once
Did fill his mouth with pebble-stones
When he harangued but known his phrase,
He would have used no other ways.
In mathematics he was greater
Than Tycho Brahe or Erra Pater;
For he, by geometric scale,
Could take the size of pots of ale;
Resolve by sines and tangents, straight,
If bread or butter wanted weight;
And wisely tell what hour o'th' day
The clock does strike, by algebra.

75, 76. he could ... words. The Pres words,” these counterfeits.

byterians coined a great num They therefore passed as “curber, such as out-goings, carry rent,” that is, as current coin, ings-on, workings-out, gospel

currency. walking-times, etc.

| 83. his phrase : that is, Hudibras's dic76. wit, sense.

tion. . 81, 82. the orator ... pebble-stones. The 86. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), an emi

allusion is to Demosthenes, who, nent Danish astronomer. By to remedy a defect in his articu Erra Pater (the name of an old lation, put pebble-stones in his astrologer) is meant William mouth while practising in speak Lilly, also an astrologer and a ing.

contemporary of Butler's. 77, 78, 80. no stone ... touch them on... 88. Could ... ale. As a justice of the

current. The meaning is that peace he had a right to inspect
there was no touchstone (a stone weights and measures.
on which gold and silver were 89. sines and tangents, terms of trigo.
tested) fit to test these “new nometry.

LITERARY ANALYSIS. — 75-80. For he could coin ... took 'em. Show the felicitous manner in which the metaphor in this passage is carried out.

85-92. In mathematics ... algebra. By what device does the author contrive to convey an exceedingly ludicrous idea of Hudibras's mathematical attain. ments?

Besides, he was a shrewd philosopher
And had read every text and gloss over-
Whate'er the crabbed’st author hath
He understood b' implicit faith;
Whatever sceptic could inquire for,
For every why he had a wherefore,
Knew more than forty of them do,
As far as words and terms could go;
All which he understood by rote,
And as occasion served would quote:
No matter whether right or wrong,
They might be either said or sung.
His notions fitted things so well
That which was which he could not tell,
But oftentimes mistook the one
For th' other, as great clerks have done.
He could reduce all things to acts,
And knew their natures by abstracts;
Where entity and quiddity,
The ghosts of defunct bodies, fly;
Where Truth in person does appear,
Like words congealed in northern air.

94. gloss, a commentary.

111. entity and quiddity. The school. 95. crabbed'st author: that is, the au- ! men made fine distinctions be

thor the most difficult to be tween “entity" (essence) and understood.

“quiddity” (nature), on the one 108. clerks, learned men.

hand, and substance on the 109, 110. He could reduce ... abstracts. other. The former two might “Acts," general notions; "ab

remain when body had perished, stracts,” the results of the proc and hence they were termed ess of abstraction. The old phi "the ghosts of defunct bodies." losophers pretended to extract 114. words congealed ... air. The refernotions or ideas out of things, ence is to a humorous account, as chemists extract spirits and published in Butler's time, of essences.

words freezing in Nova Zembla.

LITERARY ANALYSIS.-93, 94. Point out the hypermeters in these lines.

109-116. He could ... fly. Point out the skilful manner in which Butler sat. irizes the philosophy of the schoolmen.

111-114. Where entity, etc. Of what verb understood are these two clauses the objects?

114. Like words ... air. What is the figure of speech? (See Def. 19.)

He knew what's what, and that's as high
As metaphysic wit* can fly.
In school divinity as able
As he that hight* irrefragable;
A second Thomas, or, at once
To name them all, another Dunce;
Profound in all the nominal
And real ways beyond them all;
For he a rope of sand could twist
As tough as learned Sorbonist,
And weave fine cobwebs fit for skull
That's empty when the moon is full-
Such as take lodgings in a head
That's to be let unfurnished.

116. metaphysic wit, intellectual acu- from his name, and acquired its men.

opprobrious meaning from its 117. school divinity, theology.

having been used as a term of 118. hight, called.-irrefragable. The reproach by his antagonists,

reference is to Alexander Hales who were the followers of (an English philosopher of the

Thomas Aquinas. 13th century), who was so deep- 121, 122. nominal and real way: that is, ly read in what was termed the ways of the nominalists and school divinity that he was realists, two antagonistic schools called “Doctor Irrefragabilis," into which the mediæval metaor the Irrefragable Doctor.

physicians were divided. 119. A second Thomas. Thomas Aqui- 124. Sorbonist, a member of the cele.

nas (1224-1274), a schoolman, brated French college of the was one of the most learned Sorbonne, founded in the reign men of his time.

of St. Louis by Robert Sorbon. 120. Dunce. Reference is made to 125, 126. fit for skull... full. It was Duns Scotus, a learned scholas

an old notion that lunatics (luna, tic theologian, born in Dunse the moon) were liable to be cra: (Scotland), and died 1308. The zier than common at the full of English word dunce is derived ! the moon.

LITERARY ANALYSIS. — 117-128. In school divinity ... unfurnished. Point out any satirical expressions in this description of the theology of the school. men.

125. weave fine cobwebs. What is the figure of speech? (See Def. 20.) 127, 128. in a head ... unfurnished. Explain this expression.

135

11.-RELIGION OF HUDIBRAS.
For his religion, it was fit
To match his learning and his wit :
'Twas Presbyterian true blue ;
For he was of that stubborn crew
Of errant * saints, whom all men grant
To be the true church militant-
Such as do build their faith upon
The holy text of pike and gun;
Decide all controversies by
Infallible artillery;
And prove their doctrine orthodox
By apostolic blows and knocks ;
Call fire and sword and desolation
A godly thorough reformation,
Which always must be carried on,
And still be doing, never done;
As if religion were intended
For nothing else but to be mended-
A sect whose chief devotion lies
In odd perverse antipathies;
In falling out with that or this,
And finding somewhat still amiss;
More peevish, cross, and splenetic
Than dog distract or monkey sick;
That with more care keep holiday
The wrong, than others the right, way;
Compound for sins they are inclined to
By damning those they have no mind to.
Still so perverse and opposite,
As if they worshipped God for spite;

145

150

133. errant saints: that is, the Presby. /

terians.
147–170. A sect ... nose. The relig.

ion of the Presbyterians in those
times was accused of consisting
principally in an opposition to

the Church of England and to its most innocent customs, as, for example, the eating of Christ. mas pies and plum porridge at Christmas, which they (the Pres. byterians) deemed sinful.

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