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2. Upon this scene of desolation the sun shone with almost intolerable splendor, and all living nature seemed to have hidden itself from the rays, excepting the solitary figure which 10 moved through the fitting sand at a foot's pace, and appeared the sole breathing thing on the wide surface of the plain.
3. The dress of the rider and the accoutrements of his horse were peculiarly unfit for the traveller in such a country. A coat of linked mail, with long sleeves, plated gauntlets, and a steel breastplate had not been esteemed a sufficient weight of armor; there was, also, his triangular shield suspended round his neck, and his barred helmet of steel, over which he had a hood and collar of mail, which was drawn around the warrior's shoulders and throat, and filled up the vacancy between the hauberk and 20 the head-piece. His lower limbs were sheathed, like his body, in flexible mail, securing the legs and thighs, while the feet rested in plated shoes, which corresponded with the gauntlets.
4. A long, broad, straight-shaped, double-edged falchion, with a handle formed like a cross, corresponded with a stout poniard on 25 the other side. The knight also bore, secured to his saddle, with one end resting on his stirrup, the long steel-headed lance, his own proper weapon, which, as he rode, projected backwards, and displayed its little pennoncel, to dally with the faint breeze, or drop in the dead calm. To this cumbrous equipment must be 30 added a surcoat of embroidered cloth, much frayed and worn, which was thus far useful, that it excluded the burning rays of the sun from the armor, which they would otherwise have rendered intolerable to the wearer.
LITERARY ANALYSIS.–8–12. Upon ... plain. What kind of sentence grammatically?- Whi two synonymous verbs are used in this sentence?-By what touch does the author convey a vivid impression of the lifeless desolation of the desert ?-Of what statement in the sentence is the last member a repetition?
13-34. The dress ... wearer. In the description of costume Scott is always peculiarly at home. Observe the skilful manner in which the details are presented. --Give the meaning of the following terms (see Dictionary): "mail" (15); "helmet ” (18); "hauberk” (20) ; "falchion” (24); “ poniard” (25); "pennoncel” (29).
17. there was. What is the logical subject of "was?” Query as to the grammar.
5. The surcoat bore, in several places, the arms of the owner, 35 although much defaced. These seemed to be a couchant leopard, with the motto," I sleep-wake me not.” An outline of the same device might be traced on his shield, though many a blow had almost effaced the painting. The flat top of his cumbrous cylindrical helmet was unadorned with any crest. In retaining 40 their own unwieldy defensive armor, the northern crusaders seemed to set at defiance the nature of the climate and country to which they were come to war.
6. The accoutrements of the horse were scarcely less massive and unwieldy than those of the rider. The animal had a heavy 45 saddle plated with steel, uniting in front with a species of breastplate, and behind with defensive armor made to cover the loins. Then there was a steel axe, or hammer, called a mace-of-arms, and which hung to the saddle-bow; the reins were secured by chain work, and the front stall of the bridle was a steel plate, 50 with apertures for the eyes and nostrils, having in the midst a short, sharp pike, projecting from the forehead of the horse like the horn of the fabulous unicorn.
7. But habit had made the endurance of this load of panoply* a second nature, both to the knight and his gallant charger. 55 Numbers, indeed, of the western warriors who hurried to Palestine died ere they became inured to the burning climate ; but there were others to whom that climate became innocent, and even friendly, and among this fortunate number was the solitary horseman who now traversed the border of the Dead Sea.
8. Nature, which cast his limbs in a mould of uncommon strength, fitted to wear his linked hauberk with as much ease as if the meshes had been formed of cobwebs, had endowed him with a constitution as strong as his limbs, and which bade defi
LITERARY ANALYSIS. -35, 36. The surcoat ... defaced. Analyze this sentence.
37. with the motto. To what word is this phrase an adjunct ?
43. were come to war. Remark on the form "were come.”—What part of speech is “ war
here? 54-60. In paragraph 7, seventeen words are of classical origin : what are these words?
61-66. Nature ... kind. Point out a simile and a personification in this sentence.
ance to almost all changes of climate, as well as to fatigue and 63 privations of every kind. His disposition seemed, in some degree, to partake of the qualities of his bodily frame; and as the one possessed great strength and endurance, united with the power of violent exertion, the other, under a calm and undisturbed semblance, had much of the fiery and enthusiastic love of ro glory which constituted the principal attribute of the renowned Norman line, and had rendered them sovereigns in every corner of Europe where they had drawn their adventurous swords.
9. Nature had, however, her demands for refreshment and repose even on the iron frame and patient disposition of the Knight 75 of the Sleeping Leopard ; and at noon, when the Dead Sea lay at some distance on his right, he joyfully hailed the sight of two or three palm-trees, which arose beside the well which was assigned for his mid-day station. His good horse, too, which had plodded forward with the steady endurance of his master, now so lifted his head, expanded his nostrils, and quickened his pace, as if he snuffed afar off the living waters, which marked the place of repose and refreshment. But labor and danger were doomed to intervene ere the horse or horseman reached the desired spot.
10. As the Knight of the Couchant Leopard continued to fix 85 his eyes attentively on the yet distant cluster of palm-trees, it seemed to him as if some object was moving among them. The distant form separated itself from the trees, which partly hid its motions, and advanced towards the knight with a speed which soon showed a mounted horseman, whom his turban, long spear, oo and green caftan floating in the wind, on his nearer approach, proved to be a Saracen cavalier.* “In the desert," saith an Eastern proverb, “no man meets a friend.” The crusader. was totally indifferent whether the infidel, who now approached on his gallant barb
as if borne on the wings of an eagle, came as 95 friend or foe-perhaps, as a vowed champion of the cross, he
LITERARY ANALYSIS.—66-73. His ... swords. What kind of senter.ce is this rhetorically ?-Grammatically? Indicate the principal propositions. The subordinate propositions.-Explain “Norman line.”
74-84. What connective marks the transition to a new paragraph ?-In this sentence point out an epithet used figuratively.
94. the infidel. Explain the application of the word here.
might rather have preferred the latter. He disengaged his lance from his saddle, seized it with the right hand, placed it in rest with its point half elevated, gathered up the reins in the left, waked his horse's mettle with the spur, and prepared to 100 encounter the stranger with the calm self-confidence belonging to the victor in many contests.
11. The Saracen came on at the speedy gallop of an Arab horseman, managing his steed more by his limbs and the inflection of his body than by any use of the reins which hung loose 105 in his left hand; so that he was enabled to wield the light round buckler of the skin of the rhinoceros, ornamented with silver loops, which he wore on his arm, swinging it as if he meant to oppose its slender circle to the formidable thrust of the Western lance. His own long spear was not couched or lev- 110 elled like that of his antagonist, but grasped by the middle with his right hand, and brandished at arm's length above his head. As the cavalier approached his enemy at full career, he seemed to expect that the Knight of the Leopard would put his horse to the gallop to encounter him.
115 12. But the Christian knight, well acquainted with the customs of Eastern warriors, did not mean to exhaust his good horse by any unnecessary exertion ; and, on the contrary, made a dead halt, confident that if the enemy advanced to the actual shock, his own weight, and that of his powerful charger, would 120 give him sufficient advantage, without the additional momentum of rapid motion. Equally sensible and apprehensive of such a probable result, the Saracen cavalier, when he had approached towards the Christian within twice the length of his lance,
LITERARY ANALYSIS. — 97-102. He disengaged ... contests. Change this sentence by transforming the first and second members into adjective phrases.
103-115. Observe how, by a few vivid touches, the Saracenic horseman is brought before the mind's eye.
10g. its slender circle. What is the figure of speech? (See Def. 28.)
113. he. What noun does “he” represent? Is there any ambiguity in the reference? Would it not be better to repeat the noun ?
116-130. How many synonyms of "horse” are used in this paragraph ?
122-130. Equally . . . yards. In this sentence select the principal propositions (giving only the grammatical subjects and predicates), and observe the skilful manner in which the subordinate parts are introduced.
wheeled his steed to the left with inimitable dexterity, and rode 129 twice around his antagonist, who, turning without quitting his ground, and presenting his front constantly to his enemy, frustrated his attempts to attack him on an unguarded point ; so that the Saracen, wheeling his horse, was fain to retreat to the distance of a hundred yards.
130 13. A second time, like a hawk attacking a heron, the heathen renewed the charge, and a second time was fain to retreat without coming to a close struggle. A third time he approached in the same manner, when the Christian knight, desirous to terminate this illusory warfare, in which he might at length have been 135 worn out by the activity of his foeman, suddenly seized the mace which hung at his saddle-bow, and, with a strong hand and unerring aim, hurled it against the head of the emir ; for such, and not less, his enemy appeared.
14. The Saracen was just aware of the formidable missile in 140 time to interpose his light buckler betwixt the mace and his head; but the violence of the blow forced the buckler down on his turban, and though that defence also contributed to deaden its violence, the Saracen was beaten from his horse. Ere the Christian could avail himself of this mishap, his nimble foeman 145 sprang from the ground, and, calling on his steed, which instantly returned to his side, he leaped into his seat without touching the stirrup, and regained all the advantage of which the Knight of the Leopard had hoped to deprive him.
15. But the latter had in the meanwhile recovered his mace, 150 and the Eastern cavalier, who remembered the strength and dexterity with which his antagonist had aimed it, seemed to keep
LITERARY ANALYSIS.–131. like a hawk, etc. Point out the aptness of the simile.—the heathen. Of what word previously used is this a synonym ?
133-139. Substitute equivalent terms for the following italicized words and phrases : “A third time he approached in the same manner, when the Christian knight, desirous to terminate this illusory warfare, in which he might at length have been worn out by the activity of his foeman, suddenly seized the mace which hung at his saddle-bow, and, with a strong hand and unerring aim, hurled it against the head of the emir; for such, and not less, his enemy appeared.”
140. just. Place this word nearer the phrase it modifies.