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such as flutes, pipes, &c., and it is as if a fute obligato had to accompany the voice in singing this Psalm. This may show us how the effects of sonority were varied in the Temple service of the ancient Hebrew Church. Singing was evidently no dull, unmeaning monotony, no mere relief afforded to the worshippers, but an exalted art contributing to, and sustaining, the devotions of the pious.
Over two Psalms the word Sheminith is employed. The precise meaning cannot now be ascertained. It might mean an instrument of eight strings, not now in use. Or it might mean that the accompaniment should proceed in octave passages. Many details of the Temple service are lost through the lapse of ages.
In three Psalms the word Gittith is used. It signifies from Gath, and sheds a beautiful lustre on the character of David. In those troubled years of David's early manhood, when he had to flee from his own country and take refuge among the Philistines, the study and practice of music solaced many a weary hour. While an exile he became acquainted with a hollow musical instrument of peculiar structure, much used by the ancient Phoenicians, and, with characteristic ardour, learned to play it. This was while he was at Gath. When he returned to his country, he introduced his new-found musical acquisition, which he named Gittith, and directed it to be used in the aforesaid Psalms, for which he probably composed appropriate tunes.
Over the ninth Psalm occurs the compound word, Muth-labben, which signifies after the manner of virgins. As a musical direction this is easily understood-denoting that the piece was to be sung with the soprano voice only; no men's voices were to join in it, and probably it was unaccompanied. It may have been a solo or a duet, but sung exclusively by unaccompanied treble voices, producing a striking effect as the clear, full, well-trained voice of a Jewess exclaimed, “I will praise Thee, O Lord, with my whole heart.”
Over the twenty-second Psalm occurs this phrase, “ Aijeleth Shahar,” which signifies, Hind of the morning. This was evidently the name of an ancient Hebrew melody, now lost to the world, to which this Psalm was sung. The.“ Hind” was a favourite symbol of grace, beauty, and sprightliness among the ancients. “Hind of the morning,” therefore, would sound to them very much as smiling morn” does to us. The melody, of course, was sacred.
Over nine Psalms occurs the word Maschil, giving direction as to the proper manner of singing the melody, but the meaning of which is now lost. Over the forty-sixth Psalm is placed the word Alamoth, signifying that the Psalm was to be sung by a treble voice, with a lute accompaniment obligato. Mahalath is used over the fifty-third Psalm, but its meaning is altogether lost. These are all the musical terms used in the Book of Psalms. The other headings do not refer to music at all. Whoever studies the foregoing musical directions must be impressed with the care, skill, propriety, and just regard to the fitness of things which distinguished the music of the Jewish Temple. No wonder that that music should be far-famed and much celebrated. Its fame had spread to Babylon, which led to a tender incident, impressively depicted in a Psalm which has often drawn tears from men.
“By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, yea, we wept, when we remembered Zion.” (These poor captives !) “We hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof." (Weeping willows, and weeping captives. The cold monotonous murmur of the river stream seeming to say, “Men may come, and men may go, but I flow on for ever.”) “ They that carried us away captive required of us a song: they that wasted us required of us mirth, saying, “Sing us one of the songs of Zion.' How shall we sing the Lord's song in a strange land ? If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunving. If I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth : if I prefer not Jerusalem above my chief joy."
The effect of music is very great on some persons, producing tears or laughter irrepressibly. Nay, it can go further than this. It can expand the imaginative faculty, and penetrate the deepest recesses of the soul. It bas often been the medium of pungent conviction, and of the most ballowed influences. The Bible records that Saul, under its influence, was "changed into another man.” Revivalists have largely availed themselves of its agency in promoting conversion. Religion, both in recent and ancient times, in this and other lands, has been greatly indebted to music, and, at the same time, has gloriously enriched it. The grandest themes, and the noblest inspirations of musical composers have been derived from the Bible. Where would have been the massive treasures of musical wealth comprised in our oratorios, but for Bible truth and Bible incident? Handel was once asked how he felt while he was composing the Hallelujah chorus? He answered, “I did think I did see all heaven opened, and the great God upon his throne.” Some one called upon him as he was composing “He was despised," and the great musician was sobbing as if his very heart would break. And, even when he sat down to his coffee, tears ran down his cheek and fell into it.
Of late years a new kind of music has sprung up, very attractive, and promising to fulfil an important mission. It is derived chiefly from America, and is a combination of the ballad and military music. It strikes at once the ear and the heart. It is found to be so effective among young people that it has already become almost universal in our Sunday-schools, and might be called “Sunday-school music."
The science of music is very profound and far-reaching, requiring much study and a special genius. The great masters of the art are among the greatest song of earth, whether viewed in respect of their personal attainments, or their influence on multitudes and generations. The writer of this paper will be very glad indeed, with the Editor's permission, to give successive sketches of the careers of Handel, Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and others, high priests in the temple of music, that the readers of our Magazine may know more of the men to whom the world is so deeply indebted. Hurst.
SALEM CHAPEL AND SCHOOLS, MANCHESTER NORTH
CIRCUIT.-REDUCTION OF DEBT.
This valuable property is situate in a populous district and in a leading thoroughfare from the city ; the schools are contiguous to the chapel; and when it is known that we have a fourishing day-school under Government inspection it will also be understood that the premises are in every way suitable for the purpose for which they were built.
The chapel" has been free from debt for some years; the new schools were completed and opened in November, 1870, at a cost of £2700 ; the trustees also bought a second chief rent at a further cost of £300; and the liabilities on the entire estate were reduced to £1400. A mortgage was effected for that amount; it was, however, found necessary to contract a further loan for £200 on note of hand. Still the difficulties increased ; and it was found that the treasurer was in advance to the extent of £185 1s. 9d. (including interest of money due to him). So that twelve months ago the accumulated debt stood at £1785 1s. 9d.
Now everybody knows that debts, like corns on the feet, are better removed, for they hamper both individuals and churches, impeding the progress and comfort of all. Amidst the general and laudable emulation which abounds on every hand, the race is certainly against a heavily-weighted trust. Seeing that we are Methodists and Dissenters, we knew that there would be no chance in case of appeal to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners ; so the friends determined to turn the course of the financial current, and mainly through the efforts of our liberal and veteran friend, Mr. Alderman Jenkinson, a project for the liquidation of the debt was started at the November tea-meeting of last year. This meeting was well attended, and the appeal for subscriptions fairly responded to. The time had also come for the chapel to be cleaned and beautified. This work has been done by our attached friend, Mr. Councillor Harwood, and reflects the utmost credit on his taste and skill. The communion has also been enlarged and refurnished, and the lighting bas been improved, the whole presenting a coup d'æil not often surpassed. These matters involved an outlay of £217, and enhanced our liabilities to that extent.
The intention of the trustees was to reduce the debt to £1000, and the subjoined list represents the amount given by 120 subscribers. It will be observed that nearly the whole of the amount is subscribed by our own people, the bulk of it by a very few persons. We object to that meddling astuteness which divines and assesses everybody's income when efforts of this sort are being made ; we prefer to leave it to the sense of duty and Christian privilege. But in fairness we venture to say that in the list will be found small sums, notably amongst the subscriptions of the teachers and scholars of our Sunday-school, which, like the widows' mite, are as handsome, comparatively, as any given. At the annual tea-meeting held on Monday, November 30, this successful effort was brought to a close. The proceedings were opened by a sale in the afternoon of useful articles prepared by the ladies sewing meeting. Our indefatigable friends Mrs. Williams, Mrs. Hankinson, Mrs. Darbyshire, Mrs. Jenkinson, Mrs. Harwood, and Mrs. Percival, attended at the stalls, and were successful in disposing of their wares. Tea was served at half-past five and was well attended. The public meeting commenced at seven in the chapel, under the presidency of Mr. Alderman Jenkinson. Forcible speeches were delivered by the Revs. B. Turnock, H. Marsden, and Mr. Charles Shaw. No better compliment
could be paid to these brethren than by saying we often hope to have the privilege of listening to them.
The chapel choir under the management of our esteemed organist, Mr. W. P. Burnley, gave a selection of music, and the usual votes of thanks brought the profitable and joyous meeting to a close.
List of subscriptions, all of which, with one exception, have been paid :£ 8. d.
£ 8. d. Mr. Alderman Jenkinson 230 0 0 Mr. Jas. Percival
5 0 0 Mr. Councillor Harwood 150 0 0 Mr. F. Thompson
3 3 0 Mr. Richard Hankinson 105 0 0 X.Y.Z.
2 10 0 Mr. Josh. Jenkinson .. 100 0 0 Mr. Jno. Turner, SouthMr. Robert Neill, junr. 65 0 0
2 2 0 Mr. Jno, Burnley 50 0 0 Mr. Warren
2 2 0 Mr. Geo Jenkinson 50 0 0 Mr. Z. Percy
2 2 0 The Ladies' Sewing
2 2 0 Meeting 50 0 0 Mr. J. J. Hooton
2 2 0 Mr. Darbyshire.. 21 0 0 Mr. Richard Wood
2 0 0 Mr. Burnley
10 10 0 Mr. William Newberry 2 0 0 Mr. Jas. Fleming
10 10 0 Mr. James Rushworth 2 0 0 Mr. Jas. Brooks, Bow
Sums under £2
45 5 0 den
10 0 0 Old Subscriptions proMr. Brindley
10 0 0 mised to New School Mr. Jno. Neill 10 0 0 Fund ..
9 30 Mr. J. J. Meakin
5 5 0 Profits at last year's tea Mr. Woodhouse 5 0 0 meeting
0 10 11 Mr. Edge
5 0 0 Mr. Councillor lowcock 5 0 0
Total £989 6 11 Mr. Foreman
5 0 0 Mr. Jno. Flather
5 0 0 Mr. Jno. Brooks
5 0 0 Thus realizing the amount contemplated by the effort and reducing the debt on the entire estate to £1000.
ANNIVERSARY TEA-MEETING, HULL. THE church-members and friends of Bethel Chapel, Hull, held their annual tea-meeting in the Sailors' Institute, on Tuesday, December the 8th. The weather was very unpropitious, but the gathering was a large one. A substantial repast was gratuitously provided, and gracefully served by the ladies. The arrangements were made and observed to the satisfaction of all parties, by our energetic and active steward, Mr. M. Waller. The tables being removed, after devotional exercises, our esteemed friend Mr. J. J. Runton, junr., was called upon to preside. In his opening address the Chairman compared the meeting to a family-gathering at the celebration of a birthday anniversary. He congratulated the circuit on its progress in the way of material prosperity, stating that in regard to chapel property alone it had raised at least £3000 within the last fifteen years. He also suggested the need, and advisability of remodelling and modernising the interior of Bethel Chapel
, so as to make it equal to other chapels in point of comfort, and inviting to strangers. This suggestion was loudly applauded by the meeting. Addresses were then delivered by the Revs. J. Medicraft and W. F. Newsam, who were both very heartily greeted. Mr. Medicraft, after referring to some of his Canadian experiences, exposed
the evils of infidelity, Popery, and that ritualism which apes and yearns after Popery; and pointed out the need there was on thepart of Protestants to watch and guard against their encroachments, and to maintain firmly their own religious principles and liberties. Mr. Newsam dwelt on the evils of intemperance and indifferentism, and the
necessity for earnest and unflagging exertion on the part of all the members of the Christian Church. He illustrated and enlivened his remarks by a variety of anecdotes. Messrs. T. Smith, J. Mellor, J. Stather, and F. Oliver also took part in the meeting. Several anthems were sung at intervals by the members of the Bethel choir, which added much to the pleasure of the meeting. After thankfully acknowledging the services of the ladies, the choir, the chairman, &c., the meeting was brought to a close ; but its memory remains associated with pleasure and advantage.
LITURGICAL FORMS OF WORSHIP. To the Editor of the “ Methodist New Connexion Magazine." DEAR SIR,—There is a subject which I think is worthy of consideration, as it has of late been engaging the attention of a good many of our people, and has received fresh impulse by the controversy now going on in the Wesleyan body. I refer to the use of a Liturgy in public worship.
It is generally admitted that the "Book of Common Prayer" is a splendid compilation, and beautifully sets forth the varied condition of worshippers. It is also regarded as a teacher of Ritualistic and Popish doctrine, and, for the use of Protestant Dissenters, spurious and even dangerous. There are other reasons advanced against its use by us. No doubt there is some truth in these statements, and yet people of all denominations love the book and appreciate its hallowed utteranoes. A friend of the writer, a most exemplary and intelligent man, who was brought up a Dissenter and took an active part as a member among the “Independents,” gave as his reason for leaving that body and going to the Church of England, that “he had gone to be a worshipper, for he was tired of hearing only ministers talk.” Now, his way of putting it may be considered a little unparliamentary, but I find this feeling obtaining. There is a great cry out for shorter sermons and more and better singing; in short, the congregations wish to have the privilege of taking a greater part in the service, and to become audible participators in it. Would not a suitable liturgy meet the case? The old and well remembered responses of " Hallelujah,” “Glory,"
;" “Amen," &c., have served their day, and are heard no longer. It is said that the present age is decidedly more pious than the previous one, and certainly the tone of our literature is purer, and religion is absorbing the attention of all classes. The service of the sacntuary, therefore, in our day takes a new aspect, What suited the Puritanical age will not suit this; the rude hovels in which our forefathers worshipped have given place to skilful architecture; and with this a magnificent philanthrophy and benevolence fills the land. It would be easy to write a long letter in favour of a Liturgical form of worship, but my object is simply to call our people's attention to it, and to suggest that you would open the pages of our common Connexional organ to its discussion. I know it is debatable ground, and requires careful consideration. The same was said of the introduction of the chant-book into our chapels ; yet who now would give it up? It has lately been said by a distinguished doctor " that there is sufficient elasticity in Methodism to adapt itself to the wants of the age.” So, Mr. Editor, I trust you will allow this subject to be ventilated, for the mutual edification of all.-I am, yours faithfully, Manchester, December, 1874.
JAS. FLEMING. (We see no harm in complying with our correspondent's request, and opening our pages to an interchange of thought on the subject he mentions, provided the communications sent us have the proper modicum of good temper and intelligence. Mere denunciations of Liturgies on the one hand, or eulogies upon tạem on the other, will not gain admission into the Magazine by our consent; but reasons for or against their use, if set forth in