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none;

more:

And, like a rat without a tail,

Are ye fantastical, or that indeed I'll do, I'll do, and I'll do.

Which outwardly ye show? My noble partner 2 Witch. I'll give thee a wind.'

You greet with present grace, and great prediction 1 Witch. Thou art kind.

Of noble having, and of royal hope, 3 Witch. And I another,

That he seems rapto withal; to me you speak not: 1 Witch. I myself have all the other;

If you can look into the seeds of time, And the very ports they blow,

And say, which grain will grow, and which will not; All the quarters that they know

Speak

then to me, who neither beg, nor fear, l' the shipman's card.?

Your favours, nor your hnte. I will drain him dry as hay:

1 Witch. Hail! Sleep shall, neither night nor day,

2 Witch. Hail! Hang upon his pent-house lid;

3 Witch. Hail! He shall live a man forbid :3

1 Witch. Lesser than Macbeth, and greater. Weary sev'n-nights, nine times nine,

2 Witch. Not so happy, yet much happier, Shall he dwindle, peak, and pine:

3 Witch. Thou shalt gei kings, though thou be Though his bark cannot be lost, Yet it shall be tempest-loss'd."

So, all hail, Macbeth, and Banquo! Look what I have.

1 Witch. Banquo, and Macbeth, all hail ! 2 Witch. Show me, show me.

Mach. Stay, you imperfect speakers, tell me 1 Witch. Here I have a pilot's thumb, Wreck’d, as homeward he did come. (Drum within. By Sinel's!! death, I know, I am thane of Glamis; 3 Witch. A drum, a drum ;

But how of Cawdor ? the thane of Cawdor lives, Macbeth doth come.

A prosperous gentleman; and to be king All. The weird sisters, hand in hand,

Stands not within the prospect of belief, Posters of the sea and land,

No more than to be Cawdor. Say, from whence Thus do go about, about;

You owe this strange intelligence or why Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine,

Upon this blasted heath you stop our way And thrice again, to make up nine :

With such prophetic greeting ?-Speak, I charge Peace !-the charm's wound up.

you.

(Witches vanisha

Ban. The earth hath bubbles, as the water has, Enter Macbeth and Banquo.

And these are of them :-Whither are they va Macb. So foul and fair a day I have not seen.

nish'd ? Ban. How far is't call'd to Fores?-What are Macb. Into the air: and what seem'd corporal, these,

melted So wither'd, and so wild in their attire ;

As breath into the wind.-—'Would, they had staid ! That look not like the inhabitants o' the earth, Ban. Were such things here, as we do speak And yet are on't ? Live you ? or are you aught

about? That man may question? You seem to understand or have we eaten of the insane root, 12 me,

That takes the reason prisoner ? By each at once her choppy finger laying

Macb. Your children shall be kings, Upon her skinny lips :-You should be women, Ban.

You shall be king. And yet your beards forbid me to interpret

Macb. And thane of Cawdor too ; went it not so? That you are so.

Ban. To the selfsame tune, and words. Who's Macb. Speak, if you can ;-What are you?

here? 1 Witch. All hail, Macbeth! hail to thee, thane

Enter Rosse and AngUs. of Glamis !" 2 Witch. All hail, Macbeth! hail to thee, thane The news of thy success : and when he reads

Rosse. The king hath happily receiv'd, Macbeth, of Cawdor! 3 Witch. All hail, Macbeth! that shalt be king Thy personal venture in the rebels' fight,

His wonders and his praises do contend, hereafter. Ban. Good sir, why do you start; and seem to which should be thine, or his: Silenc'd with that, 13 fear

In viewing o'er the rest o' the selfsame day, Things that do sound so fair ?_l'the name of truth, He finds thee in the stout Norweyan ranks,

Nothing afеard of what thyself didst make, I This free gist of a wind is to be considered as an Strange images of death. As thick as tale, act of sisterly friendship; for witches were supposed to well them.

7 The thaneship of Glamis was the ancient inheri. 2 i. e, the sailor's chart; carte-marine.

tance of Macbeth's family. The castle where they 3 Forbid, i. e. forespoken, unhappy, charmed or be lived is still standing, and was lately the magnificent rewitched. The explanation of Theobald and Johnson, sidence of the earl of Strathmore. Gray has given a "interdicted or under a curse,' is erroneous. A forbo particular description of it in a Letter to Dr. Wharton. din fellow, Scotice, still signifies an unhappy one. 8 i. e. creatures of fantasy or imaginatione

+ This mischief was supposed to be put in execution 9 Estate, fortune. by means of a waxen figure. Holinshed, speaking of the 10 Rapi is rapturously affected; ertra se raplus. witchcraft practised to destroy King Duff, says that they 11 “Sinel. The late Dr. Beattie conjectured that the found one of the witches roasting, upon a wooden real name of this family was Sinane, and that Drinsi broach, an image of wax at the fire, resembling in each nane, or the hill of Sinane from thence derived its name feature the king's person, &c.— for as the image did 12 The insane root was probably henbane. _In Bai waste afore the fire, so did the bodie of the king break man's Commentary on Bartholome de Propriet. Rerum forth in eweat: and as for the words of the inchant- a book with which Shakspeare was familiar, is the inent, they served to keepe him still waking from sleepe.' following passage :-Henbane is called insana, mad, This may serve to explain the foregoing passage: for the use thereof is perillous; for if it be eate or Sleep shall, neither night nor day,

dronke it breedeth madnesse, or slow lykenesse ot Hang upon his pent-house lid.'

sleepe. Therefore this hearb is called commonly mi. . In the pamphlet about Dr. Fian, already quoted-rilidium, for it taketh away wit and reason.' • Againe it is confessed, that the said christened cat was 13 i. e. admiration of your deeds, and a desire to do the cause of the Kinge's majestie's shippe, at his them justice by public commendation, contend in his coming forth of Denmarke, had a contrarie winde 10 mind for pre-eminence: he is silenced with ronder. the rest of his shippes then being in his companie.'-- 14 i. e. posts arrived as fust as they could be counted. * and further the said witch declared, that his majestie Thicke (says Barei,) that cometh ofien and thicke had never come safely from the sea, if his faith had not together : creber, frequens, frequent, soutent seranl' prevailed above their intentions. To this circumstance, and again. “Crebritas literarum, the often sending, or perhaps, Shakspeare's allusion is sufficiently plain. thicke coming of letters. Thicke breathing, anhelitus

6 The old copy has weyward, evidently by mistake. creber.' Shakspeare twice uses 'to speak thick for Weird, from the Saxon, a witch, Shakspeare found in to speak quick. To tale or tell is to score or sumber. Holinghed. Gawin Douglas, in his translation of Vir. Rowe, not understanding this passage, altered it to as zil, renders the parcæ by weird sisters.

quick as hail.

2

14

15

Camel post with post; and every one did bear Macb. If chance will have me king, why, chance Thy praises in his kingdom's great defence,

may crown me, And pour'd them down before him.

Without my stir.
Ang.

We are sent,
Ban.

New honours come upon him
To give thee, from our royal master, thanks; Like our strange garments; cleave not to their
Only to herald thee into his sight, not pay thee.

mould, Rosse. And, for an earnest of a greater honour,

But with the aid of use. He bade me, from him, call thee thane of Cawdor: Macb.

Come what come may; In which addition, hail, most worthy thane ! Time and the hour runs through the roughest day. For it is thine.

Ban. Worthy Macbeth, we stay upon your leisure. Ban.

What, can the devil speak true ? Macb. Give me your favour: 12-my dull brain Macb. The thane of Ćawdor lives? Why do you was wrought dress me

With things forgotten. Kind gentlemen, your pains, In borrow'd robes ?

Are register'd where every day I turn Ang.

Who was the thane, lives yet; The leaf to read them -Let us toward the king.– But under heavy judgment bears that life

Think upon what hath chanc'd: and, at more times, Which he deserves to lose. Whether he was com- The interim having weigh'd it, 13 let us speak bin'd

Our free hearts each to other. With those of Norway, or did line the rebel

Ban.

Very gladly. With hidden help and vantage; or that with both Macb. Till then, enough.-Come, friends. He labour'd in his country's wreck, I know not;

(Exeunt. But treasons capital, confess’d, and prov'd,

SCENE IV. Fores. A Room in the Palace. Have overthrown him.

Flourish. Enter Duncan, MALCOLM, DONALMacb. Glamis, and thane of Cawdor;

BAIN, LExox, and Attendants. The greatest is behind.-Thanks for your pains.Do you not hope your children shall be kings, Dun. Is execution done on Cawdor? Are not When those that gave the thane of Cawdor to me, Those in commission yet return'd? Promis'd no less to them ?

Mal.

My liege, Ban.

That, trusted home,? They are not yet come back. But I have spoke Might yet enkindles you unto the crown,

With one thai saw him die : who did report, Besides the thane of Cawdor. But 'tis strange:

That very frankly he confess'd his treasons;
And oftentimes, to win us to our harm,

Implor’d your highness' pardon; and set forth
The instruments of darkness tell us truths; A deep repentance : nothing in his life
Win us with honest trifles, 10 betray us

Became him, like the leaving it; he died
In deepest consequence.-

As one that had been studied in his death, Cousins, a word, I pray you.

To throw away the dearest thing he ow'd, is Macb.

Two truths are told, As 'twere a careless trifle.

Dun. As happy prologues to the swelling act*

There's no art, of the imperial theme.-I thank you, gentlemen - To find the mind's construction in the face : 16 This supernatural solicitings

He was a gentleman on whom I built Cannot be ill; cannot be good :-If ill,

An absolute trust.-0 worthiest cousin! Why hath it given me earnest of success,

Enter MACBETH, Banquo, Rosse, and Angus. Commencing in a truth ? I am thane of Čawdor:

The sin of my ingratitude even now
If good, why do I yield to that suggestion
Whoso horrid image doth unfix my hair,

Was heavy on me: Thou art so far before,

That swiftest wing of recompense is slow And make my seated? heart knock at my ribs,

To overtake thee. "Would, thou hadst less deserv'd; Against the use of nature ? Present fears

That the proportion both of thanks and payment Are less than horrible imaginings : My thought, whose murder yet is but fantastical

Might have been mine ! only

I have left to say,

More is thy due than more than all can pay." Shakes so my single state of man, that function

Macb. The service and the loyalty I owe, Is smother'd'in surmise ;'° and nothing is,

In doing it, pays itself. Your highness' part
But what is not,'1

Is to receive our duties : and our duties
Ban.
Look, how our partner's rapt. Are to your throne

and state, children, and servants ;

Which do but what they should, by doing every I Came post.' The old copy reads can. Rowe

thing made the emendation.

Safe toward your love and honour.18 2 i. e. entirely, thoroughly relied on.

3 Enkindle means 'encourage you to expect the as it has been here interpreted. Vide Hamlet, Act v. crown.'

Sc. 2. 4.As happy prologues to the swelling act.' So in 13 · The interim having weigh'd it. The interim is the prologue to King Henry V.:

probably here used adverbially—You having weighed princes to act,

it in the interim." And monarchs to behold the swelling scene.'

14 Studied in his death is well instructed in the art of 5 i. e, incitement,

dying. The behaviour of the thane of Cawdor cor6 Suggestion, temptation.

responds in almost every circumstance with that of the 7 Sealed, firmly placed, fixed,

untortunate earl of Essex, as related by Stowe, p. 793 Present fears

His asking the queen's forgiveness, his confession, reAre less than horrible imaginings.'

pentance, and concern about behaving with propriety So in The Tragedie of Cresus, by Lord Sterline, 1604: on the scaffold, are minutely described by that histori

• For as the shadow seems more monstrous still an.' Steevens thinks that an allusion was intended Than doth the substance whence it hath the being, to the severity of that justice which deprived the age So th' apprehension of approaching ill

of one of its greatest ornaments, and Southampion, Seems greater than itself, whilst fears are lying' Shakspeare's patron, of his dearest friend 9 By his single state of man, Macbeth means his 15 Oro'd, owned, possessed. simple condition of human nature. Single soul, for a 16 We cannot construe the disposition of the mind by simple or weak guileless person, was the phraseology the lineaments of the face. of the poet's time. Simplicity and singleness were 17 i. e. I owe thee more than all ; nay, more than all synonymous.

which I can say or do will requite.
10
that function

19 Safe toward your love and honour.' Sir William Is ernocher'd in surmise.'

Blackstone would read :The powers of action are oppressed by conjecture.

Safe toward you love and honour 11 But what is not.' Shakspeare has something like which he explains thus:-- Our duties are your child this sentiment in The Merchant of Venice:

ren, and servants or vassals to your throne and state • Where every something, being blent together, who do but what they should, by doing every thing with Turns to a wild of nothing.'

a saving of their love and honour toward you. He 12 Fatour is countenance, good will, and not pardon, says that it has reference to the old feudal simple ho

8

Dun, Welcome bither :

title, before, these weird sisters saluted me, and referI have begun to plant thee, and will labour red me to the coming on of time, with, Hail, king that To make thee full of growing.'-Noble Banquo, shalt be! This have I thought good to deliver thee, That hast no less deserv'd, nor must be known my dearest partner of greatness; that thou mightest No less to have done so, let me enfold thee, not lose the dues of rejoicing, by being ignorant of And hold thee to my heart.

what greatness is promised thee. Lay it to thy heart, Ban.

There if I grow, and farewell.
T'he harvest is your own.

Glamis thou art, and Cawdor; and shalt be
Dun.

My plenteous joys, What thou art promis'd :-Yet do I fear thy nature.
Wanton in fulness, seek to hide ihemselves It is too full o' the milk of human kindness,
In drops of sorrow.2-Sons, kinsmen, thanes, To catch the nearest way: Thou would'st be great;
And you whose places are the nearest, know, Art not without ambition; but without
We will establish our estate upon

The illness should attend it. What thou would'st Our eldest, Malcolm; whom we name hereafter,

highly, The prince of Cumberland : which honour must That would'st thou holily; would'st not play false, Not, unaccompanied, invest him only,

And yet would'st wrongly win; thou'dst have, great But signs of nobleness, like stars, shall shine

Glamis, On all deservers. From hence to Inverness, That which cries, Thus thou must do, if thou have it : And bind us further to you.

And that which rather thou dost fear to do,
Macb. The rest is labour, which is not us'd for Than wishest should be undone. Hie thee hither
you:

That I may pour my spirits in thine ear;8
I'll be myself the harbinger, and make joyful And chastise with the valour of my tongue
The hearing of my wife with your approach; All that impedes thee from the golden round,
So, humbly take my leave.

Which fate and metaphysical aid doth seem
Dun.

My worthy Cawdor! To have thee crown'd withal. What is your Mach. The prince of Cumberland !--That is a tidings? step,

Enter an Attendant. On which I must fall down, or else o'erleap,

(Aside. Attend. The king comes here to-night. For in my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires !

Lady M.

Thou'rt mad to say it: Let not light see my black and deep desires :

Is not thy master with him ? who, wer't so, The eye wink at the hand! yet let that be,

Would have inform'd for preparation. Which the eye fears, when it is done, to see. (Exit.

Attend. So please you, it is true; our thane is Dun. True, worthy Banquo; he is full so valiant;*

coming : And in his commendations I am fed ;

One of my fellows had the speed of him ; It is a banquet to me. Let us after him,

Who, almost dead for breath, had scarcely more Whose care is gone before to bid us welcome :

Than would make up his message. It is a peerless kinsman. (Flourish. Eveunt. Lady M.

Give him tending,

He brings great news. The raven himself is hoarse, SCENE V. Inverness. A Room in Macbeth's

(Exit Attendant. Castle. Enter Lady MACBETH, reading a Letter. That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan

Under my battlements. Come, come, you spirits Lady M. They met me in the day of success; and I have learned by the perfectest report, they have And fill me, from the crown to the toe, top-full

That tend on mortal'o thoughts, unsex me here; more in them than mortal knowledge. When I burned or direst cruelty! make thick my blood, in desire to question them further, they made them- Stop up the access and passage to remorse ; selves-air, into which they vanished. Whiles I stood That no compunctious visitings of nature rapl in the wonder of it, came missivess from the

Shake

my king, who all-hailed me, Thane of Cawdor ; by which The effect, and it !" Come to my woman's breasts,

fell purpose, nor keep peace between mage, which when done to a subject was always ac. 7 Thou would'nt have that [i. e. the crown) which companied with a saving clause- saulf le foy que jeo cries unto thee, thou must do thus, if thou would'se doy a nostre seignor le roy; which he thinks suits well have it, and thou must do that which rather,' &c. The with the situation of Macbeth, now beginning to waver difficulty of this passage in Italics seems to have arisen in his allegiance. Malone and Steevens seem to favour from its not having been considered as all uttered by this explanation : but safe may inerely mean respect the object of Macbeth's ambition. Malone is the author ful, lojal; like the old French word sauf. Shakspeare of this regulation, and furnished the explanation. has used the old French phrase, sauf totre honneur, 8 'That I may pour my spirits in thine ear.' So in several times in King Henry V.

Lord Sterline's Julius Cæsar, 1607 1 i. e. exuberant

* Thou in my bosom 11sed 10 pour thy spright.' ? 'In drops of sorrow.'

9 “Which fate and metaphysical aid, &c.; 1. e. su. lachrymas non sponte cadentes

pernatural aid.

We find metaphysics explained ffudit, gemitusque expressit

things supernatural in the old dictionaries. To have on aliter manifesta potens abscondere mentis thee crown'd,' is to desire that you should be crown'd. Gaudia, quam lachrymis.' Lucan, lib. ix.

10 • That tend on mortal thoughts.' Mortal and deadly 3 Holinshed says, Duncan having two sons, &c. were synonymous in Shakspeare's time. In another he made the elder of them, called Malcolm, prince of part of this play we have the mortal sword,' and mor. Cumberland, as it was thereby to appoint him his suc-tal murders. We have mortal war,' and mortal cessor in his kingdome immediatelie after his decease. hatred.' In Nashe's Pierce Pennilesse is a particular Macbeth sorely troubled here with, for that he saw by description of these spirits, and of their office. * The this means his hope sore hindered (where, by the old second kind of devils, which he most employeth, are laws of the realme the ordinance was, that if he that those northern Martii, called the spirits of Terenge, should succeed were not of able age to take the charge and the authors of massacres, and seedsmen of mis upon himself, he that was next of blood unto him chieť; for they have commission to incense men to should be admitted,) he began to take counsel how he rapines, sacrilege, theft, murder, wrath, fury, and all might usurpe the kingdome by force, having a just manner of cruelties: and they command certain of the quarrel so to doe (as he tooke the matter) for that Dun. southern spirits to wait upon them, as also great Arioch, cane did what in him lay to defraud him of all manner that is termed the spirit of rerenge.' of title and claime, which he might in time to come pre

11 Lady Macbeth's purpose was to be effected by tend, unto the crowne.'

action. 4? True, worthy Banquo,' &c. We must imagine pose," means 'to delay the execution of her purpose, to

"To keep peace between the effect and pur. that while Macbeth was uttering the six preceding prevent its proceeding to effect.' Sir Wm. Davenant's lines, Duncan and Banquo had been conferring apart. strange alteration of this play sometimes affords a rea. Macbeth's conduct appears to have been their subject; sonably good cominentary upon it. Thus in the present and to some encomium supposed to have been bestowed

instance : on him by Banquo, the reply of Duncan refers.

-make thick 3 The perfectest report is the best intelligence.

My blood, stop all passage to remorse, 6 Missites, messengers.

That no relapses into mercy may

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And take my milk for gall, you murd'ring ministers, Hath made his pendant bed, and procreant cradle: Wherever in your sightless substances

Where they most breed and haunt, I have observ'd, You wait on nature's mischief! Come, thick night, The air is delicate.” And pall' thee in the dunnest smoke of hell! That my keen knife see not the wound it makes;

Enter LADY MACBETH. Nor heaven peep through the blanket of the dark,? Dun.

See, see! our honour'd hostess ! " To cry, Hold, hold! Great Glamis ! worthy The love that follows us, sometime is our trouble, Cawdor!

Which still we thank as love. Herein I teach you Enter MACBETH.

How you shall bid God yield® us for your pains,

And thank us for your trouble. Greater than both, by the all-hail hereafter!

Lady M.

All our service, Thy letters have transported me beyond This ignorant present, and I feel now

In every point twice done, and then done double,

Were poor and single business, to contend The future in the instant.

Against those honours deep and broad, wherewith Macb.

My dearest love, Duncan comes here to-night.

Your majesty loads our house: For those of old,

And the late dignities heap'd up to them, Lady M.

And when goes

hence ? Macb. To-morrow,-as he purposes.

We rest your hermits.
Dren.

Where's the thane of Cawdor ? Lady M.

O, never We cours'd him at the heels, and had a purpose Shall sun that morrow see!

To be his purveyor: but he rides well: Your face, my thane, is as a book, where men May read strange matters :-To beguile the time, To his home before us : Fair and noble hostess,

And his great love, sharp as his spur, hath holp hin Look like the time; bear welcome in your eye, We are your guest to-night. Your hand, your tongue : look like the innocent

Lady M.

Your servants ever flower,

Have theirs, themselves, and what is theirs, in But be the serpent under it. He that's coming Must be provided for : and you

To make their audit at your highness' pleasure, This night's great business into my despatch;

Still to return your own. Which shall to all our nights and days to come

Dren.

Give me your hand Give solely sovereign sway and masterdom. Conduct me to mine host; we love him highly, Macb. We will speak further.

And shall continue our graces towards him. Lady M.

Only look up clear ; By your leave, hostess. To alter favour ever is to fear :

(Exeunt, Leave all the rest to me.

(Ereunt. SCENE VII. The same. A Room in the Castle. SCENE VI. The same. Before the Castle. Haut- Hautboys and Torches. Enter, and pass over the

boys. Servants of Macbeth attending. Enter Stage, a Sewer," and divers Servanis with Dishes DUNCAN, Malcolm, DONALBAIN, Banquo,

and Service. Then enter MACBETH. LENOX, Macdorf, Rosse, A.yous, and Attend

Macb. If it were done, when 'tis done, then 'twere ants.

well Dren. This castle hath a pleasant seat:5 the air It were done quickly: If the assassination Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself

Could trarnmel up the consequence, and catch, Unto our gentle senses.

With his surcease, success; that but this blow Ban. This guest of summer,

Might be the be-all and the end-all here, The temple-haunting martlet, does approve, But here, upon this bank and shoal of time,By his lov'd mansionry, that the heaven's breath We'd jump the life to come.12-But, in these cases, Smells wooingly here: no jutty, frieze,

We still have judgment here; that we but teach Buttress, nor coigne of vantage, but this bird Bloody instructions, which, being taught, return

To plague the inventor: This even-handed justice Shake my design, nor make it fall before 'Tis ripend to effect.'

8 The explanation by Steevens of this obscure pas. I To pall, from the Latin pallio, to wrap, to invest, sage seems the best which has been offered :-Marks to cover or hide as with a mantle or cloak.

of respect importunately shown are sometimes trouble. 2 Drayton, in his Mortimeriados, 1596, has an ex- some, though we are still bound to be grateful for them, pression resembling this :

as indications of sincere attachment. If you pray for us "The sullen night in mistie RUGGE is wrapp'd.' on account of the trouble we create in your house, and And in his Polyolbion, which was not published till 1612, thank us for the molestations we bring with us, it must we again find it :

be on such a principle. Herein I teach you, that the * Thick vapours that like ruggs still hang the troubled inconvenience you suffer is the result of our 'affection ; air.'

and that you are therefore to pray for us, or thank us On this passage there is a long criticism in the Ram. only as far as prayers and thanks can be deserved for bler, No. 169; to which Johnson in his notes refers the kindnesses thai fatigue, and honours that oppress. You reader with much complacency.

are, in short, to make your acknowledgments for in. 3 i. e. beyond the present time, which is, according to tended respect and love, however irksome our present the process of nature, ignorant of the future.

mode of expressing them may have proved. --To bid is 4 Favour is countenance.

here used in the Saxon sense of to pray. God yield us, 5 i. e. situation.

6 i. e, convenient corner. is God reward us. 7 This short dialogue,' says Sir Joshua Reynolds, 9 i. e. we as hermits, or beadsmen, shall ever pray has always appeared to me a striking instance of what for you. in painting is termed repose. The conversation very 10 In compt, subject to accompt. naturally curns upon the beauty of the castle's situation, 11 sewer, an officer so called from his placing the and the pleasantness of the air ; and Banquo, observing dishes on the table. Asseour, French; from asseoir, the martlets' nests in every recess of the cornice, re- to pluce. marks, that where those birds most breed and haunt the 12 This passage has been variously explained. I have air is delicate. The subject of this quiet and easy con attempted briefly to express what I conceive to be its versation gives that repose so necessary to the mind meaning Twere well it were done quickly, if, when after the tumultuous bustle of the preceding scenes, and 'tis done, it were done (or at an end ;) and that no sinis. perfectly contrasts the scene of horror that immediately ter consequences would ensue. If the assassination, succeeds. It seems as if Shakspeare asked himself, at the same time that it puts an end to Duncan's life, What is a prince likely to say to his attendants on such could make success certain, and that I might enjoy the an occasion? Whereas the modern writers seem, on crown unmolested,we'd jump the life to come, i.e. hazard the contrary, to be always searching for new thoughts, or run the risk of what may happen in a future state. To such as would never occur to men in the situation which trammel up was to confine or tie up. The legs of horses is represented. This also is frequently the practice of were trammeled to teach them to amble. There was Homer, who, from the midst of baules and horrors re- also “a trammel-nel,' which was 'a long net to take lioves and refreshes the mind of the reader, by intro. great and small fowl with by night. Surcease is ces. ducing some quier rural image or picture of familiar sation. To surcease or to cease from doing some mestic life.'

I thing ; supersedeo, Lal. ; cesser, Fr.-Baret.

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Commends' the ingredients of our poison'd chalice I would, while it was siniling in my face,
To our own lips. He's here in double trust : Have pluck'd my nipple from his boneless gums,
First, as I am his kinsman and his subject, And dash'd the brains out, had I so sworn, as you
Strong both against the deed; then, as his host, Have done to this.
Who should against his murderer shut the door, Mach.

If we should fail,
Not bear the knife myself. Besides, this Duncan Lady M.

We fail! Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been But screw your courage to the sticking-place,' So'clear in his great office, that his virtues And we'll not fail. When Duncan is asleep Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongued, against

(Whereto the rather shall his day's hard journey The deep damnation of his taking off:

Soundly invite him,) his two chamberlains And pity, like a naked new-born babe,

Will I with wine and wassel' so convince, lo Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubin, hors'd That memory, the warder of the brain, 'pon the sightless couriers? of the air,

Shall be a fume, and the receipt of reason Shall blow the horrid deed in every eye,

A limbeck) only: When in swinish sleep hat tears shall drown the wind.--I have no spur Their drenchedla natures lie, as in a death, so prick the sides of my intent, but only,

What cannot you and I perform upon
'aulting ambition, which o'erleaps itself, The unguarded Duncan? what not put upon
And falls on the other-How now, what news ? His spongy officers; who shall bear the guilt
Enter LADY MACBETH.

Of our great quell ?13
Macb.

Bring forth men-children only! Lady M. He has almost supp'd: Why have you For thy undaunted mettle should compose left the chamber?

Nothing but males. Will it not be receiv'd, '* Macb. Hath he ask'd for me?

When we have mark'd with blood those sleepy two Lady M.

Know you not, he has ? Of his own chamber, and us'd their very daggers, Macb. We will proceed no further in this business: That they have don't ? He hath honour'd me of late ; and I have bought

Lady M.

Who dares receive it other, Golden opinions from all sorts of people,

As we shall make our griefs and clamour roar Which would be worn now in their newest gloss, Upon his death? Not cast aside so soon.

Macb.

I am settled, and bend up
Lady M.
Was the hope drunk,

Each corporal agent to this terrible feat.
Wherein you dress'd yourself? hath it slept since ? Away, and mock the time with fairest show;
And wakes it now, to look so green and pale

False face must hide what the false heart doth know, At what it did so freely? From this time,

(Eseunt. Such I account thy love. Art thou aseard To be the same in thine own act and valour,

ACT II.
As thou art in desire ? Would'st thou have that
Which thou esteem'st the ornament of life,

SCENE I. The same. Court within the Castle. And live a coward in thine own esteem;

Enter Banquo and FLEANCE, and a Servant, Letting I dare not wait upon I would,

with a Torch before them. Like the poor cat i' the adage ?

Ban. How goes the night, boy! Macb.

Prythee, peace : Fle. The moon is down. I have not heard the I dare do all that may become a man;

clock. Who dares do more, is none.

Ban. And she goes down at twelve.
Lady M.
What beast was't then, Fle.

I take', 'tis later, sir. That made you break this enterprise to me ? Ban. Hold, take my sword :-There's husbandWhen you durst do it, then you were a man;

rylb in heaven, And, to be more than what you were, you would Their candles are all out.- Take thee that too. Be so much more the man. Nor time, nor place, A heavy summons lies like lead upon me, Did then adhere, and yet you would make both : And yet I would not sleep: Merciful powers! They have made themselves, and that their fitness Restrain in me the cursed thoughts, that nature

Gives way to in repose :16–Give me my sword ;Does unmake you. I have given suck; and know How tender 'tis to love the babe that milks me :

Enter Macbeth, and a Servant with a Torch.

Who's there? 1 To commend was anciently used in the sense of the 8 The circumstance relative to Macbeth's slaughter Latin commendo, to commit, to address, to direct, to of Duncan's chamberlains is copied from Holinshed's recommend.

account of King Duffe's murder by Donwald. 2 'The sightless couriers of the airs are what the 9 Wassel is thus explained by Bullokar in his Ex. poet elsewhere calls the viewless winds.

positor, 1616: “Wassaile, a term usual heretofore for 3 So in the tragedy of Cæsar and Pompey, 1607 :- quaffing and carou sing; but more especially signifying "Why think you, lords, that 'tis ambition's spur a merry cup (ritually composed, decki and fillid with

That pricketh Cæsar to these high attempts ? country liquor) passing about amongst neighbours, Malone has observed that there are iwo distinct meta. meeting and entertaining one another on the vigil or ere phors in this passage. I have no spur to prick the sides of the new year, and commonly called the uussail.bol.' of my intent; I have nothing to stimulate me to the 10 To contince is to overcome. execution of my purpose but ambition, which is apt to IL A limbeck is a vessel through which distilled liquorg overreach itself'; ihis he expresses by the second image, pass into the recipient. So shall the receipt (i. e. recepof a person meaning to vault into his saddle, who, by iacle) of reason be like this empty vessel. taking too great a leap, will fall on the other side.'

12 i. e, drowned in drink. + This passage is perhaps sufficiently mtelligible; 13 Quell is murder; from the Saxon quellan, to kill. but as Johnson and Steevens thought otherwise, I musí 14 i. e. apprehended, understood. offer a brief explanation.-- Would'st thou have the 15 Husbandry here means thrift, frugality. crown, that which thou esteem'st the ornament of life, 16 It is apparent from what Banquo says afterwards, and yet live a coward in thine own esteem,' &c. The that he had been solicited in a dream to attempt sumeadage of the cat is among Heywood's Proverbs, 1566 :- thing in consequence of the prophecy of the witches, • The cat would eate fishe, and would not wet her feete.' that his waking senses were shocked at; and Shak.

5 Who dares do more is none. The old copy, in speare has here most exquisitely contrasted his charac stead of do more,' reads ó no more: the emendation is ter with that of Macbeth. Banquo is praying against Rowe's.

being tempted to encourage thoughts of guilt even in his 6 Adhere, in the same sense as cohere.

sleep; while Macbeth is hurrying into temptation, and 7. But screw your courage to the slicking-place,' revolving in his mind every scheme, however tlagitious, Shakspeare seems to have taken his metaphor from the that may assist him to complete his parpose. The one screwing up the chords of stringed instruments to their is unwilling to sleep, lest the same phantoms should proper degree of tension, when the peg remains fast in assail his resolution again, while the other is depriving ils sticking-piace; i. e. in the place from which it is no: himself of rest through impatience o commit the muro recede, or go back.

der.

now

6

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