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Antony. Yet hear me, countrymen ; yet hear me speak.
Citizens. Peace, ho! hear Antony ; most noble Antony.

Antony. Why, friends, you go to do you know not what.
Wherein hath Cæsar thus deserved your loves ?
Alas, you know not:-I must tell you, then.

245 You have forgot the will I told you of.

Citizens. Most true; the will !-let's stay, and hear the will.

Antony. Here is the will, and under Cæsar's seal.
To every Roman citizen he gives,
To every several man, seventy-five drachmas.

Second Citizen. Most noble Cæsar! We'll revenge his death.
Third Citizen. O royal Cæsar !
Antony. Hear me with patience.
All. Peace, ho !

Antony. Moreover, he hath left you all his walks,
His private arbors and new-planted orchards,
On this side Tiber-he hath left them you,
And to your heirs forever, common pleasures,
To walk abroad and recreate yourselves.
Here was a Cæsar! when comes such another ?

First Citizen. Never, never !-Come, away, away!
We'll burn his body in the holy place,
And with the brands fire the traitors' houses.
Take up the body.
Second Citizen. Go fetch fire.
Third Citizen. Pluck down benches.
Fourth Citizen. Pluck down forms, windows, anything.

[Exeunt Citizens with the body. Antony. Now let it work. Mischief, thou art afoot, Take thou what course thou wilt!




244. loves. The plural is here used to 250. seventy-five drachmas = thirteen or

indicate that the feeling was fourteen dollars of our money. shared severally by those ad. 259. to walk abroad: that is, to walk dressed.

abroad in. 246. have forgot. See note to line 62, 263. fire. The word “fire” is here “spoke."

I pronounced as a dissyllable.

LITERARY ANALYSIS.-266. Pluck down benches, etc. The incidents in the play of Julius Cæsar are largely taken from Plutarch's Lives. It is well known


[INTRODUCTION.—The Trial Scene forms the second scene, act iv., of the Merchant of Venice, first published in 1600. It has always been one of the most popular of Shakespeare's comedies, both with readers and audiences-a popularity justified by the fact that it stands in the first rank for the almost tragic interest of its main plot, for the variety and strongly marked discrimination of its characters, and for the sweetness, beauty, and grace that pervade it.] Scene-A Court of Justice. PresentThe Duke, the Magnificoes, ANTONIO, BAS


Duke. What, is Antonio here?
Antonio. Ready, so please your grace.

Duke. I am sorry for thee : thou art come to answer
A stony adversary, an inhuman wretch
Uncapable of pity, void and empty


dram of

mercy. Antonio.

I have heard
Your grace hath ta'en great pains to qualify
His rigorous course; but since he stands obdurate

From any

NOTES.—2. so please = if it so please. speare always uses of, as we do 5. Uncapable, incapable.

with void and empty. 5, 6. empty From.

Elsewhere Shake- 1 8. qualify, modify.

that Shakespeare used this work, for one of the few existing autographs of the great poet is found in a copy of Sir Thomas North's translation of Plutarch. The following passage from North's text will illustrate what Shakespeare had "to go on” in writing Julius Cæsar: “Afterwards, when Cæsar's body was brought into the market-place, Antonius making his funeral oration in praise of the dead, according to the ancient custom of Rome, and perceiving that his words moved the common people to compassion, he framed his eloquence to make their hearts yearn the more ; and, taking Cæsar's gown all bloody in his hand, he laid it open to the sight of them all, showing what a number of cuts and holes it had upon it. Therewithal the people fell presently into such a rage and mutiny that there was no more order kept amongst the common people. For some of them cried out, 'Kill the murtherers !' others plucked up forms, tables, and stalls about the market-place, and having laid them all on a heap together, they set them on fire, and thereupon did put the body of Cæsar, and burnt it in the midst of the most holy places. And, furthermore, when the fire was throughly kindled, some here, some there, took burning fire-brands, and ran with them to the murtherers houses that killed him, to set them on fire.”

And that no lawful means can carry me
Out of his envy's * reach, I do oppose
My patience to his fury, and am armed
To suffer, with a quietness of spirit,
The very tyranny and rage of his.

Duke. Go one, and call the Jew into court.
Salerio. He is ready at the door: he comes, my lord.



Enter ShylOCK.
Duke. Make room, and let him stand before our face.-
Shylock, the world thinks, and I think so too,
That thou but lead'st this fashion of thy malice
To the last hour of act; and then 'tis thought
Thou'lt show thy mercy and remorse* more strange
Than is thy strange apparent cruelty ;
And where thou now exact'st the penalty,
Which is a pound of this poor merchant's flesh,
Thou wilt not only loose the forfeiture,
But, touched with human gentleness and love,
Forgive a moiety* of the principal ;
Glancing an eye of pity on his losses,
That have of late so huddled on his back,
Enow to press a royal merchant down
And pluck commiseration of his state
From brassy bosoms and rough hearts of fint,
From stubborn Turks and Tartars, never trained
To offices of tender courtesy.
We all expect a gentle answer, Jew.

Shylock. I have possessed * your grace of what I purpose,
And by our holy Sabbath have I sworn
To have the due and forfeit of my bond.
If you deny it, let the danger light

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11. his envy's reach: that is, the reach 30. royal, a complimentary term to inof his malice.

dicate the wealth and power of 21. remorse, relenting.

Antonio. 23. where = whereas.

35. gentle. A pun on Gentile is meant 25. loose, release.

to be suggested. 30. Enow = enough.

| 36. possessed, informed.

Upon your charter and your city's freedom.
You'll ask me, why I rather choose to have
A weight of carrion flesh than to receive
Three thousand ducats. I'll not answer that ;
But, say it is my humor: is it answered ?
What if my house be troubled with a rat,
And I be pleased to give ten thousand ducats
To have it baned ?* What, are you answered yet?
Some men there are love not a gaping pig;
Some, that are mad if they behold a cat;
Some, when they hear the bagpipe : for affection,
Mistress of passion, sways it to the mood
Of what it likes or loathes. Now, for your answer:
As there is no firm reason to be rendered,
Why he cannot abide a gaping pig ;
Why he, a harmless necessary cat ;

: 55
Why he, a woollen bagpipe; but of force
Must yield to such inevitable shame
As to offend, himself being offended ;
So can I give no reason, nor I will not,
More than a lodged hate and a certain loathing
I bear Antonio, that I follow thus
A losing suit against him. Are you answered ?

Bassanio. This is no answer, thou unfeeling man,
T'excuse the current of thy cruelty.

Shylock. I am not bound to please thee with my answers. 05
Bassanio. Do all men kill the things they do not love?
Shylock. Hates any man the thing he would not kill ?
Bassanio. Every offence* is not a hate at first.
Shylock. What, wouldst thou have a serpent sting thee twice?..

44. But, say = but suppose; humor, | 54, 55, 56. he ... he... he: one, anwhim, caprice.

other, another. 47. baned, poisoned.

59. nor I will not. Observe the double 48. a gaping pig: that is, a pig's head negative, a common idiom in served up on the table.

Shakespeare's time. 50. affection. The word here signifies 61. that I follow = why I follow.

emotions produced through the 64. current, course.

senses by external objects. 68. offence. The word here means the 53. firm, sound.

state of being offended.

Antonio. I pray you, think you question with the Jew:
You may as well go stand upon the beach
And bid the main flood bate his usual height; -
You may as well use question with the wolf
Why he hath made the ewe bleat for the lamb;
You may as well forbid the mountain pines
To wag their high tops and to make no noise,
When they are fretten with the gusts of heaven;
You may as well do anything most hard,
As seek to soften that—than which what's harder ?-
His Jewish heart: therefore, I do beseech you,
Make no more offers, use no farther means,
But with all brief and plain conveniency
Let me have judgment and the Jew his will.

Bassanio. For thy three thousand ducats here is six.

Shylock. If every ducat in six thousand ducats
Were in six parts and every part a ducat,
I would not draw them—I would have my bond.

Duke. How shalt thou hope for mercy, rendering none ?
Shylock. What judgment shall I dread, doing no wrong?

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The pound of flesh, which I demand of him,
Is dearly bought; 'tis mine and I will have it.
If you deny me, fie upon your law !
There is no force in the decrees of Venice.
I stand for judgment: answer; shall I have it?

Duke. Upon my power I may dismiss this court,
Unless Bellario, a learned doctor,
Whom I have sent for to determine this,
Come here to-day.

70. think you question: that is, remem-1 certain Polish monarch, might ber that you are arguing.

claim to be a king above gram72. main Hood, high tide ; bate, abate. mar (rex super grammaticam). 76. to make no noise. As this phrase 77. fretten, fretted ; that is, shaken.

also is under the government 83. judgment. The word is here used
of “forbid,” it expresses just in its legal sense of sentence.
the opposite of what is meant, 95. Upon my power = on my authori.
and is, therefore, a grammatical ty.
slip; but Shakespeare, like a 97. determine, decide.

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