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who he was, for he doubted whether more than two of the electors had ever heard of him, and he thought there might be as many as six or eight who had heard of me.” He introduced the lecture just mentioned with a reference to his late electioneering failure, which was full of good sense, good spirits, and good humor.

5. He had a particular delight in boys, and an excellent way with them. I remember his once asking me with fantastic gravity, when he had been to Eton where my eldest son then was, whether I felt as he did in regard of never seeing a boy without wanting instantly to give him a sovereign ? I thought of this when I looked down into his grave, after he was laid there, for I looked down into it over the shoulder of a boy to whom he had been kind.

6. These are slight remembrances; but it is to little familiar things suggestive of the voice, look, manner-never, never more to be encountered on this earth—that the mind first turns in a bereavement. And greater things that are known of him, in the way of his warm affections, his quiet endurance, his unselfish thoughtfulness for others, and his munificent hand, may be told.

7. If, in the reckless vivacity of his youth, his satirical pen had ever gone astray or done amiss, he had caused it to prefer its own petition for forgiveness, long before :

I've writ the foolish fancy of his brain ;
The aimless jest that, striking, hath caused pain;
The idle word that he'd wish back again.

8. In no pages should I take it upon myself at this time to discourse of his books, of his refined knowledge of character, of his subtle acquaintance with the weaknesses of human nature, of his delightful playfulness as an essayist, of his quaint and touching ballads, of his mastery over the English language. Least of all, in these pages, enriched by his brilliant qualities from the first of the series, and beforehand accepted by the public through the strength of his great name.

9. But, on the table before me, there lies all that he had written of his latest and last story. That it would be very sad to any one—that it is inexpressiby so to a writer-in its evidences of matured designs never to be accomplished, of intentions begun to be executed and destined never to be completed, of careful preparation for long roads of thought that he was never to traverse, and for shining goals that he was never to reach, will be readily believed. The pain, however, that I have felt in perusing it has not been deeper than the conviction that he was in the healthiest vigor of his powers when he wrought on this last labor. In respect of earnest feeling, far-seeing purpose, character, incident, and a certain loving picturesqueness blending the whole, I believe it to be much the best of all his works. That he fully meant it to be so, that he had become strongly attached to it, and that he bestowed great pains upon it, I trace in almost every page. It contains one picture which must have cost him extreme distress, and which is a masterpiece. There are two children in it, touched with a hand as loving and tender as ever a father caressed his little child with. There is some young love, as pure and innocent and pretty as the truth. And it is very remarkable that, by reason of the singular construction of the story, more than one main incident usually belonging to the end of such a fiction is anticipated in the beginning, and thus there is an approach to completeness in the fragment, as to the satisfaction of the reader's mind concerning the most interesting persons, which could hardly have been better attained if the writer's breaking-off had been foreseen.

10. The last line he wrote, and the last proof he corrected, are among these papers through which I have so sorrowfully made my way. The condition of the little pages of manuscript where Death stopped his hand shows that he had carried them about, and often taken them out of his pocket here and there, for patient revision and interlineation. The last words he corrected in print were, “ And my heart throbbed with an exquisite bliss.” God grant that on that Christmas Eve, when he laid his head back on his pillow and threw up his arms as he had been wont to do when very weary, some consciousness of duty done and Christian hope throughout life humbly cherished may have caused his own heart so to throb when he passed away to his Redeemer's rest!

DE FINIBUS. [INTRODUCTION.—The following paper, De Finibus (Concerning Conclusions), is one of a series which, under the title of “Roundabout Papers," was published in the Cornhill Magazine. It has reference to the finishing of the novel called The Adventures of Philip, the last complete work of Thackeray. To extract from novels is an unsatisfactory task, and hence this paper is selected as having the advantage of completeness. Though it does not show the author at his best, it is characterized by much of his rare charm of style.)

1. When Swift was in love with Stella, and despatching her a letter from London thrice a month by the Irish packet, you may remember how he would begin letter No. XXIII., we will say, on the very day when XXII. had been sent away, stealing out of the coffee-house or the assembly so as to be able to prattle with his s dear; “never letting go her kind hand, as it were," as some commentator or other has said in speaking of the Dean and his amour. When Mr. Johnson, walking to Dodsley's, and touching the posts in Pall Mall as he walked, forgot to pat the head of one of them, he went back and imposed his hands on it, impelled 10 I know not by what superstition. I have this, I hope not dangerous, mania, too. As soon as a piece of work is out of hand, and before going to sleep, I like to begin another : it may be to write only half a dozen lines ; but there is something towards Number the Next. The printer's boy has not yet reached Green 15 Arbor Court with the copy. Those people who were alive half an hour since-Pendennis, Olive Newcome, and (what do you call him ? what was the name of the last hero? I remember now!) Philip Firmin-have hardly drunk their glass of wine, and the mammas have only this minute got the children's cloaks 20

LITERARY ANALYSIS.–1. Swift. Who was Swift? (See Characterization of him in this book.)

1-8. When ... amour. What kind of sentence grammatically? Rhetorically?

8. Mr. Johnson. Who was Dr. Samuel Johnson? (See Characterization in this book.)

10, 11. impelled ... superstition. Give the grammatical analysis of these words,

16. copy. Meaning of the word?

17-19. Pendennis, Olive Newcome . . . Philip Firmin. State in which of the novels of Thackeray these characters appear.-In what consists the drollery of the mode in which the name “Philip Firmin ” is introduced ?

on, and have been bowed out of my premises, and here I come back to the study again : tamen usque recurro. How lonely it looks, now all these people are gone! My dear, good friends, some folks are utterly tired of you,

and
say,

“ What a poverty of friends the man has ! He is always asking us to meet those 25 Pendennises, Newcomes, and so forth. Why does he not introduce us to some new characters? Why is he not thrilling like Twostars, learned and profound like Threestars, exquisitely humorous and human like Fourstars? Why, finally, is he not somebody else?” My good people, it is not only impossible to 30 please you all, but it is absurd to try. The dish which one man devours, another dislikes. Is the dinner of to-day not to your taste? Let us hope to-morrow's entertainment will be more agreeable. . . . I resume my original subject. What an odd, pleasant, humorous, melancholy feeling it is to sit in the study, 35 alone and quiet, now all these people are gone who have been boarding and lodging with me for twenty months! They have interrupted my rest; they have plagued me at all sorts of minutes; they have thrust themselves upon me when I was ill or wished to be idle, and I have growled out a Be hanged to you! 40 can't you leave me alone now?" Once or twice they have prevented my going out to dinner. Many and many a time they have prevented my coming home, because I knew they were there waiting in the study, and a plague take them! and I have left home and family, and gone to dine at the Club, and told no-45 body where I went. They have bored me, those people. They have plagued me at all sorts of uncomfortable hours.

They have made such a disturbance in my mind and house that sometimes I have hardly known what was going on in my family, and scarcely have heard what my neighbor said to me. They se

LITERARY ANALYSIS.—22. tamen usque recurro, "yet do I always return." (For the full quotation, of which this is an adaptation, see Webster's Diction. ary, under Latin Quotations-Naturam expellas, etc.)

22, 23. How lonely ... gone! What kind of sentence grammatically?
24, 25. What a poverty of friends. Substitute a synonymous expression.
31, 32. The dish ... dislikes. What is the figure of speech?

What common proverb expresses the same sentiment?

37. boarding and lodging with me. Explain. 46. They ... people. Point out the pleonasm.

are gone at last, and you would expect me to be at ease? Far from it. I should almost be glad if Woolcomb would walk in and talk to me or Twysden reappear, take his place in that chair opposite me, and begin one of his tremendous stories.

2. Madmen, you know, see visions, hold conversations with, even s5 draw the likeness of, people invisible to you and me. Is this making of people out of fancy madness, and are novel-writers at all entitled to strait-waistcoats ? I often forget people's names in life, and in my own stories contritely own that I make dreadful blunders regarding them; but I declare, my dear sir, with re-60 spect to the personages introduced into your humble servant's fables, I know the people utterly—I know the sound of their voices. A gentleman came in to see me the other day, who was so like the picture of Philip Firmin in Mr. Walker's charming drawings in the Cornhill Magazine that he was quite a curiosity 65 to me. The same eyes, beard, shoulders, just as you have seen them from month to month. Well, he is not like the Philip Firmin in my mind. Asleep, asleep in the grave, lies the bold, the generous, the reckless, the tender-hearted creature whom I have made to pass through those adventures which have just 70 been brought to an end. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing, or saw the bright blue eyes. When I knew him, both were young. I become young as I think of him. And this morning he was alive again in this room, ready to laugh, to fight, to weep. As I write, do you know, it is the gray of even-75 ing ; the house is quiet; everybody is out ; the room is getting a little dark; and I look rather wistfully up from the paper with perhaps ever so little fancy that HE MAY COME IN.—No? No movement. No gray shade, growing more palpable, out of which at last look the well-known eyes. No; the printer came and 80 took him away with the last page of the proofs. And with the printer's boy did the whole cortége of ghosts fit away, invisible?

LITERARY ANALYSIS.-55. Madmen, you know, etc. Analyze this sentence. 58. strait-waistcoats. Explain. 62. I know the people utterly. How is this general statement rendered em phatic by a specific instance of his knowledge ?

68. Asleep, etc. Point out the example of epizeuxis. (See Def. 85.)—How does the order of the words add to the vivacity of the sentence.-Arrange the sentence in the prose order

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