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Second Citizen. They were villains, murderers. The will! Read
the will !
[He comes down.
Antony. If you have tears, prepare to shed them now.
172. Stand from = stand away from. | 186. As rushing = as if rushing. 175. bear back = get farther back. 188. Cæsar's angel: that is, was as in180. the Nervil, a warlike tribe of Gaul, separable from him as his guar
whom Cæsar defeated in one of dian angel. Craik understands his most closely contested and it as “simply his best beloved, decisive battles, B.C. 57.
LITERARY ANALYSIS.-178. The first time ever. Supply the relative.
180. That day. What is the grammatical construction of “day?" Swinton's New English Grammar, $ 105, ix. and note.)
This was the most unkindest cut of all;
First Citizen. ( piteous spectacle !
Citizens. Revenge-about-seek-burn-fire-kill-slay,-let not a traitor live!
Antony. Stay, countrymen.
Second Citizen. We'll hear him, we'll follow him, we'll die with 215 him. 195. statuë. The word is here pro- | 201. dint, impression, emotion.
nounced as a trisyllable. I 204. marred with, mangled by.
LITERARY ANALYSIS.Give the etymology of “statuë” (195); of " dint” (201).
187. or no. What adverb would now be used ?
190. most unkindest. This is not to be flippantly condemned as a pleonasm; for, though contrary to modern usage, the doubling of comparatives and superlatives was a common idiom in Shakespeare's time : thus we have the expressions “more elder," "more better," “most boldest,” “most worst," etc., the adverbs being intensive.
211. Revenge ... slay. Supply the ellipsis.
215. We'll hear ... die. Point out the figure. (See Def. 33.) What is the effect of repeating “we'll?”
Antony. Good friends, sweet friends, let me not stir you up
220. griefs, grievances.
228. wit, intellectual power.
LITERARY ANALYSIS. — 217-237. In this speech of twenty-one lines (one hundred and eighty-three words), only fourteen words-proper names excepted
-are of other than Anglo-Saxon origin. (See Def. 49, i.) Point out these ex. ceptions. Why does Shakespeare here use so large a proportion of native words ?-Point out an example of alliteration (see Def. 37) in this speech.
218. such a sudden flood of mutiny. From what is the metaphor taken? 221, 222. they're wise ... answer you. What three words are used ironically? 223. to steal away your hearts. Change this into plain language.
224-230. What do you suppose to be Antony's purpose in seeking to make the audience think he was “no orator?”
228. wit. How does “ wit” as here used differ from its modern meaning ? 230. To stir men's blood. Change into plain language. 235. Would ruffle up your spirits. Explain this expression. 236, 237. should move The stones, etc. What figure of speech? (See Def. 34.) 240. conspirators. Give the etymology of this word.
Antony. Yet hear me, countrymen ; yet hear me speak.
Antony. Why, friends, you go to do you know not what.
245 You have forgot the will I told you of.
Citizens. Most true; the will !-let's stay, and hear the will.
Antony. Here is the will, and under Cæsar's seal.
Second Citizen. Most noble Cæsar! We'll revenge his death.
Antony. Moreover, he hath left you all his walks,
First Citizen. Never, never !-Come, away, away!
[Exeunt Citizens with the body. Antony. Now let it work. Mischief, thou art afoot, Take thou what course thou wilt!
244. loves. The plural is here used to 250. seventy-five drachmas = thirteen or
indicate that the feeling was fourteen dollars of our money. shared severally by those ad. 259. to walk abroad: that is, to walk dressed.
abroad in. 246. have forgot. See note to line 62, 263. fire. The word “fire” is here “spoke."
I pronounced as a dissyllable.
LITERARY ANALYSIS.-266. Pluck down benches, etc. The incidents in the play of Julius Cæsar are largely taken from Plutarch's Lives. It is well known
II.—TRIAL SCENE FROM THE MERCHANT OF VENICE.
[INTRODUCTION.—The Trial Scene forms the second scene, act iv., of the Merchant of Venice, first published in 1600. It has always been one of the most popular of Shakespeare's comedies, both with readers and audiences-a popularity justified by the fact that it stands in the first rank for the almost tragic interest of its main plot, for the variety and strongly marked discrimination of its characters, and for the sweetness, beauty, and grace that pervade it.) Scene-A Court of Justice. Present — The Duke, the Magnificoes, Antonio, BAS
SANIO, GRATIANO, SALERIO, and others.
Duke. What, is Antonio here?
Duke. I am sorry for thee: thou art come to answer
I have heard
NOTES.—2. so please = if it so please. speare always uses of, as we do 5. Uneapable, incapable.
with void and empty. 5, 6. empty From. Elsewhere Shake. 1 8. qualify, modify,
that Shakespeare used this work, for one of the few existing autographs of the great poet is found in a copy of Sir Thomas North's translation of Plutarch. The following passage from North's text will illustrate what Shakespeare had "to go on ” in writing Julius Cæsar: “Afterwards, when Cæsar's body was brought into the market-place, Antonius making his funeral oration in praise of the dead, according to the ancient custom of Rome, and perceiving that his words moved the common people to compassion, he framed his eloquence to make their hearts yearn the more ; and, taking Cæsar's gown all bloody in his hand, he laid it open to the sight of them all, showing what a number of cuts and holes it had upon it. Therewithal the people fell presently into such a rage and mutiny that there was no more order kept amongst the common people. For some of them cried out, “Kill the murtherers !' others plucked up forms, tables, and stalls about the market-place, and having laid them all on a heap together, they set them on fire, and thereupon did put the body of Cæsar, and burnt it in the midst of the most holy places. And, furthermore, when the fire was throughly kindled, some here, some there, took burning fire-brands, and ran with them to the murtherers houses that killed him, to set them on fire."