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Second Citizen. They were villains, murderers. The will! Read

the will !
Antony. You will compel me, then, to read the will ?
Then make a ring about the corpse of Cæsar,
And let me show you him that made the will.
Shall I descend? And will you give me leave ?
Citizens. Come down.

[He comes down.
Second Citizen. Descend.
Third Citizen. You shall have leave.
Fourth Citizen. A ring! stand round.
First Citizen. Stand from the hearse ; stand from the body.
Second Citizen. Room for Antony !—most noble Antony !
Antony. Nay, press not so upon me; stand far off.
Several Citizens. Stand back! room! bear back!

Antony. If you have tears, prepare to shed them now.
You all do know this mantle: I remember
The first time ever Cæsar put it on;
'Twas on a summer's evening, in his tent,
That day he overcame the Nervii.
Look! in this place ran Cassius' dagger through.
See what a rent the envious Casca made !
Through this the well-beloved Brutus stabbed;
And as he plucked his curséd steel away,
Mark how the blood of Cæsar followed it,

As rushing out of doors, to be resolved
If Brutus so unkindly knocked, or, no ;
For Brutus, as you know, was Cæsar's angel:
Judge, O you gods, how dearly Cæsar loved him!



172. Stand from = stand away from. | 186. As rushing = as if rushing. 175. bear back = get farther back. 188. Cæsar's angel: that is, was as in180. the Nervil, a warlike tribe of Gaul, separable from him as his guar

whom Cæsar defeated in one of dian angel. Craik understands his most closely contested and it as “simply his best beloved, decisive battles, B.C. 57.

his darling."-ROLFE.

LITERARY ANALYSIS.-178. The first time ever. Supply the relative.

180. That day. What is the grammatical construction of “day?" Swinton's New English Grammar, $ 105, ix. and note.)





This was the most unkindest cut of all;
For when the noble Cæsar saw him stab,
Ingratitude, more strong than traitors' arms,
Quite vanquished him. Then burst his mighty heart;
And in his mantle muffling up his face,
Even at the base of Pompey's statuë,*
Which all the while ran blood, great Cæsar fell.
O, what a fall was there, my countrymen !
Then I, and you, and all of us fell down,
Whilst bloody treason flourished over us.
O, now you weep, and I perceive you feel
The dint* of pity : these are gracious drops.
Kind souls, what weep you when you but behold
Our Cæsar's vesture wounded ? Look you here,
Here is himself, marred, as you see, with traitors.

First Citizen. ( piteous spectacle !
Second Citizen. O noble Cæsar !
Third Citizen. O woful day!
Fourth Citizen. O traitors, villains !
First Citizen. O most bloody sight !
Second Citizen. We will be revenged.

Citizens. Revenge-about-seek-burn-fire-kill-slay,-let not a traitor live!

Antony. Stay, countrymen.
First Citizen. Peace there ! hear the noble Antony.

Second Citizen. We'll hear him, we'll follow him, we'll die with 215 him. 195. statuë. The word is here pro- | 201. dint, impression, emotion.

nounced as a trisyllable. I 204. marred with, mangled by.



LITERARY ANALYSIS.Give the etymology of “statuë” (195); of " dint” (201).

187. or no. What adverb would now be used ?

190. most unkindest. This is not to be flippantly condemned as a pleonasm; for, though contrary to modern usage, the doubling of comparatives and superlatives was a common idiom in Shakespeare's time : thus we have the expressions “more elder," "more better," “most boldest,” “most worst," etc., the adverbs being intensive.

211. Revenge ... slay. Supply the ellipsis.

215. We'll hear ... die. Point out the figure. (See Def. 33.) What is the effect of repeating “we'll?”



Antony. Good friends, sweet friends, let me not stir you up
To such a sudden flood of mutiny.
They that have done this deed are honorable :
What private griefs they have, alas, I know not,
That made them do't; they're wise and honorable,
And will, no doubt, with reasons answer you.
I come not, friends, to steal away your hearts :
I am no orator, as Brutus is;
But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man,
That love my friend; and that they know full well
That gave me public leave to speak of him.
For I have neither wit,* nor words, nor worth,
Action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech,
To stir men's blood : I only speak right on;
I tell you that which you yourselves do know;
Show you sweet Cæsar's wounds, poor, poor dumb mouths,
And bid them speak for me: but were I Brutus,
And Brutus Aritony, there were an Antony
Would ruffle up your spirits, and put a tongue
In every wound of Cæsar, that should move
The stones of Rome to rise and mutiny.
Citizens. We'll mutiny.
First Citizen. We'll burn the house of Brutus.
Third Citizen. Away, then ! come, seek the conspirators.*




220. griefs, grievances.

228. wit, intellectual power.

LITERARY ANALYSIS. — 217-237. In this speech of twenty-one lines (one hundred and eighty-three words), only fourteen words-proper names excepted

-are of other than Anglo-Saxon origin. (See Def. 49, i.) Point out these ex. ceptions. Why does Shakespeare here use so large a proportion of native words ?-Point out an example of alliteration (see Def. 37) in this speech.

218. such a sudden flood of mutiny. From what is the metaphor taken? 221, 222. they're wise ... answer you. What three words are used ironically? 223. to steal away your hearts. Change this into plain language.

224-230. What do you suppose to be Antony's purpose in seeking to make the audience think he was “no orator?”

228. wit. How does “ wit” as here used differ from its modern meaning ? 230. To stir men's blood. Change into plain language. 235. Would ruffle up your spirits. Explain this expression. 236, 237. should move The stones, etc. What figure of speech? (See Def. 34.) 240. conspirators. Give the etymology of this word.



Antony. Yet hear me, countrymen ; yet hear me speak.
Citizens. Peace, ho! hear Antony ; most noble Antony.

Antony. Why, friends, you go to do you know not what.
Wherein hath Cæsar thus deserved your loves ?
Alas, you know not:-I must tell you, then.

245 You have forgot the will I told you of.

Citizens. Most true; the will !-let's stay, and hear the will.

Antony. Here is the will, and under Cæsar's seal.
To every Roman citizen he gives,
To every several man, seventy-five drachmas.

Second Citizen. Most noble Cæsar! We'll revenge his death.
Third Citizen. O royal Cæsar !
Antony. Hear me with patience.
All. Peace, ho !

Antony. Moreover, he hath left you all his walks,
His private arbors and new-planted orchards,
On this side Tiber-he hath left them you,
And to your heirs forever, common pleasures,
To walk abroad and recreate yourselves.
Here was a Cæsar! when comes such another ?

First Citizen. Never, never !-Come, away, away!
We'll burn his body in the holy place,
And with the brands fire the traitors' houses.
Take up the body.
Second Citizen. Go fetch fire.
Third Citizen. Pluck down benches.
Fourth Citizen. Pluck down forms, windows, anything.

[Exeunt Citizens with the body. Antony. Now let it work. Mischief, thou art afoot, Take thou what course thou wilt!




244. loves. The plural is here used to 250. seventy-five drachmas = thirteen or

indicate that the feeling was fourteen dollars of our money. shared severally by those ad. 259. to walk abroad: that is, to walk dressed.

abroad in. 246. have forgot. See note to line 62, 263. fire. The word “fire” is here “spoke."

I pronounced as a dissyllable.

LITERARY ANALYSIS.-266. Pluck down benches, etc. The incidents in the play of Julius Cæsar are largely taken from Plutarch's Lives. It is well known


[INTRODUCTION.—The Trial Scene forms the second scene, act iv., of the Merchant of Venice, first published in 1600. It has always been one of the most popular of Shakespeare's comedies, both with readers and audiences-a popularity justified by the fact that it stands in the first rank for the almost tragic interest of its main plot, for the variety and strongly marked discrimination of its characters, and for the sweetness, beauty, and grace that pervade it.) Scene-A Court of Justice. Present — The Duke, the Magnificoes, Antonio, BAS



Duke. What, is Antonio here?
Antonio. Ready, so please your grace.

Duke. I am sorry for thee: thou art come to answer
A stony adversary, an inhuman wretch
Uncapable of pity, void and empty
From any dram of mercy.

I have heard
Your grace hath ta'en great pains to qualify
His rigorous course; but since he stands obdurate

NOTES.—2. so please = if it so please. speare always uses of, as we do 5. Uneapable, incapable.

with void and empty. 5, 6. empty From. Elsewhere Shake. 1 8. qualify, modify,

that Shakespeare used this work, for one of the few existing autographs of the great poet is found in a copy of Sir Thomas North's translation of Plutarch. The following passage from North's text will illustrate what Shakespeare had "to go on ” in writing Julius Cæsar: “Afterwards, when Cæsar's body was brought into the market-place, Antonius making his funeral oration in praise of the dead, according to the ancient custom of Rome, and perceiving that his words moved the common people to compassion, he framed his eloquence to make their hearts yearn the more ; and, taking Cæsar's gown all bloody in his hand, he laid it open to the sight of them all, showing what a number of cuts and holes it had upon it. Therewithal the people fell presently into such a rage and mutiny that there was no more order kept amongst the common people. For some of them cried out, “Kill the murtherers !' others plucked up forms, tables, and stalls about the market-place, and having laid them all on a heap together, they set them on fire, and thereupon did put the body of Cæsar, and burnt it in the midst of the most holy places. And, furthermore, when the fire was throughly kindled, some here, some there, took burning fire-brands, and ran with them to the murtherers houses that killed him, to set them on fire."

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