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rather his who could extract the most pleasure out of them. That, he was conscious, was not the sentiment which the complicated play of human feelings had engendered in society. The 305 men around him would expect that he should immediately apply those florins to his benefactor's rescue. But what was the sentiment of society? A mere tangle of anomalous traditions and opinions, that no wise man would take as a guide, except so far as his own comfort was concerned. Not that he cared for the 310 florins, save, perhaps, for Romola's sake: he would give up the florins readily enough. It was the joy that was due to him and was close to his lips, which he felt he was not bound to thrust away from him and travel on thirsting. Any maxims that required a man to fling away the good that was needed to make 315 existence sweet were only the lining of human selfishness turned outward: they were made by men who wanted others to sacrifice themselves for their sake. He would rather that Baldassarre should not suffer ; he liked no one to suffer: but could any philosophy prove to him that he was bound to care for another's 320 suffering more than for his own? To do so, he must have loved Baldassarre devotedly, and he did not love him. Was that his own fault? Gratitude ! seen closely, it made no valid claim. His father's life would have been dreary without him. Are we convicted of a debt to men for the pleasures they give them- 325 selves?
Having once begun to explain away Baldassarre's claim, Tito's thought showed itself as active as a virulent acid, eating its rapid way through all the tissues of sentiment. His mind was destitute of that dread which has been erroneously decried as if it 330 were nothing higher than a man's animal care for his own skin: that awe of the Divine Nemesis * which was felt by religious pagans, and, though it took a more positive form under Christianity, is still felt by the mass of mankind simply as a vague fear at anything which is called wrong-doing. Such terror of the un- 335 seen is so far above mere sensual cowardice that it will annihi
LITERARY ANALYSIS.—327–347. In the last paragraph select all the words of classical origin. It may be noted that George Eliot employs a large pro. portion of words of classical origin, only about eighty per cent of her vocabulary being of Anglo-Saxon origin. Account for this from her intellectual traits.
late that cowardice: it is the initial recognition of a moral law restraining desire, and checks the hard, bold scrutiny of imperfect thought into obligations which can never be proved to have any sanctity in the absence of feeling. “It is good,” sing the 340 old Eumenides * in Æschylus, “that fear should sit as the guardian of the soul, forcing it into wisdom-good that men should carry a threatening shadow in their hearts under the full sunshine; else, how shall they learn to revere the right?” That guardianship may become needless; but only when all outward 345 law has become needless-only when duty and love have united in one stream and made a common force.
THE SCIENTIFIC SPIRIT IN MODERN THOUGHT. [INTRODUCTION.—The following extracts form the greater part of Huxley's lay sermon on the Advisableness of Improving Natural Knowledge. The writings of Huxley furnish, perhaps, the most striking illustration of the mod
ern union of science with literature, a union that commends science to the great laity by a flowing treatment and the graces of style.]
1. This time two hundred years ago~in the beginning of January, 1666 — those of our forefathers who inhabited this great and ancient city took breath between the shocks of two fearful calamities :* one not quite past, although its fury had abated; the other to come.
2. Within a few yards of the very spot on which we are assembled, so the tradition runs, that painful and deadly malady, the plague, appeared in the latter months of 1664 ; and, though no new visitor, smote the people of England, and especially of her capital, with a violence unknown before, in the course of the 10 following year. The hand of a master has pictured what happened in those dismal months; and in that truest of fictions, The History of the Plague Year, Defoe shows Death, with every accompaniment of pain and terror, stalking through the narrow streets of old London, and changing their busy hum into a si-15 lence broken only by the wailing of the mourners of fifty thousand dead; by the woful denunciations and mad prayers of fanatics; and by the madder yells of despairing profligates.
3. But, about this time in 1666, the death-rate had sunk to nearly its ordinary amount; a case of plague occurred only here 20 and there, and the richer citizens who had flown from the pest had returned to their dwellings. The remnant of the people
LITERARY ANALYSIS.-1-31. Paragraphs 1-4 form the introduction to the essay: to what class of composition does this exordium belong? (See Def. 7.)-The pupil will observe the skill with which an exposition strictly scientific is introduced in such a way as to challenge the attention of non-scientific, or lay, readers.
1-5. This ... come. What kind of sentence rhetorically? (See Def. 58.) Grammatical construction of "time?" (See Swinton's New English Grammar, p. 105, ix.) By "this great .. , city,” London will, of course, be understood. - What is the figure in “took breath?” (See Def. 20.)-Derivation of "calamity ?"
13, 14. Death ... stalking, etc. What is the figure of speech? (See Def.
16, 17. Afty thousand dead. Observe the effectiveness of the use of a specific number, in contrast with the method of indefinite statement, as many thousands of dead, myriads of dead, etc.
19. this time in 1666 : í. e., in January, 1666.
began to toil at the accustomed round of duty or of pleasure ; and the stream of city life bid fair to flow back along its old bed, with renewed and uninterrupted vigor.
25 4. The newly kindled hope was deceitful. The great plague, indeed, returned no more ; but what it had done for the Londoners, the great fire, which broke out in the autumn of 1666, did for London ; and, in September of that year, a heap of ashes and the indestructible energy of the people were all that re- 30 mained of the glory of five sixths of the city within the walls.
5. Our forefathers had their own ways of accounting for each of these calamities. They submitted to the plague in humility and in penitence, for they believed it to be the judgment of God. But towards the fire they were furiously indignant, interpreting 35 it as the effect of the malice of man,-as the work of the Republicans, or of the Papists, according as their prepossessions ran in favor of loyalty or of Puritanism.
6. It would, I fancy, have fared but ill with one who, standing where I now stand, in what was then a thickly peopled and 40 fashionable part of London, should have broached to our ancestors the doctrine which I now propound to you—that all their hypotheses were alike wrong ; that the plague was no more, in their sense, Divine judgment, than the fire was the work of any political, or of any religious, sect; but that they were themselves 45 the authors of both plague and fire, and that they must look to themselves to prevent the recurrence of calamities, to all appearance so peculiarly beyond the reach of human control-so evidently the result of the wrath of God or of the craft and subtlety of an enemy. ...
LITERARY ANALYSIS.—24. the stream, etc. What is the figure of speech? (See Def. 20.) Show how the metaphor is carried out.
26–31. The ... walls. In that delicate art, the transition from paragraph to paragraph, Huxley rivals Macaulay. An illustration is presented in paragraph 4, in which the anticipative thought in the previous paragraph is generalized in the first sentence, and specialized in the second.
35. But towards the fire, etc. Remark on the order of words, with reference to the object of emphasis.
39-50. It... enemy. The sentence constituting paragraph 4 should be studied both as regards structure and matter: it is a fine example of the maximum of thought in the minimum of words.