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Serv. An hour before I came, the duchess died. (ireen. God save your majesty!-and well met,
York. God for his mercy! what a tide of woes gentlemen :
Comes rushing on this woeful land at once! I hope, the king is not yet shipp'd for Ireland.
I know not what to do :-) would to God Queen . Why hop'st thou so? us better hope, he is the king had cut off
' my head with my brother's.
(So my untruth“ had not provok'd him to it,) For his designs crave haste, his haste good hope; Then wherefore dost thou hope, he is not shipp's ? What, are there no posts despatch'd for Ireland ?Green. That he, our hope, might have retir'd his How shall we do for money for these wars ?power,
Come, sister, 6-cousin, I would say: pray, pardor And driven intó despair an enemy's hope, Who strongly hath set footing in this land :
Go, fellow (To the Servant.) get thee home, provide The banish'd Bolingbroke repeals himself,
some carts, And with uplifted arms is safe arriv'd
And bring away the armour that is there.At Ravenspurg.
[Erit Servant Queen. Now, God in heaven forbid! Gentlemen, will you go muster men ? if I know Green. 0, madam, 'uis too true: and that is How, or which way, to order these affairs,
Thus disorderly thrust into my hands,
The one's my sovereigo, whom both my cath
And duty bids defend; the other again, With all their powerful friends, are fled to him.
Is my kinsman, whom the king hath wrong’d; Bushy. Why have you not proclaim'd Northum- Whom conscience and my kindred bids to right. berland,
Well, somewhat we must do.-Come, cousin, I'll And all the rest of the revolted faction, traitors ?? Dispose of you :-Gentlemen, go, muster up your Green. We have · whereon the earl of Worcester
mnen, Hath broke his staff, resign’d his stewardship,
And meet me presently at Berkley-castle. And all the household servants fled with him
I should to Plashy 100 ;To Bolingbroke.
But time will not permit :-All is uneven, Queen. So, Green, thou art the midwife to my And every thing is left at six and seven. woe,
(Exeunt York and Queen. And Bolingbroke my sorrow's dismal heir :3
Bushy. The wind sits fair for news to go to Ireland, Now hath my soul brought forth her prodigy ;
But none returns. For us to levy power, And I, a gasping now-deliver'd mother,
Proportionable to the enemy, Have woe to woe, sorrow to sorrow join'd.
Is all impossible. Bushy. Despair not, madam.
Green. Besides, our nearness to the king in love, Queen.
Who shall hinder me? Is near the hate of those love not the king. I will despair, and be at enmity
Bagot. And that's the wavering commons: for With cozening hope ; he is a flatterer,
their love A parasite, a keeper-back of death,
Lies in their purses ; and whoso empties them, Who gently would dissolve the bands of life, By so much fills their hearts with deadly hate. Which false hope lingers in extreinity.
Bushy. Wherein the king stands generally con
demn'd. Enter York.
Bagot. If judgment lie in them, then so do we, Green. Here comes the duke of York.
Because we ever have been near the king. Queen. With signs of war about his aged neck; Green. Well, I'll for refuge straighi to Bristol o, full of careful business are his looks!
The earl of Wiltshire is already there.
York. Should I do I should belie my thoughts : Will the hateful commons perform for us;
Bagot. No; I'll to Ireland to his majesty.
We three here part, that ne'er shall meet again. Why, weak with age, cannot support myself : Bushy. That's as York thrives to bear back BoNow comes the sick hour that his surfeit made;
lingbroke. Now shall he try his friends that flatter'd him, Green. Alas, poor duke! the task he undertakes Enter a Servant.
Is--numbʼring sands, and drinking oceans dry; Seru. My lord, your son was gone before I came.
Where one on his side fights, thousands will fly. York. He was ?-Why, so !-go all which way
Bushy. Farewell at once; for once, for all, and it will !-The nobles they are fled, the commons they are
Green. Well, we may meet again. cold,
I fear me, never. And will, I fear, revolt on Hereford's side.
(Ereunt. Sirrah, get thee to Plashy, to my sister Gloster ; SCENE III. The Wilds in Glostershire, Enter Bid her send me presently a thousand pound : BolingBROKE and NORTHUMBERLAND, with Hold, take my ring.
Forces. Serv. My lord, I had forgot to tell your lordship :
Boling. How far is it, my lord, to Berkley now? To-day, as I came by, I called there; But I shall grieve you to report the rest.
North. Believe me, noble lord, York. What is it, knave ?
I am a stranger here in Glostershire.
These high wild bills, and rough uneven ways, I Retrl, i. f. drawn it back ; a French sense. 2 The first quarto, 1597, reads :
by calling him her sorrow's dismal heir,' and explains " And all the rest of the revolled faction, traitors ?" more fully in the following line :The folio, and the quarto of 1598 and 1608 :
Now hath my soul brought forth her prodigy.' And the rest of the revolting faction, traitors as 4 Disloyalty, treachery. 3 The queen had said before, that'some unborn sor. 5 Not one of York's brothers had his head cut off, row, ripe in fortune's womb, was coming toward her.' either by the king or any one else. Gloeter, to whose She talks afterward of her unknown griefs í being he death he probably alludes, was smothered serween two gotten ;' she calls Green the midwife of her woe;" and beds ai Calais. then means to say in the same metaphorical style, that 6 This is one of Shakspeare's touches of nature, the arrival of Bolingbroke was the dismal offspring that York is talking to the queen, his cousin, but the recent her foreboding sorrow was big of; which she expresses I death of his sister is uppermost in his mind.
Draw out our miles, and make them wearisome : A banish'd traitor: all my treasury
Shall be your love and labour's recompense.
Ross. Your presence makes us rich, most noble From Ravenspurg to Cotswold, will be found
lord. In Ross and Willoughby, wanting your company :
Willo, And far surmounts our labour to attain it. Which, I protest, hath very much beguil'd
Boling. Evermore thanks, the exchequer of the The tediousness and process of my travel:
poor; But theirs is sweetend with the hope to have Which, till my infant fortune comes to years, The present benefit which I
Stands for my bounty. But who comes here?
Boling. Of much less value is my company, Boling. My lord, my answer is--to Lancaster;"
And I must find that title in your tongue,
Before I make reply to aught you say.
Berk. Mistake me not, my lord; 'tis not my
To raze one title of your honour out:-
From the most gracious regent of this land,
And fright our native peace with self-born arms.
Enter YORK, attended.
Boling. I shall not need transport my words by
Here comes his grace in person. My noble uncle ! Percy. Because your lordship was proclaimed
York. Show me thy humble heart, and not thy But he, my lord, is gone to Ravenspurg,
Whose duty is deceivable and false.
Boling. My gracious uncle !--
York. Tui, tut!
Grace me no grace, nor uncle me no uncle:
Dar'd once to touch a dust of England's ground ? North. Then learn to know him now; this is the But then more why ;-Why have they dar'd 10 duke,
young; Frighting her pale-fac'd villages with war,
And ostentation of despised arms?
Com'st thou because the anointed king is hence ?
And in my loyal bosom lies his power,
As when hrave Gannt, thy father, and myself,
O, then, how quickly should this arni of mine,
prisoner to the palsy, chastise thee,
And minister correction to thy fauit!
Boling. My gracious uncle, let me know my
In gross rebellion, and detested treason :
Thou art a banish'd man, and here art come,
Before the expiration of thy time,
In braving arms against thy sovereign.
Boling. As I was banish'd, I was banish'd Herc-
But as I come, I come for Lancaster,
5 In Romeo and Juliet we have the same kind of
6 Perhaps Shakspeare here uses despiscil for halea
or hateful arms? Sir Thomas Hanvier changed it to
sense in Othello, Acti, Sc. 1, where Brabantic exclaims
what's to come of my despised time
French forces. The duke of Bretagne furnished Bo 4 Time of the king's absence.
lingbroke with three thousand French soidiers.
And, noble uncle, I beseech your grace,
And hardly kept our countrymen together, Look on my wrongs with an indifferent' eye : And yet we hear no tidings from the king; You are my father, for, methinks, in you
Therefore we will disperse ourselves : farewell. I see old Gaunt alive ; 0, then, my father!
Sal. Stay yet another day, thou trusty WelshWill you permit that I shall stand condemn'd A wand'ring vagabond ; my rights and royalties The king reposeth all his confidence Pluck'd from my arms perforce, and given away In thee. To upstart unthrifts? Wherefore was I born ? Cap. 'Tis thought, the king is dead: we will not If that my cousin king be king of England,
stay. It must be granted, I am duke of Lancaster. The bay-trees in our country are all wither'd, You have a son, Aumerle, my noble kinsman; And meteors fright the fixed stars of heaven; Had you first died, and he been thus trod down, The pale-fac'd moon looks bloody on the earth, He should have found his uncle Gaunt a father, And lean-look'd prophets whisper fearful change ; To rouse his wrongs,and chase them to the bay. Rich men louk sad, and rufüans dance and leap,I am denied to sue my livery' here,
The one in fear to lose what they enjoy, And yet my letters patent give me leave :
The other, to enjoy by rage and war: My father's goods are all distrain'd, and sold; These signs forerun the death or fall of kings.And these, and all, are all amiss employ'd. Farewell; our countrymen are gone and fled, What would you have me do? I am a subject, As well assur’d, Richárd their king is dead. (Eril. And challenge law: Attornies are denied me; Sal. Ah, Richard! with the eyes of heavy mind, And therefore personally I lay my claim
I see thy glory, like a shooting star, To my inheritance of free descent.
Fall to the base earth from the firmament ! North. The noble duke hath been too much Thy sun sets weeping in the lowly west, abus'd.
Witnessing storms to come, woe, and unrest : Ross. It stands your grace upon to do him right. Thy friends are fled, to wait upon thy foes : Willo. Base men by his endowments are made and crossly to thy good all foriune goes. [Erit.
great. York. My lords of England, let me tell you this,I have had feeling of my cousin's wrongs,
. And labour'd all I could to do him right:
SCENE I. Bolingbroke's Camp at Bristol. EnBut in this kind to come, in braving arms,
ter BOLING BROKE, YORK, NORTHUMBERLAND, Be his own carver, and cut out his way,
PERCY, WILLOUGHBY, Ross : Officers behind
Boling. Bring forth these men.
(Since presently your souls must part your bodies,) We all have strongly sworn to give him aid ;
With too much urging your pernicious lives, And let him ne'er see joy, that breaks that oath.
For 'twere no charity : yet, to wash your blood York. Well, well, I see the issue of these arms; From off my hands, here, in the view of men, I cannot mend it, I must needs confess,
I will unfold some causes of your deaths.
You have misled a prince, a royal king,
By you unhappied and disfigur'd clean.'
You have, in manner, with your sinful hours, But, since I cannoi, be it known to you,
Made a divorce betwixt his queen and him; I do remain as neuter. So, fare you well;
Broke the possession of a royal bed," Unless you please to enter in the castle,
And staind the beauty of a fair queen's cheeks And there repose you for this night.
With tears drawn from her eyes by your foul wrongr. Boling. An offer, uncle, that we will accept.
Myself--a prince, by fortune of my birth, But we must win your grace, to go with us
Near to the king in blood; and near in love, To Bristol Castle'; which, they say, is held
Till you did make him misinterpret me, By Bushy, Bagot, and their complices,
Have stoop'd my neck under your injuries, The caterpillars of the commonwealth,
And sigh'd my English breath in foreign clouds, Which I have sworn to weed, and pluck away.
Eating the bitter bread of banishment: York. It may be, I will go with you :--but yet Whilst you have fed upon my signories, I'll pause;
Dispark?d" my parks, and fell’d my forest woods ; For I am loath to break our country's laws.
From my own windows torn my household coal, Nor friends, nor foes, to me welcome you are:
Raz'd out my impress, '2 leaving me no sign,Things past redress, are now with me past care.s
9 This enumeration of prodigies is in the highest de. [Exeunt.
gree poetical and striking. The poet received the hint SCENE IV. A Camp in Wales. Enter Salis-from Holinshed: 'In this yeare, in a manner through.
out all the realme of Englande, old baie trees withered, BU P.Y,' and a Captain.
&c.' This, as it appears from T. Luptan's Syxt Booke Cap. My lord of Salisbury, we have staid ten of Notable Thinga, bl. 4to. was estremeil a bad omen. days,
Neyther falling sickness, neyther devyll, wyll intes:
or hurt one in that place whereas & bay tre is. The I Indifferent is impartial. The instances of this lise Romaynes call it the plant of the good angel, &c.? See of the word among the poet's contemporaries are very also Evelyn's Sylva, 4to. 1776, p. 396. numerous.
9 i. e. quite, completely 2 W'ronge is probably here used for urongers. · 10 There seems to be no authority for this. Isabel 3 See the former scene, p. 412, n. 7.
Richard's second queen, was but nine years old at this 4 Steevens explains the phrase, 'Il stands your period; his first queen, Anne, died in 1392, and he was grace upon,' to menn, it is your interest; it is matter very fond of her. of consequence to you.' Birl hear Baret, “The heyre is 11 To dispark signifies to divest a park of its name bound : the heyre ought, or it is the heyre's part to de- and character, by destroying the enclosures, and the fend; it siandith him upon; or is in his charge. In vert (or whatever bear: green leaves, whether wood or cumbit defensio mortis heredi.' The phrase is there. underwood,) and the beasts of the chase therein ; laying fore equivalent to it is incumbent upon your grace. it open, - Things without reinedy
12 The impress was a device, or motto. Ferne, in Should be without regard."
Macbeth. his Blazon of Gentry, 1598, observes that the arms, 6 Johnson thought this scene nad been by some acci. &c. of traitors and rebels may be defaced and removed Jent transposed, and that it should stand as the second wheresoever they are fixed or set. For the punish. Bcene in the third act.
ment of a base knight see Spenser's Faerie Queen b. 7 John Montacule, carl of Salisbury.
v. c. iii. st. 37.
Save men's opinions, and my living blood,
K. Rich. Discomfortable cousin! know'st thou To show the world I am a geulleman,
not, This, and much more, much more than twice all That when the searching eye of heaven is hid this,
Behind the globe, and lights the lower world,
In murders, and in outrage, bloody here;
But when, from under this terrestrial ball,
The cloak of nigbt being pluck'd from off their backs
Who all this while hath revell'd in the night,
Shall see us rising in our throne the east,
York. A gentleman of mine I have despatch'd Can wash the balm from an anointed king :
The breath of worldly men cannot depose
For every man that Bolingbroke hath pressid,
A glorious angel: then, if angels fight,
Welcome, my lord; How far off lies your power?' K. Rich. Barkloughly Castle call you? this at hand?
Sal. Nor near, nor further off, my gracious lord,
And bids me speak of nothing but despair.
One day too late, I fear, my noble lord,
O, call back yesterday, bid time return,
And thou shall have twelve thousand fighting men!
To-day, to-day, unhappy day, too late,
O'erthrows ihy joys, friends, fortune, and thy stale ;
gone to Bolingbroke, dispers'd, and fled.
Aum. Comfort, my liege : why looks your grace And do thee favour with my royal hands.
so pale ?
K. Rich. But now, the blood of twenty thousand
Did triumph in my face, and they are fled ;
And, till so much blood thither come again,
Have I not reason to look pale and dead?
All souls that will be safe, fly from my side ;
For time hath set a blot upon my pride.
Aum. Comfort, my liege: remember who you
K. Rich. I had forgot myself: Am I not king ?
Awake thou sluggarde majesty! thou sleep'st.
Is not the king's name forty thousand names
Arm, arm, my name! a púny subject strikes Prove armed soldiers, ere her native king
At thy great glory.--Look not to the ground, Shall falter under foul rebellious arms.
Ye favourites of a king ; Are we not high? Bishop. Fear not, my lord ; that Power, that made High be our thoughts ? I know, my uncle York
Hath power enough to serve our turn. But who
Scroop. More health and happiness betido iny And we will not, heaven's offer we refuse;
liege, The proffer'd means of succour and redress. Than can niy carc-tun'd tongue deliver him.
Aun. He means, my lord, that we are too remiss; K. Rich. Min ear is open, and my heart preWhilst Bolingbroké, through our security,
pard:10 Grows strong and great, in substance, and in friends.
have been taught to think false or foolish to the reign of
King James I. But this doctrine was never carried fur. 1 Commendations.
ther in any, country, than in this island, while the 2 Johnson says, 'here may be properly inserted the house of Tudor sat on the throne. last scene of the second act.'
7 Force. 3 The quarto os 1597 reads they.
8 The first quarto reads courard majesty.' 4 The old copies read that lights,' &c. The altera. 9 So in King Richard III. : tion was made by Johnson.
Besides, the king's name is a lower of trength. 5 It is not easy (says Steevens) to point out an image
10'I seems to be the design of the poet to raise Rich more striking and beautiful than this, in any poet, anci- ard to esteem in his fall, and consequently to interest ent or modern.'
the reader in his favour. He gives him only passivo 6 Here is the doctrine of the divine right of kings, and fortitude, the virtue of a confessor, rather than of a king of the passive obedience of subjects, expressed in the In his prosperity we saw him imperious and oppressive; strongest terms. Johnson observes that it has been the but in his distress he is wise, pacient, and pious.'fashion to impule the original of every tenet which we Johnson
The worst is worldly loss, thou canst unfold. Let's choose executors, and talk of wills :
Save our deposed bodies to the ground? Strives Bolingbroke to be as great as we ? Our lands, our lives, and all are Bolingbroke's, Greater he shall not be; if he serve God,
And nothing can we call our own, but death; We'll serve him too, and be his fellow so: And that small modelo of the barren earth, Revolt our subjects ? that we cannot mend; Which serves as paste and cover to our bones. They break their taith to God, as well as us : For heaven's sake, let us sit upon the ground, Cry woe, destruction, ruin, loss, decay:
And tell sad stories of the death of kings: The worst is--death, and death' will have his day. How some have been depos'd, some slain in war; Scroop. Glad am I, that your highness is so Some haunted by the ghosts they have depos'd; arm'd
Some poison'd by their wives, some sleeping kill'd; To bear the tidings of calamity
All murder'd :-For within the hollow crown, Like an unseasonable stormy day,
That rounds the mortal temples of a king, Which makes the silver rivers drown their shores, Keeps death his court: and there the antick sits, As if the world were all dissolv'd to tears ; Scothing his state, and grinning at his pomp; So high above his limits swells the rage
Allowing him a breath, a little scene Of Bolingbroke, covering your fearful land To monarchise, be fear'd, and kill with looks; With hard bright steel, and hearts harder than steel. Infusing him with self and vain conceil,White-beards have arm'd their thin and hairless As if this flesh, which walls about our life, scalps
Were brass impregnable; and humour'd thus, Against the majesty; and boys, with women's Comes at the last, and with a little pin voices,
Bores through his castle wall, and farewell, king! Strive to speak big, and clap their female joints Cover your heads, and mock'not flesh and blood In stiff unwieldy arms against thy crown:
With solemn reverence ; throw away respect, The very beadsmen learn to bend their bows Tradition, form, and ceremonious duty, Of double-fatal yewl against thy state ;
For you have but mistook me all this while : Yea, distaff-women manage rusty bills
I live with bread like you, feel want, taste grief, Against thy seat: both young and old rebel, Need friends :-Subjected thus, And all goes worse than I have power to tell. How can you say to me-I am a king? K. Rich. Too well, too well, thou tell'st a tale Car. My lord, wise men ne'er wail their present so ill :
woes, Where is the earl of Wiltshire ? where is Bagot ?? But presently prevent the ways to wail. What is become of Bushy? where is Green? To fear the foe, since fear oppresseth strength, That they have let the dangerous enemy
Gives, in your weakness, strength unto your foe, Measure our confines with such peaceful steps ? And so your follies fight against yourself. If we prevail, their heads shall pay for it.
Fear, and be slain; no worse can come, to fight : I warrant, they have made peace with Bolingbruke. And fight and die, is death destroying death;' Scroop. Peace have they made with him, indeed, Where fearing dying, pays death servile breatn.
Aum. My father hath a power, inquire of him ; K. Rich. O villains, vipers, damnd without re- And learn to make a body of a limb. demption !
K. Rich. Thou chid'st me well :—Proud Bolingo Dogs, easily won to fawn on any man!
broke, I come Snakes, in my heart-blood warm’d, that sting my To change blows with thee for our day of doom. heart!
This ague-fit of fear is over-blown; Three Judases, each one thrice worse than Judas! An easy task it is, to win our own.Would they make peace? terrible hell make war Say, Scroop, where lies our uncle with his power ? Upon their spotted souls for this offence !
Speak sweetly, man, although thy looks be sour. Scroop. Sweet love, I see, changing his property, Scroop. Men judge by the complexion of the sky Turns to the sourest and most deadly hate ;- The state and inclination of the day : Again uncurse their souls; their peace is made So may you by my dull and heavy eye, With heads, and not with hands : those whom you My tongue hath but a heavier tale to say. curse,
I play the torturer, by small and small, Have felt the worst of death's destroying wound, To lengthen out the worst that must be spoken :And lie full low, grav'd' in the hollow ground. Your uncle York hath join'd with Bolingbroke; Aum. Is Bushy, Green, and the earl of Wilt- And all your northern castles yielded up, shire dead?
And all your southern gentlemen in arms Scroop. Yea, all of them at Bristol lost their Upon his party. heads.
K. Rich. Thou hast said enough.Aum. Where is the duke, my father, with his Beshrew thee, cousin, which didst lead me forth power ?
(T. AUMERLE. K. Rich. No matter where ; of comfort no man of that sweet way I was in to despair ! speak :
What say you now? What comfort have we now ? Let's talk of graves, of worms, and epitaphs ; By heaven, i'll hate him everlastingly, Make dust our paper, and with rainy eyes
That bids me be of comfort any more. Write sorrow on the bosom of the earth.
Go, to Flint Castle; there I'll pine away; 1 Yeir is called double-fatul, because of the poison 4 A small model, or module, for they were the same in ous quality of the leaves, and on account of the wood | Shakspeare's time, seems to mean in this place a smais being used for instruments of death. From some an. portion or quantity. It is a Latinism, from modulus, cient statutes it appears that every Englishman, wbile ihe measure or quantity of a thing.' archery was practised, was obliged to keep in his house Í It is not impossible that Shakspeare bomtowed this either a bow of yer or some other wood. It has been idea from that most exquisite emblematic book of engra. fupposed that yeurs were anciently planted in church-vings on wood, the Dance of Death, or Imagines Mortis, yards not only to delend the church from the wind, but attributed to Holbein. See the seventh print on account of their use in making bous ; while their 6 Tradition here seems to mean traditional practi poisonous quality was kept from doing mischief to the ces, i. e. established or customary homage. caille, is that sacred enclosure.
7 That is, to die fighting is to return the evil that we 2 The mention of Bagot here is a lapse of the poet or suffer, to destroy the destroyers. the king; but perhaps it may have been intended to S This sentiment is drawn from nature. Nothing is mark more strongly the perturbation of the king's mind, more offensive to a mind convinced that its distress is by making him inquire at first for Bagot, whose loyalty, without remedy, and preparing to submit quietly to irre. on further recollection, might show him the impropriety sistible calamily, than these pelly and conjectured of the question.
comforts, which unskilful officiousness thinks it virtue 3 i. e. buried The verb is not peculiar to Shakspeare. I w administer.