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fancy and sentiment with grotesque drollery and humor. Hood, under all his whims and oddities, conceals the vehement intensity of a reformer. The iron of the world's wrongs has entered into his soul. There is an undertone of sorrow in his lyrics. His sarcasm, directed against oppression and bigotry, at times betrays the earnestness of one whose own withers have been wrung. Holmes writes simply for the amusement of himself and his readers. He deals only with the vanities, the foibles, and the minor faults of mankind, good-naturedly and almost sympathizingly suggesting excuses for folly, which he tosses about on the horns of his ridicule. Long may he live to make broader the face of our care-ridden generation, and to realize for himself the truth of the wise man's declaration, that “a merry heart is a continual feast."




you heard of the wonderful one-hoss shay,
That was built in such a logical way
It ran a hundred years to a day?
And then, of a sudden, it-ah, but stay,
I'll tell you what happened, without delay, -
Scaring the parson into fits,
Frightening people out of their wits,
Have you ever heard of that, I say?


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LITERARY ANALYSIS.-I. one-hoss shay. It will be observed that a number of words and expressions in this piece belong to the Yankee dialect-if dialect we may venture to call it after Mr. Lowell's clever proof that many of these so-called provincialisms are really drawn from the "well of English undefiled.”

2. logical way. In what consists the drollery of the epithet?
4. And ... stay. Point out the example of aposiopesis. (See Def. 39.)

9-17. Seventeen ... shay. Observe the comical effect gained by associating the finishing of the one-horse shay with the occurrence of great historical events. Explain the allusions.—What metaphors in this stanza, and what is their nature?

That was the year when Lisbon town
Saw the earth open and gulp her down;
And Braddock's army was done so brown,
Left without a scalp to its crown.
It was on that terrible earthquake day
That the Deacon finished the one-hoss shay.



3. Now, in building of chaises, I tell you what,

There is always somewhere a weakest spot,-
In hub, tire, felloe, in spring or thill,
In panel or crossbar or floor or sill,
In screw, bolt, thoroughbrace,-lurking still,
Find it somewhere you must and will,-
Above or below, or within or without, -
And that's the reason, beyond a doubt,
A chaise breaks down, but doesn't wear out.



4. But the Deacon swore (as deacons do,

With an “I dew vum,” or an “I tell yeou”)
He would build one shay to beat the taown,
'n' the kaounty 'n' all the kentry raoun';
It should be so built that it couldn' break daown
"Fur," said the Deacon, "'t's mighty plain
Thut the weakes' place mus' stan’ the strain;
'n' the way t' fix it, uz I maintain,

Is only jest
T'make that place uz strong uz the rest."


5. So the Deacon inquired of the village folk

Where he could find the strongest oak,
That couldn't be split nor bent nor broke,-

LITERARY ANALYSIS.—18-26. Now ... out. How is droll emphasis given to the statement that in building chaises "there is always somewhere a weakest spot?”—doesn't. The poet is too exact a scholar to say don't.

27-36. But ... rest. This stanza affords a goodly study of “ Yankee" pronunciation and phraseology. (Pupils will do well to refer to Mr. Lowell's essay introductory to his Biglow Papers.)

37-57. So... dew! The clever handling of details will be observed. Pupils may point out touches that strike them as specially noticeable.

That was for spokes and floor and sills;
He sent for lancewood to make the thills;
The crossbars were ash, from the straightest trees;
The panels of white-wood, that cuts like cheese,
But lasts like iron for things like these;
The hubs of logs from the “settler's ellum,”—
Last of its timber, they couldn't sell 'em;
Never an axe had seen their chips,
And the wedges flew from between their lips,
Their blunt ends frizzled like celery-tips;
Step and prop-iron, bolt and screw,
Spring, tire, axle, and linchpin too,
Steel of the finest, bright and blue;
Thoroughbrace bison-skin, thick and wide;
Boot, top, dasher, from tough old hide,
Found in the pit when the tanner died.
That was the way he “put her through."

“There !” said the Deacon, “naow she'll dew!". 6. Do! I tell you, I rather guess

She was a wonder, and nothing less!
Colts grew horses, beards turned gray,
Deacon and deaconess dropped away,
Children and grandchildren, where were they?
But there stood the stout old one-hoss shay

As fresh as on Lisbon-earthquake day!
7. EIGHTEEN HUNDRED ;-it came and found

The Deacon's masterpiece strong and sound.
Eighteen hundred increased by ten;
“Hahnsum kerridge” they called it then.
Eighteen hundred and twenty came, -
Running as usual,-much the same.
Thirty and forty at last arrive,
And then come fifty and FIFTY-FIVE.

LITERARY ANALYSIS. -58–64. Do... day! In this stanza point out a socalled Yankeeism which is really good Elizabethan English.-What personification is made ?-By what details, skilfully introduced, is the lapse of time vividly suggested ?

66. strong and sound. Grammatical construction ?


8. Little of all we value here

Wakes on the morn of its hundredth year
Without both feeling and looking queer.
In fact, there's nothing that keeps its youth,
So far as I know, but a tree and truth.
(This is a moral that runs at large;
Take it.—You're welcome.—No extra charge.)


9. First of NoVEMBER—the earthquake day

There are traces of age in the one-hoss shay,
A general flavor of mild decay,
But nothing local, as one may say.
There couldn't be, for the Deacon's art
Had made it so like in every part
That there wasn't a chance for one to start.
For the wheels were just as strong as the thills,
And the floor was just as strong as the sills,
And the panels just as strong as the floor,
And the whippletree neither less nor more,
And the back crossbar as strong as the fore,
And spring and axle and hub encore.
And yet, as a whole, it is past a doubt,
In another hour it will be worn out!



10. First of November, fifty-five!

This morning the parson takes a drive.
Now, small boys, get out of the way!
Here comes the wonderful one-hoss shay,
Drawn by a rat-tailed, ewe-necked bay.
"Huddup !" said the parson.-Off went they.


LITERARY ANALYSIS.—73–79. Of the fifty-five words in stanza 8 only six are of other than Anglo-Saxon origin : what are these words ?-In this stanza point out a fine aphorism.

80-94. First ... out! What expression, reiterated in line 80, begins to grow very significant ?-What expression in this stanza finely describes the state of the chaise now ?—Point out the examples of polysyndeton : what is the effect of the use of this figure ?-Note the rhymes in lines 89-92.

95-118. First ... burst. In this stanza point out humorous touches and comical epithets. —Point out an effective simile.

The parson was working his Sunday's text, -
Had got to fifthly, and stopped perplexed
At what the-Moses—was coming next. '
All at once the horse stood still,
Close by the meet'n'-house on the hill.
First a shiver, and then a thrill,
Then something decidedly like a spill, -
And the parson was sitting upon a rock,
At half-past nine by the meet'n'-house clock,-
Just the hour of the earthquake shock!
What do you think the parson found,
When he got up and stared around ?
The poor old chaise in a heap or mound,
As if it had been to the mill and ground !
You see, of course, if you're not a dunce,
How it went to pieces all at once--
All at once, and nothing first-
Just as bubbles do when they burst.

11. End of the wonderful one-hoss shay.

Logic is logic. That's all I say.

II.—THE CHAMBERED NAUTILUS. 1. This is the ship of pearl, which, poets feign,

Sails the unshadowed main

The venturous bark that Alings
On the sweet summer wind its purpled wings
In gulfs enchanted, where the siren sings,

And coral reefs lie bare,
Where the cold sea-maids rise to sun their streaming hair.

2. Its webs of living gauze no more unfurl;

Wrecked is the ship of pearl !

And every chambered cell,
Where its dim dreaming life was wont to dwell,
As the frail tenant shaped its growing shell,

Before thee lies revealed-
Its irised ceiling rent, its sunless crypt unsealed !

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