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Shall never a bed for me be spread,
Nor shall a pillow be under my head,
Till I begin my vow to keep;
Here on the rushes will I sleep,
And perchance there may come a vision true
Ere day create the world anew.”

Slowly Sir Launfal's eyes grew dim,

Slumber fell like a cloud on him,
And into his soul the vision flew.

2. The crows flapped over by twos and threes,
In the pool drowsed the cattle up to their knees,

The little birds sang as if it were

The one day of summer in all the year,
And the very leaves seemed to sing on the trees;
The castle alone in the landscape lay
Like an outpost of winter, dull and gray;
'Twas the proudest hall in the North Countree,
And never its gates might opened be,
Save to lord or lady of high degree.

3. Summer besieged it on every side,

But the churlish stone her assaults defied;
She could not scale the chilly wall,
Though round it for leagues her pavilions tall
Stretched left and right,
Over the hills and out of sight;

Green and broad was every tent,

And out of each a murmur went
Till the breeze fell off at night.

LITERARY ANALYSIS.-100. Shall never a bed. Arrange in the direct order. 105. Ere day create, etc. Express this periphrasis in a single word.

109-118. The crows ... degree. What contrast is presented in this stanza? -Point out a picturesque expression ; a fanciful expression ; a striking sim. ile. Show the propriety of the term “outpost" as here used.

119. Summer besieged, etc. Show how the thought suggested as simile in line 115 is here continued as metaphor.

122–125. her pavilions tall... every tent. Explain these expressions as here employed.




4. The drawbridge dropped with a surly clang,

And through the dark arch a charger sprang,
Bearing Sir Launfal, the maiden knight,
In his gilded mail, that flamed so bright
It seemed the dark castle had gathered all
Those shafts the fierce sun had shot over its wall

In his siege of three hundred summers long,
And, binding them all in one blazing sheaf,

Had cast them forth : so, young and strong,
And lightsome as a locust-leaf,
Sir Launfal flashed forth in his unscarred mail,

To seek in all climes for the Holy Grail.
5. It was morning on hill and stream and tree,

And morning in the young knight's heart;
Only the castle moodily
Rebuffed the gifts of the sunshine free,

And gloomed by itself apart;
The season brimmed all other things up

Full as the rain fills the pitcher-plant's cup.
6. As Sir Launfal made morn through the darksome gate,

He was ’ware of a leper, crouched by the same,
Who begged with his hand and moaned as he sate;

And a loathing over Sir Launfal came :
The sunshine went out of his soul with a thrill,



The flesh ’neath his armor 'gan shrink and crawl,
And midway its leap his heart stood still

Like a frozen waterfall;

LITERARY ANALYSIS.—128-139. The drawbridge ... Grail. Note the powerful manner in which the narrative is managed: the mere structure of the lines suggests a rush and flash.—Point out the element of hyperbole in this stanza.

140, 141. It was morning ... heart. In which line is “morning” used in a literal, in which in a figurative, sense ?--Change the metaphor in line 141 into a simile.

143-146. Rebuffed ... cap. Is “Rebuffed ” used in a literal or in a figura. tive sense ?~Remark on the verbs "gloomed” and “ brimmed." --Show the felicity of the simile.

147. made morn. Explain.
148. Point out an unpleasantly prosaic phrase in this line.
151. The sunshine went, etc. What is the figure of speech?
154. Remark on the simile.

For this man, so foul and bent of stature,
Rasped harshly against his dainty nature,
And seemed the one blot on the summer morn-

So he tossed him a piece of gold in scorn.
7. The leper raised not the gold from the dust:

“ Better to me the poor man's crust,
Better the blessing of the poor,
Though I turn me empty from his door;
That is no true alms which the hand can hold;
He gives nothing but worthless gold

Who gives from a sense of duty;
But he who gives a slender mite,
And gives to that which is out of sight-

That thread of the all-sustaining Beauty
Which runs through all and doth all unite-
The hand cannot clasp the whole of his alms,
The heart outstretches its eager palms,
For a god goes with it and makes it store
To the soul that was starving in darkness before."

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PRELUDE TO PART SECOND. 1. Down swept the chill wind from the mountain peak,

From the snow five thousand summers old;
On open wold * and hill-top bleak

It had gathered all the cold,
And whirled it like sleet on the wanderer's cheek;
It carried a shiver everywhere
From the unleafed boughs and pastures bare.


LITERARY ANALYSIS.-159-173. The leper ... before. Point out the antithesis in this stanza; the aphorisms. — Is there any verb to which "he" (line 166) is subject? (Of course, as "he" will not parse, it must in strict grammar be condemned as a solecism.) In what line is the thought brought fully out ?- Point out a metaphor in this stanza.

174-239. To what is the Prelude to Part Second a companion piece? Re. mark on the two.

174-180. Down... bare. Point out an instance of synecdoche in this stanza. --Etymology of “wold” (176) ?

2. The little brook heard it and built a roof

'Neath which he could house him, winter-proof;
All night by the white stars' frosty gleams
He groined his arches and matched his beams;
Slender and clear were his crystal spars
As the lashes of light that trim the stars ;
He sculptured every summer delight
In his halls and chambers out of sight.



3. Sometimes his tinkling waters slipt

Down through a frost-leaved forest-crypt,
Long sparkling aisles of steel-stemmed trees
Bending to counterfeit a breeze;
Sometimes the roof no fretwork knew
But silvery mosses that downward grew;
Sometimes it was carved in sharp relief
With quaint arabesques of ice-fern leaf;
Sometimes it was simply smooth and clear
For the gladness of heaven to shine through, and here
He had caught the nodding bulrush-tops
And hung them thickly with diamond drops,
That crystalled the beams of moon and sun,
And made a star of every one.




4. No mortal builder's most rare device

Could match this winter-palace of ice;
'Twas as if every image that mirrored lay
In his depths serene through the summer day,
Each fleeting shadow of earth and sky,

Lest the happy model should be lost,
Had been mimicked in fairy masonry

By the elfin builders of the frost.


LITERARY ANALYSIS. 181-210. The little brook ... frost. The narrative description in these stanzas presents a good example of an exercise of fancy, as contrasted with a work of imagination. Select what you deem the most graceful strokes of fancy; the most picturesque epithets or expressions.-Explain “crypt” (190); "relief” (195); "arabesques” (196).

184. groined. Quote Emerson's use of this verb in the poem of The Problem.



5. Within the hall are song and laughter,

The cheeks of Christmas grow red and jolly,
And sprouting is every corbel and rafter

With lightsome green of ivy and holly;
Through the deep gulf of the chimney wide
Wallows the Yule *-log's roaring tide;
The broad Aame-pennons droop and fap

And belly and tug as a flag in the wind;
Like a locust shrills the imprisoned sap,

Hunted to death in its galleries blind;
And swift little troops of silent sparks,

Now pausing, now scattering away as in fear,
Go threading the soot-forest's tangled darks

Like herds of startled deer.
6. But the wind without was eager and sharp,

Of Sir Launfal's gray hair it makes a harp,
And rattles and wrings

The icy strings,
Singing, in dreary monotone,
A Christmas carol of its own,
Whose burden still, as he might guess,

Was—“Shelterless, shelterless, shelterless !"
7. The voice of the seneschal* flared like a torch

As he shouted the wanderer away from the porch,
And he sat in the gateway and saw all night

The great hall-fire, so cheery and bold,

Through the window-slits of the castle old,
Build out its piers of ruddy light

Against the drift of the cold.

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LITERARY ANALYSIS.—211-224. Within ... deer. How is the picture of winter dreariness in lines 174-180 intensified by the picture in stanza 5?Point out a personification; a simile.—Explain “corbel” (213); “Yule" (216).- What is meant by “the soot-forest's tangled darks" (223) ?

225-232. But ... shelterless! What, again, is the effect of the juxtaposition of the pictures in stanzas 5 and 6?-Point out a metaphor in stanza 6, and state what you think of it as a figure.

233. flared like a torch. State your opinion of the propriety of this as a predicate to “voice."

233-239. The voice ... cold. Point out a striking predicate in stanza 7.

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