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Dem. Well roared, lion.
Dem. And thus she moans,' videlicet. The. Well run, Thisbe.
This. “ Asleep, my love? Hip. Well shone moon.—Truly, the moon shines “What, dead, my dove ? with a good grace.
"O Pyramus, arise, The. Well moused,' lion.
Speak, speak. Quite dumb ? [The Lion tears Thisbe's Mantle, and exit. Dead, dead ? A tomb Dem. And so comes Pyramus.
“ Must cover thy sweet eyes, Lys. And then the moon vanishes.
“ These lily brows,'
“ This cherry nose, Enter PYRAMUS.
" These yellow cowslip cheeks, Pyr. “ Sweet moon, I thank thee for thy sunny “Are gone, are gone: beams :
“ Lovers, make moan "I thank thee, moon, for shining now so bright. “His eyes were green as leeks. “For, by thy gracious, golden, glittering streams, “O sisters three, “I trust to taste of truest Thisby's sigh..
“Come, come, to me, “But stay;-0 spite !
“With hands as pale as milk ; “But mark ,-Poor knight,
“ Lay them in gore, • What dreadful dole is here!
“Since you have shore “Eyes do you see?
" With shears his thread of silk. “How can it be?
“Tongue, not a word :“) dainty duck! O dear!
Come, trusty sword; “ Thy mantle good,
"Come, blade, my breast imbrue : “What, stain' with blood ?
“ And farewell
, friends ;" Approach, ye furies fell !
“Thus Thisby ends : “O fates! come, come;?
“ Adieu, adieu, adieu.”
The. Moonshine and lion are left to bury the dead
Dem, Ay, and wall too.
parted their fathers. Will it please you to see the Hip. Beshrew my heart, but I pity the man. epilogue, or to hear a Burgomask dance,' between Pyr. “0, wherefore, nature, didst thou lions two of our company ? frame?
The. No epilogue, I pray you: for your play “ Since lion vile hath here deflour'd my dear:
excuse. Never excuse ; for when the " Which is--no, no—which was the fairest dame, I players are all dead, there need none to be blamed. “That liv'd, that lov'd, that lik’d, that look's Marry, if he that writ it, had play'd Pyramus, and with cheer.
hanged himself with Thisbe's garier, it would have “Come, tears, confound:
been a fine tragedy: and so it is, truly; and very “Out, sword, and wound
notably discharged. But come, your Bergomask · ! The pap of Pyramus:
let your epilogue alone. (Here a dance of Clowns.
The iron iongue of midnight hath told twelve :-
Lovers, to bed; 'tis almost fairy time. “ Thus die I, thus, thus, thus.
I fear we shall outsleep the coming morn, “Now am I dead,
As much as we this night have overwatch'd. “ Now am I fed ;
This palpable-gross play hath well beguild “My soul is in the sky :
The heavy gaitio of night.–Sweet friends, to bed. ". Tongue, lose thy light !
A fortnight hold we this solemnity “Moon take thy Highe!
In nightly revels, and new jollity. “Now die, die, die, die, die.".
SCENE II. Enter Puck. (Dies.-Exut Moonshine. Dem. No die, but an ace, for him; for he is but
Puck. Now the hungry lion roars,
And the wolf behowls the moon; Lys. Less than an ace, man; for he is dead; he
Whilst the heavy ploughman spores, is nothing.
All with weary iask fordone." The. With the help of a surgeon, he might yet
Now the wasted brands do glow, recover, and prove an ass.
Whulst the scritch-owl, scritching loud, Hip. How chance moonshine is gone, before
Puts the wretch that lies in woe, Thisbe comes back and finds her lover?
In remembrance of a shroud. The. She will find him by star-light.--Here she
Now it is the time of night, comes; and her passion ends the play.
That the graves all gaping wide,
Every one lets forth his sprite,
In the church-way paths to glide : Hip. Methinks, she should not use a long one, And we fairies, that do run, for such a Pyramus : I hope, she will be brief.
By the triple Hecat's team, Dem. A mote will turn the balance, which Py. From the presence of the sun, ramus, which Thisbe, is the better.
Following darkness like a dream, Lys. She hath spied him already with those sweet Now are frolic; not a mouse eyes.
Shall disturb this hallow'd house: 1 To mouse, according to Malone, signified to mam- "You shall taste him more as a soldier than as a wit, mock, to tear in pieces, as a cat tears a mouse. 2 Dr. Farmer thought this was written in ridicule of a though with little success; as in support of his preten
which is a distinction he is here striving to deserve, passage in Damon and Pythias, by Richard Edwards, sions he never rises higher than a pun, and frequently 1582:
sinks as low as a quibble.
7 The old copies read means, which had anciently
the same signification as moans. Theobald made the
8 The old copies read lips instead of brows. The
alteration was made for the sake of the rhyme by TheoWith speed come stop my breath.
bald. a Thrum is the end or extremity of a weaver's warp. 9 A rustic dance framed in imitation of the people of It is used for any collection or tuft of short thread. Bergamasco (a province in the state of Venice, whe 6 The character of Theseus throughout this play is and dialect than any other people of Italy. The linguine
are ridiculed as being more clownish in their manners more exalted in its humanity than in its greatness. rustica of the buffoons, in the old Halian comedies, is Though some sensible observations on life and anima. an imitation of their jargon. led descriptions fall froin him, as it is said of lago, 10 i. e. slow passage, progress.
I am sent, with broom, before,
Make no stay;
Meet me all by break of day
(Exeunt OrEron, TITANIA, and Train
I'hink but this (and all is mended,)
That you have but slumber'd here,
While these visions did appear,
And this weak and idle theme,
No more yielding but a dreani,
Gentles, do not reprehend :
If you pardon, we will mend.
And, as I'm an honest Puck,
If we have unearned luck,?
Now to 'scape the serpent's tongue,
We will make amends, ere long :
Else the Puck a liar call,
So, good night unto you all.
Give me your hands, if we be friends,
And Robin shall restore amends. [Esto
WILD and fantastical as this play is, all the parts in
their various modes are well written, and give the kind And the blots of nature's hand
of pleasure which th author designed. Fairies in his Shall not in their issue stand;
time were much in fashion; common tradition bad Never mole, hare-lip, nor scar,
made them familiar, and Spenser's poem had made them great.
JOHNSON Nor mark prodigious,“ such as are
JOHNSON'S concluding observations on this play are Despised in nativity,
not conceived with his usual judgment. There is no Shall upon their children be.
analogy or resemblance between the Fairies of Spen. With this field-dew consecrate,
ser and those of Shakspeare. The Fairies of Spenser, Every fairy take his gate ;',
as appears from his description of them in the second And each several chamber bless,
book of the Faerie Queene, canto x. were a race or Through this palace with sweet peace :
mortals created by Prometheus, of the human size, E'er shall it in safety rest,
shape, and affections, and subject to death. But those And the owner of it blest.
of Shakspeare, and of common tradition, as Johnson calls them, were a dimninutive race of sportful beings,
endowed with immortality and supernatural powers, 1 Cleanliness is always necessary to invite the resi. totally different from those of Spenser. M. MASON. Jence or favour of the Fairies. 2 Milton perhaps had this picture in his thoughts : married couple would no doubt rejoice when the bene. And glowing embers through the room
diction was ended. Teach night to counterfeit a gloom.'
5 Way, course. 3 This ceremony was in old times used at all mar. 6 The same superstitious kind of benediction occurs riages. Mr. Douce has given the formula from the in Chaucer's Millere's Tale, vol. i. p. 105, I. 22. WhilManual for the use of Salisbury. We may observe on tingham's Edit. this strange ceremony, that the purity of modern times 7 i.e. jf we have better fortune than we have deserved. stands not in need of these holy aspersions to lull the 8 i. e. hisses. senses and dissipate the illusions of the devil. The 9 Clap your hands, give us your applause
LOVE'S LABOUR’S LOST.
THE novel upon which this comedy was founded has ! The grotesque characters, Don Adrian de Armado, hitherto eluded ihe research of the commentators. Mr. Nathaniel the curate, and Holofernes, that prince of pe. Douce thinks it will prove to be of French extraction. dants, with the humours of Costard the clown, are well • The Dramats Personæ in a great measure demons. contrasted with the sprightly wit of the principal chatrate this, as well as a palpable Gallicism in Act iv. Sc. racters in the play. It has been observed that • Biron 1 : viz. the terming a letter a capon.'
and Rosaline suffer much in comparison with Benedick This is one of Shakspeare's early plays, and the and Beatrice,' and it must be confessed that there is author's youth is certainly perceivable, not only in the some justice in the observation. Yet Biron, thatmerry style and manner of the versification, but in the lavish mad-cap Lord,' is not overrated in Rosaline's admirasuperfluity displayed in the execution: the uninterrupt.ble character of himed succession of quibbles, equivoques, and sallies of
A merrier man, every description. The sparks of wit fly about in Within the limit of becoming mirib, such profusion that they form complete fireworks, and I never spent an hour's talk withal: the dialogue for the most part resembles the bustling His eye begele occasion for his wil; collision and banter of passing masks at a carnival.:* For every object that the one doth catch, The scene in which the king and his companions detect The other turns to a mirth-moving jest ;each other's breach of their mutual vow, is capitally So sweet and voluble is his discourse.' contrived. The discovery of Biron's love-letter while Shakspeare has only shown the inexhaustible powers rallying his friends, and the manner in which he extri- of his mind in improving on the admirabie originals of cates himself, by ridiculing the folly of the vow, are his own creation in a more mature age. admirable.
Malone placed the composition of this play first in 1591, afterwards in 1594. Dr. Drake thinks we may
safely assign it to the earlier period. The first edition. * Schlegel.
was printed in 1598.
FERDINAND, King of Navarre.
Princess of France, Biron,
ROSALINE, LONGÁVILLE, Lords, attending on the King. MARIA, Ladies, attending on the Frincess, DUMAIN,
This enumeration of Persons was made by Rowe A Forester.
King. Your oath is pass'd to pass away from
these. SCENE I. Navarre. A Park with a Palace in it. -Enter the King, Biron, LONGAVILLE, and I only swore, to study with your grace,
Biron. Let me say no, my liege, an if you please, DUMAIN.
And stay here in your court for three years' space. King.
Long. You swore to that, Biron, and to the rest. Let fame, that all hunt after in their lives,
Biron. By yea and nay, sir, then I swore in jest. Live register'd upon our brazen tombs,
What is the end of study? let me know. And then grace us in the disgrace of death;
King. Why, that to know, which else we should When, spite of cormorant devouring time,
not know. The endeavour of this present breath may buy. Biron. Things hid and barr’d, you mean, from That honour, which shall bate his scythe's keen edge, common sense? And make us heirs of all eternity.
King. Ay, that is study's god-like recompense. Therefore, brave conquerors!—for so you are, Biron. Come on then, I will swear to study so, That war against your own affections,
To know the thing I am forbid to know :
When mistresses from common sense are hid: Still and contemplative in living art.
Or, having sworn too hard-a-keeping oath, You three, Biron, Dumain, and Longaville, Study to break it, and not break my troth. Haye sworn for three years' term to live with me, If study's gain be thus, and this be so, My fellow-scholars, and to keep those statutes, Study knows that, which yet it doth not know. That are recorded in this schedule here:
Swear me to this, and I will ne'er say, no. Your oaths are past, and now subscribe your names; King. These be the stops that hinder study quite, That his own hand may strike his honour down, And train our intellects to vain delight. That violates the smallest branch herein:
Biron. Why, all delights are vain; but that most If you are arm’d to do, as sworn to do,
vain, Subscribe to your deep oath, and keep it too. Which, with pain purchas'd, doth inherit pain:
Long. I am resolv’d: 'tis but a three years' fast; As, painfully to pore upon a book,
Dum. My loving lord, Dumain is mortified; So, ere you find where light in darkness lies,
Who dazzling so, that eye shall be his heed,
That will not be deep-search'd with saucy looks ; But there are other strict observances :
Small have continual plodders ever won, As, not to see a woman in that term;
Save base authority from others' books. Which, I hope well, is not enrolled there : These earthly godfathers of heaven's lights, And, one day in a week to touch no food;
That give a name to every fixed star, And but one meal on every day beside;
Have no more profit of their shining nights, The which, I hope, is not enrolled there:
Than those that walk, and wot not what they are. And then, to sleep but three hours in the night, Too much to know, is, to know nought but same; And not be seen to wink of all the day;
And every godfather can give a name. (When I was wont to think no harm all night, King. How well he's read, to reason against And make a dark night too of half the day ;)
reading! Which, I hope well, is not enrolled there:
Dum. Proceeded well, to stop all good proceed0, these are barren tasks, too hard to keep;
ing! Not to see ladies-study-fast--not sleep. 1 Beroicne in all the old editions.
5 The meaning is; that when he dazzles, that is, has 2 i. e. with all these companions. He may be sup- his eye made weak, by fixing his eye upon a fairer eye, posed to point to the king, Biron, &c.
that fairer eye shall be his hred or gute, bis locie-star, 3 Dishonestly, treacherously.
and give him light that was blinded by it. 4 The whole sense of this gingling declamation is 6 That is, too much knowledge gives no real solution only this, that a man by loo close study may read him. of doubts, but merely fame, or a name, a thing which self vlind.
every godfather can give.
Long. He weeds the co.n, and still lets grow the if I break faith, this word shall speak for rre, weeding.
I am forsworn on mere necessity. Buron. The spring is near, when green geese are so to the laws at large I write my name: [Subscribes. a breeding.
And he, that breaks them in the least degree,
Stands in attainder of eternal shame;
Fit in his place and time. Suggestions' are to others, as to ie;
But, I believe, although I seem so loath,
Something then in rhyme. I am the last that will last keep his oath.
That bites the first-born infants of the spring. King. Ay, that there is : our court, you know,
With a refined traveller of Spain;
That hath a mint of phrases in his brain :
One, whom the music of his own vain tongue Than wish a snow in May's new-fangled shows;* Doth ravish, like enchanting harmony; But like of each thing that in season grows.
A man of complements,' whom right and wrong
Have chose as umpire of their mutiny:
King. Well, sit you out: go home, Biron, adieu ! For interim to our studies, shall relate,
From tawny Spain, lost in the world's debate.
But, I protest, I love to hear him lie,
And I will use him for my minstrelsy."
A man of fire-new!words, fashion's own knight.
And, so to study, three years is but short.
Enter Dull, with a Letter, and COSTAAD. claim'd ?
Dull. Which is the duke's own person?
Biron. This, fellow; What would'st ?
Dull. I myself reprehend his own person, for I by losing her tongue.-Who devis'd this penalty? am his grace's tharborough :' but I would see his Loç. Marry, that did I.
own person in flesh and blood.
Biron. This is he.
Dull. Signior Arme-Arme-commends you. nalty.
There's villany abroad; this letter will tell you more. Biron. A dangerous law against gentility."
Cost. Sir, the contempts thereof are as touching (Rearls.] Item, If any man be seen to talk with a me. woman within the term of three years, he shall endure King. A letter from the magnificent Armado. such public shame as the rest of the court can possibly
Biron. How low soever the matter, I hope in God devise,
for high words.
Long. A high hope for a low having: God grant
Biron. To hear? or forbear hearing ? 12
Long. To hear meekly, sir, and to laugh mode-
rately; or to forbear both. To her decrepit, sick, and bed-rid father : Biron. Well, sir, be it as the style!) shall give us Therefore this article is made in vain,
cause to climb in the merriness. Or vainly comes the admired princess hither. Cost. The matter is to me, sir, as concerning JaKing. What say you, lords ? why, this was quite quenetta. The manner of it is, I was taken with forgot.
the manner. 14
Biron. In what manner ?
Cost. In manner and form following, sir; all those
three: I was seen with her in the manor house, site And when it hath the thing it hunteth most,
ting with her upon the form, and taken following her 'Tis won, as towns with fire; so won, so lost. into the park; which, put together, is, in manner King. We must, of force, dispense with this de- and form following. Now, sir, for the manner,-it cree;
is the manner of a man to speak to a woman; for She must lie here on mere necessity.
the form, --in some form.
Cost. As it shall follow in my correction; And
God defend the right!
King. Will you hear this letter with attention?
Biron. As we would hear an oracle.
li. e, nipping:
gi, e. who is called Armado 2 By these shous the poet means May-games, at 9 I will make use of him instead of a minstrel, whose which a snow would be very unwelcome and unexpect. occupation was to relate fabulous stories. ed. It is only a periphrasis for May.
10 i. e. new from the forge; we have still retainer ? 3 The woril gentility here does not signify thai rank similar mode of speech in the colloquial phrase brandof people called gentry; but what the French express new. by gentilesse, i. e. elegantia, urbanitas.
11 i. e. third-borough, a peace-officer. 4 That is, reside here. So in Sir Henry Wotton's 12 : To hear? or forbear laughing is possibly the equivocal definition: 'An ambassador is an honest man true reading. seni to lie (i. e. reside) abroad for the good of his coun. 13 A quibble is here intended between a stile and style. try.'
14 That is, in the fact. A chief is said to be taken with 5 Temptations.
6 Lively, sprightly. the manner (mainour) when he is taken with the thing 7 Complements is here used in its ancient sense of stolen about him. The thing stolen was called mainou accomplishments. Vide Note on K. Henry V. Act ii. manour, or meinour, from the French manier, many 8c 2.
Cost. Such is the simplicity of man to hearken Cost. If it were, I deny her virginity; I was taken after the flesh.
with a maid. King. (Reads.] Great deputy, the welkin's vice- King. This maid will not serve your turn, sır. gerent, and sole dominator of Navarre, my souls Cost. This maid will serve my turn, sir. ea-th's God, and body's fostering patron.
King. Sir, I will pronounce your sentence; Cost. Not a word of Costard yet.
You shall fast a week with bran and water. King. So it 18,
Cost. I had rather pray a month with mutton and Cost. It may be so: but if he say it is so, he is, porridge. in telling true, but so, so.
King. And Don Armado shall be your keeper. King. Peace.
-My lord Biron, see him deliver'd o'er.Cost. --be to me, and every man that dares not And go we, lords, to put in practice that fight!
Which each to other hath so strongly sworn.King. No words.
[Erennt King, LONGAVILLE, and DUMAIN. Cost. --of other men's secrets, I beseech you. Biron. I'll lay my head to any good man's hat,
King. So it is, besieged with sable-coloured melan- These oaths and laws will prove an idle scorn.choly, I did commend the black-wppressing humour to Sirrah, come on. the most wholesome physick of thy health-giving air ; Cost. I suffer for the truth, sir: for true it is, I and, as I am a gentleman, betook myself to walk. was taken with Jaquenetta, and Jaquenelia is a true The time when ? About the sixth hour, when beasts girl; and therefore, Welcome the sour cup of prosmost graze, birds best peck, and men sit down to that perity! Amfiction may one day smile again, and till nirurishment which is called supper. So much for the then, Sit thee down, sorrow!
(Ereunt. time when : Now for the ground which; which, I mean, I walked upon : it is ycleped thy park. Then SCENE II. Another part of the same. Armado's for the place where ; where, I did encounter
House. Enter ARMADO and Moth. mean, that obscene and most preposterous event, that draweth Arm. Boy, what sign is it, when a man of great from my snow-white pen the ebon-coloured ink, which spirit grows melancholy? here thou viewest, beholdest, surveyest, or seest : But Moth. A great sign, sir, that he will look sad. to the place where, - It standeth north-north-east and Arm. Why, sadness is one and the self-same by east from the west corner of thy curious-knotted thing, dear imp. 3 garden. There did I see that low-spirited swain, Moth. No, no; O lord, sir, no. that base minnow of thy mirth,?
Arm. How canst thou part sadness and melan Cost. Me.
choly, my tender juvenal ? King.--that unletter'd small-knowing soul,
Moth. By a familiar demonstration of the work Cost. Me.
ing, my tough senior. King.--that shallow cassal,
Arm. Why tough senior ? why tough senior ? Cost. Still me.
Moth. Why, tender juvenal ? why tender juvenal? King.—which, as I remember, hight Costard, Arm. I spoke it, terider juvenal, as a congruent Cost. O me!
epitheton, appertaining to thy young days, which King.-sorted and consorted, contrary to thy esta- we may nominate tender. blished proclaimed edict and continent canon, with- Moth. And I, tough senior, as an appertinent title with,-0 with—but with this I passion to say where to your old time, which we may name tough. with,
Arm. Pretty, and apt. Cost. With a wench.
Moth. How mean you, sir? I pretty, and my King.—with a child of our grandmother Eve, a saying apt? or I apt, and my saving pretty? female ; or, for thy more sweet understanding, a uo- Arm. Thou pretty, because liitle. man. Him I (as my ever-esteemed duty pricks me Moth. Little pretty, because little : Wherefore on) have sent to thee, to receive the meed of punish- apt? ment, by thy sweet grace's officer, Antony Dull; a man Arm. And therefore apt, because quick. of good repute, carriage, bearing, and estimation. Moth. Speak you this in my praise, master ?
Dull. Me, an't shall please you; I am Antony Arm. In thy condign praise. Dull.
Moth. I will praise an eel with the same praise. King.–For Jaquenetta, (80 is the weaker vessel Arm. What? that an eel is ingenious ? called, which I apprehended with the aforesaid swain,)
Moth. That an eel is quick. I keep her as a vessel of thy law's fury; and shall, at Arm. I do say, thou art quick in answers : the least of thy sucet notice, bring her to trial. Thine, Thou heatest my blood. in all compliments of devoted and heart-burning heat Moth. I am answered, sir. of duty.
Don ADRIANO DE ARMADO. Arm. I love not to be crossed. Biron. This is not so well as I looked for, but Moth. He speaks the mere contrary, crosses the best that ever I heard.
love not him.
(Aside. King. Ay, the best for the worst. But, sirrah, Arm. I have promised to study three years with what say you to this?
the duke. Cost. Sir, I confess the wench.
Moth. You may do it in an hour, sir. King. Did you hear the proclamation.
Arm. Impossible. Cost. I do confess much of the hearing it, but Moth. How many is one thrice told? httle of the marking of it.
Arm. I am ill at reckoning, it fitteth the spirit of King. It was proclaimed a year's imprisonment, a tapster. to be taken with a wench.
Moth. You are a gentleman, and a gamester, sir. Cosl. I was taken with none, sir ; I was taken Arm. I confess both; they are both the varnish with a damosel.
of a complete man. King. Well, it was proclaimed damosel.
Moth. Then I am sure, you know how much the Cost. This was no damosel neither, sir; she was gross sum of deuce-ace amounts to. a virgin.
Arm. It doth amount to one more than two. King. It is so varied too; for it was proclaimed, Moth. Which the base vulgar do call three. virgin.
1 Anciene gardens abounded with knots or figures, of his son. It was then perhaps growing obsolete. It is which the lines intersected each other. In the old books now used only to signify young fiends; as the Deril of gardening are devices for them.
and his imps. 2 i. e, the contemptible little object that contributes to 4 1. e. youth. thy entertainment.
5 By crosses he means money. So in As You Liko 3 Imp literally means a grasi, slip, scion, or gucker; 11: the Clown says to Celia · if I should bear you, i and by metonymy is used for a child or boy. Crom should bear no cross.' Many coins were ancienu v well, in his last letter to Henry VIII, prays for the imp marked with a Cross on one side