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He hath not touch'd you yet. I am young; but | The cistern of my lust; and my desire something
All continent impediments would o'erbear, You may deserve of him through me; and wisdom That did oppose my will : Better Macbeth To offer up a weak, poor, innocent lamb,
Than such a one to reign. To appease an angry god.
Boundless intemperance Macd. I am not treacherous.
In nature is a tyranny; it hath been Mal.
But Macbeth is. The untimely emptying of the happy throne, A good and virtuous nature may recoil,
And fall of many kings. But fear not yet In an imperial charge. But I shall crave your To take upon you what is yours : you may pardon ;
Convey your pleasures in a spacious plenty, That which you are, my thoughts cannot transpose : And yet seem cold, the time you may so hood-wink. Angels are bright still, though the brightest fell: We have willing dames enough: there cannot be Though all things foul would wear the brows of That vulture in you, to devour so many grace,
As will to greatness dedicate themselves, Yet grace must still look so."
Finding it so inclin'd. Macd.
I have lost my hopes.
With this, there growe Mal. Perchance, even there, where I did find In my most ill-compos’d affection, such
A staunchless avarice, that, were I king, Why in that rawness left you wife and child, I should cut off the nobles for their lands; (Those precious motives, those strong knots oflove,) Desire his jewels, and this other's house : Without leave-taking ?-I pray you,
And my more-having would be as a sauce
Destroying ihem for wealth.
Sticks deeper; grows with more pernicious root For goodness dares not check thee !-wear thou thy Than summer-seeming lust :8 and it hath been wrongs ;
The sword of our slain kings : Yet do not fear; The title is affeerd !--Fare thee well, lord : Scotland hath foysons to fill up your will, I would not be the villain that thou think'st of your mere own: All these are portable, 10 For the whole space that's in the tyrant's grasp, With other graces weigh'd. And the rich East to boot.
Mal. But I have none: The king-becoming Mal. Be not offended :
graces, I speak not as in absolute fear of you.
As justice, verity, temperance, stableness,
I have no relish of them; but abound
Pour the sweet milk of concord into hell When I shall tread upon the tyrant's head, Uproar the universal
confound Or wear it on my sword, yet my poor country All unity on earth. Shall have more vices than it had before ;
O Scotland! Scotland ! More suffer, and more sundry ways than ever,
Mal. If such a one be fit to govern, speak: By him that shall succeed.
I am as I have spoken.
Fit to govern!
With an untitled" tyrant bloody-sceptred, That, when they shall be open'd, black Macbeth When shalt thou see thy wholesome days again? Will seem as pure as snow; and the state Since that the truest issue of thy throne Esteem him as a lamb, being compar'd
By his own interdiction stands accurs'd, With my confineless harms.5
And does blaspheme his breed ?-Thy royal father Macd.
Not in the legions Was a most sainted king; the queen, that bore thee, Or horrid hell, can come a devil more damn'd Oftener upon her knees than on her feet, In evils, to top Macbeth.
Died every day she lived.18 Fare thee well! Mal.
I grant him bloody, These evils, thou repeat'st upon thyself, Luxurious, avaricious, false, deceitful,
Have banish'd me from Scotland.-0, my breast, Sudden,' malicious, smacking of every sin Thy hope ends here! That has a name : But there's no bottom, nore, Mal.
Macduff, this noble passion, In my voluptuousness; your wives, your daughters, Child of integrity, hath from my soul Your matrons, and your maids, could not fill up Wip'd the black scruples, reconcil'd my thoughts
1 'You may deserve of him through me. The old poor country! Great tyranny, lay thou thy basis sure, copy reads discerne. The emendation was made by for goodness dares noi check thee! Then addressing Theobald. In the subsequent part of the line some. Malcolm, Macduff says, “Wear thou thy wrongs,--the thing is wanted to complete the sense. There is no title to thy croion is now confirmed to the usurper, he verb to which uisilom can refer. Steevens conjectured would probably have added, but that he interrupis that the line might originally have run thus:
himself with angry impatience, at being suspected of but something
Traitorous double-liesing. You may deserve through me; and wisdom is it 5 i. e. immeas able evils. To offer,' &c.
6 Luxurious, lascivious. 7 Sudden, passionate. "A good and virtuous nature may recoil
8 Sir W. Blackstone proposed to read summer-seed In an imperial charge.'
ing, which was adopted by Steevens : but there appears A good mind may recede from goodness in the execution no reason for change. The meaning of the epithet may be, of a royal commission.
lust as hot as summer.' In Donne's Poems, Malone 3 This is not very clear. Johnson has thus attempted has pointed out its opposite-winter-seeming. Lo explain it: 'My suspicions cannot injure you, if 9 Foysons, plenty. you be virtuous, by supposing that a traitor may put on 10 Portable answers exactly to a phrase now in use. your virtuous appearance. I do not say that your vir. Such failings may be borne with, or are bearable. uous appearance proves you a traitor ; for virtue must 11 With an untitled tyrant.' Thus in Chaucer's wear its proper torm, though that form be counterfeited Manciple's Tale :by villainy.
Right so betwix a titleles tiraunt 4 To affeer is a law ierm, signifying to assess or re.
And an outlawe.: duce to ceriainty. The meaning therefore may be :- 12 Died every day she lived.' The expression is de • The title is confirmed to the usurper.!
rived from the Sacred Writings :'I protest by you roMy interpretation of the passage is this : * Bleed, bleed, I joicing, which I have in Christ Jesus, I die daily
To thy good truth and honour. Devilish Macbeth | But who knows nothing, is once seen to smile ;
Is there scarce ask’d, for who; and good men's Unspeak mine own detraction: here abjure
lives The saints and blamesa Julaid upam myself
, Expire before the flowers in their caps,
Dying, or ere they sicken. Unknown to woman; never was forsworn;
What is the newest grief? The devil to his fellow; and delight
Rosse. That of an hour's age doth hiss tho No less in truth, than life : my first false speaking
speaker; Was this upon myself: What I am truly,
Each minute teems a new one. Is thine, and my poor country's to command : Macd.
How does my wife? Whither, indeed, before thy here-approach,
Rosse. Why, well. Old Siward, with ten thousand warlike men,
And all my children? All ready at a point, was setting forth :
Well too. Now we'll together; And the chance, of goodness, Macd. The tyrant has not batter'd at their peace ? Be like our warranted quarrel! Why are you silent ? Rosse. No ; they were well at peace, when I did Macd. Such welcome and unwelcome things at
leave them. once,
Macd. Be not a niggard of your speech ; How "Tis hard to reconcile. Enter a Doctor.
Rosse. When I came hither to transport the sido
ings, Mal. Well; more anon.—Comes the king forth, Which I have heavily borne, there ran a rumour I pray you ?
Of many worthy fellows that were out; Doct. Ay, 'sír: there are a crew of wretched which was to my belief witness'd the rather, souls,
For that I saw the tyrant's power a-foot : That stay his cure: their malady convinces? Now is the time of help! your eye in Scotland The great assay of art; but at his touch,
Would create soldiers, make our women fight, Such "sanctity hath heaven given his hand, To doff their dire distresses. They presently amend.
Be it their comfort, Mal. I thank you, doctor.
We are coming thither: gracious England hath
(Exit. Lent us good Siward, and ten thousand men; Macd. What's the disease he means ? Mal.
'Tis call'd the evil : That Christendom gives out.
An older, and a better soldier, done A most miraculous work in this good king;
"Would, I could answer Which often, since my_here-remain in England, This comfort, with the like! But I have words, I have seen him do. How he solicits heaven,
That would be howl'd out in the desert air,
What concern they? The mere despair of surgery, he cures:
The general cause ? or is it a fee-grief, Hanging a golden stamp about their necks,
Due to some single breast ? Put on with holy prayers : and 'tis spoken,
No mind, that's honest, To the succeeding royalty he leaves The healing benediction. With this strange virtue, Pertains to you alone.
But in it shares some woe; though the main part He hath a heavenly gift of prophecy;
If it be mine, And sundry blessings hang about his throne,
Keep it not from me, quickly let me have it. To speak him full of grace.
Rosse. Let not your ears despise my tongue for Enter Rosse.
See, who comes here? Which shall possess them with the heaviest sound Mal. My countryman; but yet I know him not. That ever yet they heard. Macd. My ever-gentle cousin, welcome hither.
Humph! I guess at it. Mal. I know him now: Good God, betimes re
Rosse. Your castle is surprisid ; your wife, and
babes, The means that make us strangers !
Savagely slaughter'd: to relate the manner, Ross.
Sir, Amen. Were, on the quarry?' of these murder'd deer, Macd. Stands Scotland where it did ?
To add the death of you.
Alas, poor country!
Merciful heaven! Almost afraid to know itself! It cannot
What, man! ne'er pull your hat upon your brows, Be call’d our mother, but our grave : where nothing, Give sorrow words: the grief that does not speak,
Whispers the o'er fraught heart, and bids it break.si 1 Credulous nasle, overhasty credulity.
2 i. e. overcomes it. We have before seen this word catch. Thus also Golding, in his translation of the first used in the same Latin sense, Act i. Sc. 7, of this book of Ovid's Metamorphoses :play. "To convince or convicte, to vanquish and over. * As though he would, at everie stride, betweene his come. Erinco.'--Baret.
teeth hir la ich.' 3 A golden stamp, the coin caned an angel; the va. 9. Or is it a fee.grief,' a peculiar sorrow, a grief lue of which was ten shillings.
that hath but a single owner. 4. • To rent is an ancient verb, which has been long 10 Quarry, the game after it is killed: it is a term disused,' say the editors: in other words it is the old used both in hunting and falconry. The old English term orthography of the verb to rend.
querre is used for the square spoi wherein the dead game 5 li has been before observed that Shakspeare vises was deposited. Quarry is also used for the game pur. ecstasy for every species of alienation of mind, whether sued. proceeding from sorrow, joy, wonder, or any other ex. 11. Cure lores loquuntur, ingentes stupent.' citing cause. Modern is generally used by him in the "Those are killing griefs which are not speak.' sense of common. A modern ecstasy is therefore a
Vittoria Corombona. common grief.
• Light sorrows often speake, 6 Thus in Antony and Cleopatra :
When great, the heart in silence breake.'
Greene's Tragical History of Faire Bellora
Striving to tell his woes. words would not come, 7 To doff is to do off, to put off.
For light cares speak, when mighty griefs are dombe.. 8 To luich (in the North) signifies the same as to
Daniel's Complaint of Rosamond
Macd. My children, too?
Enter LADY MACBETH, with a Taper.
Wife, childı on, servants, all Lo you, here she comes! This is her very guise ;
and, upon my life, fast asleep. Observe her; And I must be from thence!
Doct. How came she by that light?
Gent. Why, it stood by her: she has light by
her continually; 'ris her command.
Doct. You see her eyes are open.
Gent. Ay, but their sense is shut.
Doct. What is it she does now? Look, how she
rubs her hands. What, all my pretty chickens, and their dam,
Gent. It is an accustomed action with her, to At one fell swoop?
seem thus washing her hands; I have known her Mal. Dispute it like a man.? Macd.
I shall do so;
continue in this a quarter of an hour.
Lady M. Yet bere's a spot,
Doct. Hark, she speaks: I will set down what
comes from her, to satisfy my remembrance the more That were most precious to me.- Did heaven look
Lady M. Out, damned spot ! out, I say !-One : And would not take their part ? Sinful Macduff,
Two: Why, then 'tis time to do't : -Hell is They were all struck for thee! naught that I am,
murky !?—Fye, my lord, fye! a soldier, and afеard ? Not for their own demerits, but for mine,
What need we fear who knows it, when none can Fell slaughter on their souls : Heaven rest them call our power to account ?-Yet who would have now!
thought the old man to have had so much blood in him? Mal. Be this the whetstone of your sword : let grief
Doct. Do you mark that?
Lady M. The thane of Fife had a wife: Where
Macd. O, I could play the woman with mine eyes, clean ?-No more o' that, my lord, no more o'that :
Doct. Go to, go to: you have known what you
Lady M. Here's the smell of the blood still: all
perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this litue
Gent. I would not have such a heart in my bor you may i
somn, for all the dignity of the whole body.
Doct. Well, well, well,
Doct. This disease is beyond my practice: Yes
I have known those which have walked in their ACT V.
sleep, who have died holily in their beds. SCENE I. Dunsinane. A Room in the Castle. Lady M, Wash your hands, put on your night
Enter a Doctor of Physic, and a Waiting Gen- gown ; look not so pale:-1 tell you yet again, Bantlewoman.
quo's buried; he cannot come out of his grave, Doct. I have two nights watched with
Doct. Even so ? but
you, can perceive no truth in your report.
When was it Lady M. To bed, to bed; there's knocking at she last walked ?
the gate. Come, come, come, come, give me your Gent. Since his majesty went into the field, I hand; What's done, cannot be undone : To bed, to have seen her rise from her bed, throw her night-bed, to bed.
(Exit LADY MACBETH. gown upon her, unlock her closet, take forth paper, Doct. Will she go now to bed ? fold it, write upon it, read it, afterwards seal it, and Gent, Directly. again return to bed; yet all this while in a most fast Doct. Foul whisperings are abroad; Unnatural sleep.
deeds Doct. A great perturbation in nature ! to receive Do breed unnatural troubles : Infected minds at once the benefii of sleep, and do the effects of To their deaf pillows will discharge their secrets. watching.--In this slumbry agitation, besides her | More needs she the divine, than the physician, walking, and other actual performances, what, at God, God, forgive us all! Look after her ; any time, have you heard her say ?
Remove from her the means of all annoyance, Gent. Thai, sir, which I will not report after her. And still keep eyes upon her:-So, good night :
Doct. You may, to me; and 'tis most meet you My mind she has mated, and amaz'd my sight: should,
I think, but dare not speak.
Good night, good doctor. witness to confirm my speech.
(Exeunt. 1. At one fell sucoop: Scoop: from the verb lo In so profound abysm I throw all care siroop or sweep, is the descent of a bird of prey on bis Of others' voices, that my allder's sense quarry
To critick and to flatterer stopped are.' 2 i.'e, contend with your present sorrow like a man 7 Lady Macbeth, in her dream, imagines herself talk 3 All intermission, all pause, all intervening time. ing to hor husband, who (she supposes) had just said 4 The old copy reads time. The emendation is Hell is murky (i. e. hell is a dismal place to go to in Rowe's
consequence of such a deed,) and repeats his words in 5 i. e encourage, thrust us their instruments forward contempt of his cowardice. Hell is murky !-Fye, my against the tyrant.
lord, fye! a soldier, and afеard?' This explanation is 6. Ay, but their souse is shut. The old copy reads by Steevens, and appears to me very judicious. * Ay, but their sense ure shut.' Malone has quoted other $ You mar all with this starting. She is here again instances of the same inaccurate grammar, according to alluding to the terrors of Macbeth when the Ghost broke modern nocions, from Julius Cæsar :
in on the festivity of the banquet. "The posture of his blows are yet unknown.' 9.My mind 'she has maled.' Maled, a asnaled, And from the hundred and twelfth Sonnet of Shak. from matte, old French, signified to Gretcome, con peare :
I found, dismay, or make afraid.
SCENE II. The Country near Dunsinane. Enter,
Enter a Servant. with Drum and Colours, MENTETH, CATHNESS, The devil damn thee black, thou cream-fac'd loon" ANGUS, LENOX, and Soldiers.
Where gott'st thou that goose look ?
Serv. There is ten thousand-
Geese, villain ? His uncle Siward,' and the good Macduff.
Soldiers, sir. Revenges burn in them: for their dear causes
Macb. Go, prick thy face, and over-red thy fear, Would, to the bleeding, and the grim alarm,
Thou lily-liver'd boy.' What soldiers, patch ? Excite the mortified man.”
Death of thy soul ! those linen cheeks of thine Ang.
Near Birnam wood
Are counsellors to fear.10 What soldiers, wheyShall we well meet them; that way are they coming.
face? Cath. Who knows, if Donalbain be with his bro
Serv. The English force, so please you. ther?
Macb. Take thy face hence.- Seyton !-I am Len. For certain, sir, he is not: I have a file
sick at heart, Of all the gentry; there is Siward's son,
When I behold-Seylon, I say!—This push And many unrough' youths, that even now
Will cheer me ever, or disseat me now. Protest their first of manhood.
I have liv'd long enough: my way of life Ment.
What does the tyrant? Is fall'n into the sear, the yellow leaf: Cath. Great Dunsinane he strongly fortifies :
And that which should accompany old age, Some say, he's mad; others, that lesser hate him, As honour, love, obedience, troops of friends, Do call it valiant fury: but, for certain,
I must not look to have; but, in their stead, He cannot buckle his distemper'd cause
Curses, vot loud, but deep, mouth-honour, breath, Within the belt of rule.
Which the poor heart would fain deny, but dare noi. Ang. Now does he feel
Scy. What is your gracious pleasure ?
What news more Hang loose about him, like a giant's robe
Sey. All is confirm'd my lord, which was reUpon a dwarfish thief.
Who then shall blame Macb. 'l'll fight, till from my bones my flesh be His pester'd senses to recoil, and start,
hack'd. When all that is within him does condemn
Give me iny armour. Itself, for being there !*
'Tis not needed yet. Cath. Well, march we on,
Macb. I'll put it on. To give obedience where 'tis truly ow'd:
Send out more horses, skirr12 the country round; Meet we the medecin' of the sickly weal;
Hang those that talk of fear.-Give me mire are
How does your patient, doctor?
Not so sick, my lord, To dew the sovereign flower, and drown the weeds. As she is troubled with thick-coming fancies, Make we our march towards Birnam.
That keep her from her rest. (Exeunt, marching. Macb.
Cure her of that.
Canst thou not minister to a mind diseas'd ;13 SCENE III. Dunsinane. A Room in the Castle. Pluck from the memory a rooted sorrow; Enter MACBETH, Doctor, and Attendants.
Raze out the written troubles of the brain;
And, with some sweet oblivious antidote, Macb. Bring me no more reports; let them fly Cleanse the stuff'd bosom of that perilous stuff,
Which weighs upoa the heart? Till Birnam wood remove to Dunsinane,
Therein the patient I cannot taint with fear. What's the boy Malcolm ! Must minister to himself. Was he not born of woman? The spirits that know Macb. Throw physic to the dogs, I'M none of All mortal consequence, have pronounc'd me thus :
it :Fear not, Macbeth ; no man, that's born of woman, Come, put mino armour on; give me my staff :Shall e'er have power upon thee. -Then fly, false Seyton, send out.-Doctor, the thanes fly from me : thanes,
Come, sir, despatch :-If thou couldst, doctor, cast And mingle with the English epicures :6
The water of my land,14 find her disease,
9 Patch, an appellation of contempt, signifying fool or lord wretch.
10 i. e. they infect others who see them with cow. 1 Duncan had two sons by his wife, who was the ardice. In King Henry V. the King says to the conspi. daughter of Siward, Earl of Northumberland.-Ho. rators, 'Your cheeks are paper.' linshed.
11 Sear is dry, withered. We have the same expr28 2 By the mortified man is meant a religious man; sion and sentiment in Spenser's Pastorals :one who has mortified his passions, is dead to the world,
Also my lustful leaf is drie and seare.' has abandoned it, and all the affairs of it; an ascetic. For 'way of life' Johnston would read “May of life;" in
3 • And many unrough youths. This odd expres. which he was followed by Steevens and others. War. sion means smooth-faced, unbearded.
burton contended for the original reading, and was fol4 i. e. when all the faculties of the mind are employ lowed by Mason. At a subsequent period Steevens ed in self-condemnation.
acquiesced in the propriety of the old reading, way of 5 The medecin, the physician. In the Winter's Tale, life, which he interprets, with his predecessors, course Camillo is called by Perdita "the medecin of our house. or progress. Malone followed the same traci.
6 Shakspeare derived this thought from Holinshed: fact is that these ingenious writers have mistaken the - The Scouish people before had no knowledge of nor phrase, which is neither more nor less than a simple understanding of fine fare or riotous surseit; yet after periphrasis for life. they had once tasted the sweet poisoned bait ihereof,' 12 i. e. srour the country round. &c. 'those superfluities which came into the realme of 13 The following very remarkable passage in the Am. Scotland with Englishmen.'- Hist. of Scotland, p. 179. adigi or Bernardo Tagso, which bears a striking resem
7 To sag, or swag, is to hang down by its own blance to the words of Macbeth, was first pointed out in weighi, or by an overload.
Mr. Weber's edition of Ford : cream-fac'd loon.' This word, which signifies Ma chi puole con erbe, od argomenti a base abject fellow, is now only used in Scotland ; it Guarir l'infermita del intelleuo?" was formerly common in England, but spelt loron, and
Cant. xxxvi. Sl. 37. is justly considered by lorne Tooke as the past parti. 14 To cast the water was the empiric phrase for fira ciple of to lovo or abase. Lowt has the same origin. ing out disorders by the inspection of urine.
1 And purge it to a sound and pristine health, Scy. It is the cry of women, my good lord. I would applaud thee to the very echo,
Macb. I have almost forgot the taste of foars : That should applaud again.-Pull’t off
, I say.- The time has been my senses would have coold What rhubarb, senna, or what purgative drug, Would scour these English hence ? --Hearest thou Would at a dismal treause rouse, and stir of them?
As life were in't: I have supp'd full with horrors; Doct. Ay, my good lord; your royal preparation Direness, familiar to my slaught'rous thoughts, Makes us hear something.
Cannot once start me.- Wherefore was that cry?
Bring it after me. Sey. The queen, my lord, is dead.
Macb. She should have died hereafter;
Doct. Were I from Dunsinane away and clear, To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow,
To the last syllable of recorded time;10
And then is heard no more: it is a tale
Enter a Messenger.
The wood of Birnam. Thou com’st to use thy tongue ; thy story quickly
But know not how to do it.
Well, say, sir.
Mess. As I did stand my watch upon the hill,
I look'd toward Birnam, and anon, methought, Keeps still in Dunsinane, and will endure
Liar and slave
Mess. Let me endure your wrath, if't be fut so:
Within this three mile may you see it coming i
I say, a moving grove.
If thou speak’st false,
Upon the next tree shalt thou hang alive,
Let our just censures Till famine cling" thee: if thy speech be sooth,
I care not if thou dost for me as much.-
I pall in resolution; and begin
To doubt the equivocation of the fiend,
That Ties like truth: Fear not, till Birnam wood
Do come to Dunsinane ;-and now a wood
Comes toward Dunsinane.--Arm, arm, and out!
If this, which he avouches, does appear,
There is nor Aying hence, nor tarrying here.
And wish the estate o’the world were now undone..
ter, with Drums and Colours, MACBETH, SEY- At least we'll die with harness13 on our back.
Old SIWARD, MACDUFF, fc. and their Army,
stroy the effect, and defeat the supposed purpose of the
8!- my fell of hair,'my hairy part, my capilititium. 2 A similar incident is recorded by Olaus Magnus, in Fellis skin, properly a sheep's skin with the wool on il his Northern History, lib. vii. cap. xx. De Strategemate 9 There would have been a time for such a word.' Hachonis per Frondes.
Macbeth might mean that there would have been a more 3 For where there is advantage to be given. Dr. convenient time for such a word, for such intelligence. 'ohnson thought that we should read :
By a word certainly more than a single one was meant. where there is a vantage to be gone.' 10 The last syllable of recorded time' seems to sig .. where there is an opportunity to be gone, all ranks nify the utmost period fixed in the decrees of heaven for ilegert him. We might perhaps read :
the period of life. The record of futurity is indeed no where there is advantage to be gained;' accurate expression ; but as we only know transactions, and the sense would be nearly similar, with less vio- past or present, the language of men affords no term for lence to the text of the old copy.
the volumes of prescience in which future events may 4.i. e. Greater and less, or high and low, those of all be supposed to be written. Tanks.
11 Striking him '] says the stage direction in the 5. What we shall say we have, and what we owe.'margin of all the modern editions: but this stage direc I think, with Mason, that Siward only means to say, in tion is not in the old copies : it was first interpolated by more pompous language, that the time approached Rowe ; and is now omitted on the suggestion of the late which was to decide their fate.
Mr. Kemble. See his Essay on Macbeth and King 6 Arbitrate, determine.
Richard III. Lond. 1917, p. 111. 7 It has been understood that local rhymes were in.
12 To cling, in the northern counties, signifies to troduced in plays to afford an actor the advantage of a shrivel, wither, or dry up. Clung-wood is wood of which force. Yet, whatever might
be Shakspeare's motive for well expressed by Pope in his version of the nineteenth continuing such a practice, he often seems immediately Iliad, 166:to repent of it; and in this tragedy, as in other places,
Clung with dry famine, and with toils declin'd has repeatedly counteracted it by hemistichs, which de
13 Harness, armour.