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It has been thought desirable to adopt for the present edition of the Aeneid a standard text, and to adhere to it throughout, without any variation, even in those few passages where the editor might prefer a change of reading. Accordingly the revised text of Jahn, as one of the most faultless and reliable, and as the one at present, perhaps, most generally approved, has been carefully reprinted from the German edition, as the basis of the school commentary here offered to the American student.
The notes have been derived from most of the ablest commentators on the Aeneid, and more especially from Heyne, Wagner, Thiel, and Forbiger. The editor has also frequently consulted the numerous school and college editions, and is particularly indebted to the admirable commentaries of Theodore Ladewig and A. H. Bryce, recently published, the former in Berlin, and the latter in London and Glasgow.
To meet the wants of American students, very frequent references are made in the notes, especially in the earlier part of the work, to the revised edition of Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, and to Dr. Anthon's edition of Zumpt's Latin Grammar. References are also
occasionally made to Madvig, Ramshorn, and other grammatical works. These references to the grammars, and also those to parallel passages in Virgil, if carefully used, cannot fail to promote a critical scholarship.
The illustrative cuts which accompany the notes have been taken mostly from Vollmer's Dictionary of Mythology, and from Hope's Costumes of the Ancients. They have been selected for the purpose of illustrating ancient usages, arts, costumes, utensils, and implements of war, and also as a means of imparting to the reader some adequate idea of the classic gods and heroes as they existed in the minds of Virgil and the poets of his day. Virgil and his contemporaries, when speaking of the deities of mythology, undoubtedly had in view just such forms as have come down to us in the numberless statues, basreliefs, wall-paintings, vase-paintings, and intaglios, which fill up the museums of Europe. Some of the most remarkable of these are represented in this work. A list of the wood-cuts, followed by an alphabetical index of the things illustrated, will be found below.
The editor takes this opportunity of returning his sincere thanks for many valuable suggestions received from classical teachers, and especially to Mr. C. B. Grant, of the Ann Arbor High School, for efficient aid in the revision of the proofs.
STATE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, May, 1860.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
1. Virgil-from a bust in the Capitoline Museum at Rome.
2. The three Fates-from Flaxman, .
3. Juno-from a statue in the Vatican at Rome,
4. Eurus-from the Tower of the Winds at Athens,
5. Family of Tritons—from an antique cutting on amethyst,
6. Neptune in his chariot calming the sea-Flaxman,
7. Roman Orator of the early republican period-from an ancient vasepainting,.
8. The Huntress Diana-from a statue in the Vatican,.
9. Venus Genetrix-from a statue in the Louvre at Paris,
10. Amazon-from a Greek Statue in the Vatican,
11. Bacchanal reclining at a feast-from a vase-painting, 12. Hector's body at the car of Achilles-from Flaxman,
14. Diomed seizing the Palladium-from an antique gem,
15. Laocoon and his sons in the toils of the serpents-from the celebrated statue in the Vatican,
16. Hector in battle-from an antique gem,
17. Aeneas hastening to battle-from an ancient vase-painting,
18. An attack upon a fortified palace-from Layard's Nineveh,
19. Attack upon a citadel-from Layard's Nineveh,
20. Head of Priam-from a bas-relief in the Vatican,
21. Menelaus, on the point of taking vengeance on Helen, disarmed by her
beauty, from a vase-painting,
22. Plain of Troy-landscape view,
23. Ancient ships under sails and oars-from a wall-painting in the Bour
26. Melpomene, the muse of tragedy-from a wall-painting in Hercula
27. Cupid torturing Psyche or the soul-from an antique gem,
28. Apollo-from the celebrated statue in the Belvedere of the Vatican, 29. Jupiter Ammon-from an ancient coin,
30. Trojan or Phrygian youth-from a vase-painting,
31. Mercury conveying a message from Olympus-from a vase-painting,
34. Helios, or Sol in his chariot, attended by Lucifer, Castor, and the per
sonification of sea and sky-from an ancient vase-painting,
35. Melicertes, or Portunus-from a statue in the Vatican, .
36. Ganymede and the eagle-from a statue by Leochares,
37. Phrygian Amazon-from a vase-painting,
38. Jupiter Pluvius-from Vollmer,
39. Group of Nereids and Tritons-from a bas-relief on, a sarcophagus, 40. The Sirens-from Flaxman,
43. Charon landing ghosts from his boat-from an ancient bas-relief, .
46. Cybele, Corybantes, and the infant Jupiter-from a bas-relief in the Capitol at Rome,
47. Pluto and Proserpine in Hades-from an ancient bas-relief,
48. Chart of the Trojan camp and its environs on the Tiber-from Wag
55. Saturn-from an antique gem in the Bourbon Museum,
56. Goblet, or cantharus-from the Bourbon Museum, 57. Minerva with the Aegis-from a vase-painting,. 58. Vulcan at his forge-from an antique gem,