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First Citizen. I will hear Brutus speak.

Second Citizen. I will hear Cassius; and compare their reasons, to When severally we hear them renderéd.

[Exit* Cassius, with some of the Citizens. Brutus goes into the

pulpit.] Third Citizen. The noble Brutus is ascended : silence !

Brutus. Be patient till the last. Romans, countrymen, and lovers ! hear me for my cause, and be silent, that you may hear; believe me for mine honor, and have respect to mine honor, that you may believe; censure your wisdom, and awake your senses, that you may the better judge. If there be any in this assembly, any dear friend of Cæsar's, to him I say that Brutus’ love to Cæsar was no less than his. If then that friend demand why Brutus rose against 20 Cæsar, this is my answer: Not that I loved Cæsar less, but that I loved Rome more. Had you rather Cæsar were living, and die all slaves, than that Cæsar were dead, to live all free men? As Cæsar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honor him: but, as 25

me in

10. and compare: that is, and let us speare's time (as also long aftercompare.

wards) the compound tenses of (The“ pulpit” here means the ele verbs of motion were general

vated platform called rostrum, ly formed with the auxiliary to from which orators addressed be, and not as now with to have. the people.]

14. lovers, friends. 12. is ascended. We should now use the 16. censure me: that is, judge me, form

auxiliary has; but in Shake an opinion of me.

LITERARY ANALYSIS.–10. and compare. Supply the ellipsis.

14-32. Romans, countrymen ... reply. Is the speech of Brutus that of one who is convinced of the justice of his cause? Does it, at the same time show that he deemed that it would require an effort to convince others of it? Hence what is the tenor of the speech-argumentative or emotional? May this account for its being in prose?

14-18. Romans ... judge. Show the corresponding parts in this balanced sentence. (See Def. 58, 11.) What words are effectively repeated? What synonym is used for “censure ?”

24-26. As Cæsar ... him. What is the figure of speech in this sentence? See Def. 88.) What subsequent sentence has the same figure?

he was ambitious,* I slew him. There is tears for his love ; joy for his fortune ; honor for his valor ; and death for his ambition. Who is here so base that would be a bondman? If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so rude * that would not be a Roman? If any, speak; for him have I 30 offended. Who is here so vile that will not love his country? If any, speak; for him have I offended. I pause for a reply.

All. None, Brutus, none.

Brutus. Then none have I offended. I have done no more to Cæsar than you shall do to Brutus. The question of his 35 death is enrolled in the Capitol ; his glory not extenuated * wherein he was worthy, nor his offences enforced for which he suffered death.

Enter Antony and others, with CÆSAR's body. Here comes his body, mourned by Mark Antony: who, though he had no hand in his death, shall receive the benefit of his dy- 40 ing, a place in the commonwealth ; as which of you shall not? With this I depart—that, as I slew my best lover for the good

29. rude, barbarous.

insinuates that they had been 35, 36. The question . . . enrolled = the deprived of their independence

matter of his death (as far as under the tyranny of Cæsar, but calling for official explanation) that now they should have their is registered.

full rights, their “place in the 37. enforced, overstated, exaggerated.

commonwealth.” 41. as which of you, etc. Brutus here 42. my best lover = him I loved best.

LITERARY ANALYSIS.—26. ambitious. What is the literal meaning of this word ?-There is. The construction “there is ” followed by a plural or by several subjects occurs frequently in Shakespeare, but it is not authorized by modern grammatical rule.

29–32. Who is here ... offended. Suppose these three interrogatories had been united in one, would they have been as effective as they are now? Try this arrangement and compare.

30. him have I, etc. Is this the direct or the rhetorical order? (See Def. 46.) What is the result?

[Give the derivation of “censure” (16); how does its Shakespearian differ from its modern meaning ? Etymology of “rude” (29)? Of “extenuate" (36) ?)



of Rome, I have the same dagger for myself when it shall please my country to need my death.

All. Live, Brutus ! live, live!
First Citizen. Bring him with triumph home unto his house.
Second Citizen. Give him a statue with his ancestors.
Third Citizen. Let him be Cæsar.
Fourth Citizen,

Cæsar's better parts
Shall be crowned in Brutus.
First Citizen. We'll bring him to his house with shouts and

clamors. Brutus. My countrymen, — Second Citizen.

Peace, silence! Brutus speaks. First Citizen. Peace, ho !

Brutus, Good countrymen, let me depart alone,
And for my sake stay here with Antony.
Do grace to Cæsar's corpse,* and grace his speech
Tending to Cæsar's glories, which Mark Antony,
By our permission, is allowed to make.
I do entreat you, not a man depart,
Save I alone, till Antony have spoke.




47. a statue, etc. Brutus (Marcus Ju. thus ended kingly rule in

nius) was reputed to be a de Rome.
scendant of the elder Brutus 58. Do grace = do honor.
(Lucius Junius, about 500 B.C.), 61. not ... depart: that is, let not a
who expelled Tarquin, and | man depart.

LITERARY ANALYSIS.–43. I have the same dagger, etc. From what does the energy of this expression arise? (See Def. 62, ii.) Suppose a general instead of a specific term had been used – thus, “ As I slew my best lover for the good of Rome, so I am prepared to meet the same fate,” etc.—would the expression be as energetic ?-Did Brutus actually put an end to his life? Under what circumstances ? (Consult Roman History.)

58. corpse. Give the derivation of this word, and explain its meaning. What was the form of the word in Shakspeare's time? (See Glossary.) What is another modern form of this word ?

62. Save I alone. This is an irregular construction, since "save," whether regarded as a verb imperative (which it is in origin) or as a preposition (which it is in use), requires its object in the objective case.'-spoke, curtailed form (common in Shakespeare) for spoken.

· Abbott (Shakespearian Grammar, p. 81) suggests that "save seems to be used for savedI being the nominative absolute.

First Citizen. Stay, ho! and let us hear Mark Antony.

Third Citizen. Let him go up into the public chair ; We'll hear him.-Noble Antony, go up.

65 Antony. For Brutus' sake, I am beholding* to you. [Goes up. Fourth Citizen. What does he say of Brutus ? Third Citizen.

He says, for Brutus' sake, He finds himself beholding to us all.

Fourth Citizen. 'Twere best he speak no harm of Brutus here. 70
First Citizen. This Cæsar was a tyrant.
Third Citizen.

Nay, that's certain : We're blessed that Rome is rid of him.

Third Citizen. Peace ! let us hear what Antony can say.
Antony. You gentle Romans-

Peace, ho! let us hear him.
Antony. Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears :
I come to bury Cæsar, not to praise him.
The evil that men do lives after them,
The good is oft interréd * with their bones;
So let it be with Cæsar. The noble Brutus
Hath told you Cæsar was ambitious.
If it were so, it was a grievous fault,-

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64. public chair: that is, the "pulpit,” | 81. So let it be with Cæsar: that is, let

or rostrum, from which Brutus his goodness be buried with had spoken.

him, and not made the theme 66. beholding, beholden, obliged.

of my praise.

LITERARY ANALYSIS. — 77. Friends, Romans, etc. In this speech, the aim of Antony (unlike that of Brutus) was to move the feelings of his audience. But it was necessary for him to do so covertly; for when he obtained permission to speak, he was, by Brutus, placed under this limitation

"You shall not in your funeral speech blame us." Considering the delicacy of the task, what do you think of the speech? Give reasons for your opinion.

77. lend mo your ears. What figure of speech? (See Def. 29.) Change into plain language.

78. I come to bury Cæsar, etc. What figure of speech? (See Def. 18.)

79, 80. lives ... is interred. What is the figure of speech? (See Def. 18.) Give the derivation of inter.




And grievously hath Cæsar answered it.
Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest
For Brutus is an honorable man;
So are they all, all honorable men-
Come I to speak in Cæsar's funeral.
He was my friend, faithful and just to me:
But Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honorable man.
He hath brought many captives home to Rome,
Whose ransoms did the general coffers * fill :
Did this in Cæsar seem ambitious ?
When that the poor have cried, Cæsar hath wept:
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff.
Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honorable man.
You all did see that on the Lupercal
I thrice presented him a kingly crown,
Which he did thrice refuse. Was this ambition ?
Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And, sure, he is an honorable man.
I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke,
But here I am to speak what I do know.
You all did love him once, not without cause ;
What cause withholds you, then, to mourn for him?
O judgment, thou art fled to brutish beasts,
And men have lost their reason !-Bear with me;



84. answered it: that is, answered for

it, atoned for it. 88. in, at. 93. general coffers, the public treasury. 99. on the Lupercal. The festival of the

Lupercalia, one of the most an

cient Roman festivals, was held every year on the 15th of February in the Lupercal, a cave or grotto where Romulus and Remus were said to have been nurtured by the she-wolf.

LITERARY ANALYSIS.–86. honorable. What is the figure of speech? (See Def. 26.) Point out subsequent uses of the word, and show how the irony increases.

94. Did this, etc. What is the effect of using the interrogative form here? Point out another instance of its use in the same speech.

108. Remark on the expression “brutish beasts."

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