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and rocky. The highest elevation is about 1,200 feet. The coast of Malta is indented. There are no rivers, but water from springs is abundant. The climate is hot.

OCCUPATIONS OF THE PEOPLE. The agriculture is good, notwithstanding the sterility of the soil. There is good pasturage for sheep and asses, which abound in these islands. Cotton, corn, the vine, olive, oranges, figs, and other southern fruits are grown. There are some manufactures, as jewellery. The commerce is important. Valetta is the chief port. Many of the people are engaged in the fisheries on the coast.

PRODUCTIONS. These are chiefly agricultural, as named under the preceding head.

HISTORY. Malta has belonged to the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks, Romans, and barbarians. In the sixteenth century it came into the hands of Charles V., Emperor of Germany, who ceded it to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, after they had been expelled from Rhodes by the Turks. In 1798 it was treacherously delivered into the hands of the French, who retained possession till 1800, when it was captured by the English. Their right to it was confirmed by the treaty of 1814.

TOWNS. (1) Valetta, the capital. Population, 60,000. Chief port, with very fine harbour. Very strongly fortified. (2) Civita Vecchia, or Medina, in the centre of Malta, is the ancient capital. It contains a cathedral and the ancient palace of the knights of St. John. (3) Rabato, in Gozo, has a strong castle.

MISCELLANEOUS. These islands are very important on account of their central position in the Mediterranean. Valetta is one of the most important stations of the English navy. Vessels generally stop here on the voyage between England and India. It is on the Island of Malta that St. Paul is supposed to have been shipwrecked. An inlet to the N.W. of Valetta bears the name of St. Paul's Bay.


SITUATION. These islands are situated near the north coast of France, in the English Channel, at distances from 60 to 90 miles from England.

EXTENT. The principal islands are the following :-Jersey, area, 62 square miles; Guernsey, 24 square miles; Alderney, 4 square miles; Sark, 5 square miles; Herm, Jethou.

POPULATION. Jersey, 57,000; Guernsey, 32,000; Alderney, 3,000; Sark, 600. The people are mostly of French origin, and speak a dialect of the French language.

PHYSICAL FEATURES. These islands are rocky. The coasts are indented, and present bold cliffs to the sea. They are surrounded with rocks, many of which lie under high-water mark and render navigation very dangerous. The climate is very equable. There is much fertile land, especially in Jersey. These islands are celebrated for their beautiful scenery, which attracts many tourists from England and France.

OCCUPATIONS OF THE PEOPLE. Agriculture, commerce, and fishing.

PRODUCTIONS. Jersey produces cows, grapes, apples, pears, and potatoes. Alderney cows are very famous. Guernsey exports turbot and other fish, grapes, pears, potatoes, and


HISTORY. These islands are the last remains of our Norman possessions, and have been connected with England since the accession of William I., in 1066.

TOWNS. (1) St. Helier's, capital of Jersey. Population, 30,000. It is a well-built town, strongly fortified, and having a considerable trade, chiefly with England. (2) St. Peter's Port, capital of Guernsey. Population, 16,000. The chief port of Guernsey. Strongly fortified. (3) St. Aubin's (in Jersey), on the shores of a beautiful bay.


Jersey and Guernsey have each its

own laws and government. Each has also a separate system of coins, weights, and measures. Numerous steamers ply from Southampton and Weymouth to Jersey and Guernsey. The English Government has expended vast sums in endeavouring to construct a harbour of refuge at Alderney, but without much success. The Channel Islands have telegraphic communication with England.



SITUATION. Cyprus is situated in the Levant, or Eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. It is at the distance of about 60 miles from Asia Minor.

EXTENT. Cyprus is the third in size of the islands in the Mediterranean Sea, being next in area to Sardinia and Corsica. Its length is about 165 miles. Its greatest breadth is about 60 miles. Its area is upwards of 4,000 square miles.

POPULATION. About 150,000. The population has greatly diminished under Turkish rule. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, when occupied by the Venetians, it is said to have contained a million of inhabitants.

PHYSICAL FEATURES. The coast is extensive, and there are many capes. The north-eastern point is called Cape Andrea. The southern point is Cape Gata, and the Western Cape Arnanti. The principal Bays are those of Famagusta and Morphon. There is a want of good harbours. The Island is somewhat mountainous. The greatest height is Mount Troodos (in the range formerly called Olympus) nearly 7,000 feet high. The largest river is the Pedia, which flows into Famagusta Bay. The climate is variable, very hot in summer, and cold in winter.

PRODUCTIONS. Cyprus is supposed to contain considerable mineral wealth. Its copper mines were once celebrated. Mining is now not carried on. Salt is abundant. Its vegetable productions are corn, cotton, silk, tobacco, and fruits. A considerable quantity of wine is made.

HISTORY. Cyprus has been held by various nations; Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Venetians, Turks. It was captured and held for a short time by Richard I. of England, when on his way to the Crusades, 1190. It was taken from the Venetians by the Turks in 1571, and was held by them till 1878, when it was ceded to England, to be occupied by English troops under certain conditions.

TOWNS. (1) Nikosia, in the centre of the island, the capital. Population, about 16,000. (2) Larnaka, in the south-east, the chief port. (3) Famagusta, a small port on the east coast, once the seat of great trade with the Venetians. (4) Limasol, in the south, a port with considerable trade, especially in wine. Here Richard I. married Berengaria, daughter of the King of Navarre. (5) Baffo, or Papho, is the site of the ancient Paphos, visited by St. Paul (Acts xiii. 6).

MISCELLANEOUS. Cyprus has been reduced to a miserable condition by Turkish misrule. Its connection with England, which will probably prove permanent, is likely to raise it again to something of its former prosperity.


Aden is a small peninsula in Arabia, near the southern entrance of the Red Sea. The area of this small possession is about 20 square miles. The population is about 22,000. The town is very strongly fortified, and is of great importance as a military, naval, and coaling station on the direct route to India. The harbour is a very good one. Aden was purchased from the Sultan of Aden in 1837.

At the distance of 90 miles is the Island of Perim, in the

Straits of Babel-Mandeb, occupied in 1859. A lighthouse has been built on this island, and fortifications erected.

The Curia Muria Islands, to the east of Aden, on the south coast of Arabia, were ceded to England by the Sultan of Muscat in 1854. Large quantities of guano are obtained from them.




North, by the Himalaya Mountains.
North-west, by the Soliman Mountains.
West, by the Indian Ocean (Arabian Sea).

East, by the Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal).

EXTENT. Hindostan consists chiefly of an immense peninsula of triangular form, terminating at Cape Comorin in the south.

Length, about 2,000 miles.

Breadth, about 1,500 miles.

Area, about 1,500,000 square miles (including area of Dependent States).

COAST. The greater part of the coast is regular. Its length is about 3,600 miles. The only large inlets are the Gulfs of Cutch and Cambay on the west. The coast is much broken up in the north-east by the numerous mouths of the Ganges. The southern part of the east coast is called the Coromandel Coast.

The southern part of the west coast s called the Malabar Coast.

STRAIT. Palk's Strait, between Hindostan and Ceylon. CAPE. Cape Comorin, the extreme south point.

ISLANDS. None of importance. Ceylon is under a government independent of that of India. There are many small islands at the mouths of the Ganges and Indus.

MOUNTAINS. The surface of India is of a very varied

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