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appearance as a poet, he was quietly overlooked by the public, and was treated to more derision than criticism by the literary journals. When his popularity once struck root, it grew rapidly, and in a few years became an overshadowing fashion. Since the publication of his first Idylls of the King, it has been almost considered as a heresy, in England, to question the perfection of his poetry i even the sin of his art came to be regarded as its special virtue. The estimate of his performance rose into that extravagance which sooner or later provokes a reaction against itself. There are, at present, signs of the beginning of such a reaction, and we need not be surprised if (as in Byron's case) it should swing past the line of justice, and end by undervaluing, for a time, many of the poet's high and genuine qualities. This is the usual law of literary fame which has known such vicissitudes. Its vibrations, though lessened, continue until Time, the sure corrector of all aberrations of human judgment, determines its moveless place. And Tennyson's place in the literature of the English language, whatever may be its relation to that of the acknowledged masters of song, is sure to be high and permanent.

1.-ULYSSES. [INTRODUCTION.—This poem contains seventy as strong lines of blank verse as are to be found in the English language. It has been pronounced “the soul of all Homer.” Under the heroic form of the Homeric Ulysses, the poem symbolizes the passionate desire felt by all noble souls " to seek a newer world”

“To follow knowledge, like a sinking star,

Beyond the utmost bound of human thought.")
It little profits that, an idle king,
By this still hearth, among these barren crags,
Matched with an aged wife, I mete and dole
Unequal laws unto a savage race,
That hoard and sleep and feed and know not me.
I cannot rest from travel: I will drink
Life to the lees. All times I have enjoyed
Greatly, have suffered greatly, both with those
That loved me, and alone: on shore, and when
Through scudding drifts the rainy Hyades
Vexed the dim sea. I am become a name;
For, always roaming with a hungry heart,



NOTES. Ulysses. Ulysses, called his twenty years of adventurous

Odysseus ('Odvocevs) by the wanderings, and to have re-
Greeks, was one of the princi turned to the “barren crags
pal Greek heroes in the Trojan of the island of Ithaca, which
war. But the most celebrated he ruled.
part of his story consists of his 3. aged wife: that is, Penelope.
adventures after the destruction 10. Hyades, a cluster of five stars in
of Troy, which form the subject the face of the constellation
of the Homeric poem called, Taurus, supposed by the an-
after him, the Odyssey.

cients to indicate the approach 1, 2. idle king ... crags. Ulysses is of rainy weather when they rose here supposed to have finished

with the sun.

LITERARY ANALYSIS.-1-5. It ... me. Is the structure periodic or loose? What is the logical subject of the verb " profits,” of which “it” is the antici. pative subject ?

3. mete and dole. What is the distinction between these synonyms? 6, 7. will drink ... lees. What is the figure of speech?

II. Vexed, etc. What is the figure of speech ?-1 am become a name. Ex plain.

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Much have I seen and known-cities of men,
And manners, climates, councils, governments
(Myself not least, but honored of them all)
And drunk delight of battle with my peers
Far on the ringing plains of windy Troy.
I am a part of all that I have met;
Yet all experience is an arch wherethrough
Gleams that untravelled world whose margin fades
Forever and forever when I move.
How dull it is to pause, to make an end,
To rust unburnished, not to shine in use !
As though to breathe were life. Life piled on life
Were all too little, and of one to me
Little remains; but every hour is saved
From that eternal silence--something more,
A bringer of new things; and vile it were
For some three suns to store and hoard myself,
And this gray spirit yearning in desire
To follow knowledge, like a sinking star,
Beyond the utmost bound of human thought.

This is my son, mine own Telemachus,
To whom I leave the sceptre and the islem
Well-loved of me, discerning to fulfil
This labor, by slow prudence to make mild
A rugged people, and through soft degrees
Subdue them to the useful and the good.
Most blameless is he, centred in the sphere
Of common duties, decent not to fail
In offices of tenderness, and pay
Meet adoration to my household gods
When I am gone. He works his work, I mine.




LITERARY ANALYSIS.–18. I am a part, etc. Paraphrase this statement.

19-21. Yet all... move. What is the figure of speech ?-These three nobie lines should be committed to memory.

23. To rust unburnished, etc. On what is the figure founded ? 27. that eternal silence. For what word is this expression a periphrasis ? 30. spirit. What is the grammatical construction?

33-43. This is my son ... mine. Draw out in your own language the fine contrast of character between Ulysses and his son Telemachus.


There lies the port; the vessel puffs her sail; There gloom the dark broad seas. My mariners, 45 Souls that have toiled and wrought and thought with me, That ever with a frolic welcome took The thunder and the sunshine, and opposed Free hearts, free foreheads, you and I are old. Old age hath yet his honor and his toil. Death closes all ; but something ere the end, Some work of noble note, may yet be done, Not unbecoming men that strove with gods. The lights begin to twinkle from the rocks; The long day wanes ; the slow moon climbs; the deep 55 Moans round with many voices. Come, my friends, 'Tis not too late to seek a newer world. Push off, and, sitting well in order, smite The sounding furrows; for my purpose holds To sail beyond the sunset, and the baths Of all the western stars, until I die. It may be that the gulfs will wash us down ; It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles, And see the great Achilles, whom we knew. Though much is taken, much abides; and though 65 We are not now that strength which in old days Moved earth and heaven, that which we are, we are:

63. Happy Isles, the “Fortunate Isles,"

or Islands of the Blessed. The
early Greeks, as we learn from
Homer, placed the Elysian
Fields, into which the favored
heroes passed without dying, at
the extremity of the earth, near

the river Oceanus. In poems
later than Homer, an island is
spoken of as their abode, and is
placed by the poets beyond the
Pillars of Hercules. The name
“ Fortunate Isles” was after-
wards applied to the Canaries.

LITERARY ANALYSIS.—44-53. There lies ... gods. Of the words in these ten lines ten are of other than Anglo-Saxon origin. What are these words? What effect is gained by the use of so large a proportion of Anglo-Saxon words ?-Point out an instance of personification in this passage.

54-70. The lights ... yield. In this passage point out specially vigorous or picturesque words or expressions.-Point out an instance of metaphor.-Explain what is meant by the fine expression “the baths of all the western stars." - Note the strong staccato effect of the monosyllables in the last two lines.

One equal temper of heroic hearts,
Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will
To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield.

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11.-LOCKSLEY HALL. Comrades, leave me here a little, while as yet 'tis early morn; Leave me here, and when you want me, sound upon the bugle


'Tis the place, and all around it, as of old, the curlews call,
Dreary gleams about the moorland flying over Locksley Hall; 5
Locksley Hall, that in the distance overlooks the sandy tracts,
And the hollow ocean-ridges roaring into cataracts.
Many a night from yonder ivied casement, ere I went to rest,
Did I look on great Orion sloping slowly to the west.
Many a night I saw the Pleiads, rising through the mellow 10

Glitter like a swarm of fire-flies tangled in a silver braid.
Here about the beach I wandered, nourishing a youth sublime
With the fairy tales of science, and the long result of time;
When the centuries behind me like a fruitful land reposed;

15 When I clung to all the present for the promise that it closed : When I dipped into the future far as human eye could see; Saw the Vision of the world, and all the wonder that would be.

In the spring a fuller crimson comes upon the robin's breast;
In the spring the wanton lapwing gets himself another crest; 20

In the spring a livelier iris changes on the burnished dove; · In the spring a young man's fancy lightly turns to thoughts of

love. Then her cheek was pale and thinner than should be for one so

young, And her eyes on all my motions with a mute observance hung.

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