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improperly called, the four elements; an exact calculation of the time of its what is all this, when compared with the appearance. Of the accuracy of their progress which was afterwards made by idcas, concerning the magnitude of the the Arabian philolophers, and with the heavenly bodies, we may judge from important discoveries of modern times, what has been related concerning some in this branch of science ?
of the Grecian philosophers. AnaxiIn investigating the powers, and af mander is faid to have taught, that the certaining the laws, of nature, that is, in sun is twenty-eight times larger than the science strictly called Natural Philo. the earth; Anaximenes, that the sun fophy, the fuperiority of the moderns and moon are fiery bodics, whose form is over the ancients is incontrovertible. It that of a circular plate ; that the stars is a well-kno in fact, that they were are fixed in the heavens, as nails in a either unacquainted with, or defpried, the crystalline plane ; and that the earth is only method by which this branch of
a plain tablet, resting upon air. Anaxknowledge can be prosecuted with luc- agoras lays, that the Tun is a flat circular cess, that of experime it. Initead of ob- mass of hot iron, somewhat bigger than ferving in what manner effects were the Peloponnefüs ; Xenophanes, that produced, by attentively comparing them the stars are fiery vapours, extinguished with the circumstances by which they are by day and ignited by night, and the fun immediately preceded, they amuicd them a mais of fiery vapour daily renewed; felves with framing and propagaiing a and Heraclitus, that the heavenly bodies great variety of fanciful hypotneies on are in the form of boats, having the hol. physical subjects. Hence, in the midst low fide to us, and becoming luminous, of all their refined fpeculations, their when certain fiery exhalations from the knowledge of nature remained fo exceed- earth are collected within them. If there ingly imperfett, that they may julliy be tales lhould be thought too absurd to obconsidered, in comparison with the mo tain credit, even upon the authoriiy of derns, as children in philofophy. Plutarch, and Diogenes Laertius, it must,
With respect, particularly, to aitro at least, be owned, that we find few traces nomy, if, as many have afferted, the of any knowledge of astronomy, which Chaldeans were the tirit people among could be properly called scientific, till whom this science appeared, their know- Egypt, after the conquest of Alexander, ledge of it probably went no farther than
caine under the gove nment of the Ptoa leries of rude and inaccurate observar lories. Then, it will be acknowledged, tions on celestial phenomena. le reflects atircnomy made a rapid progress. The little honour on these fathers of astronomy, names of Hipparchus and Prolemy will that they were allo the inventors of ju- always be celebrated among astronoiners. dicial attrology, a vain and superfiitious But, after all, what were their advances art, which Kepler justly calls the fuolo in this science, compared with those of ith daugireer of a wise mother.". The Galileo, Kepler, Tycho Brahe, CoperniEgyptians appear to have first discover
cus, and Newton It is evident, that en the zodiac, and to have divided ir into thc anc.ents, in comparison with the motwelve tigris, and, confequently, their year derns, must have been very imperfectly into twelve months ; but it is a certain acquainted with astronomy, if it be conproof that their astronomical oblervaticns fidered how extremely deficient they were were not very accurate, that they were in inftruments for experiments and oblerlong unal:le to discover the true length vations, and in the method of abridging of the year, and were, for several ages, laburious calculations. Without a te co contented with a year of 360 days. Bu- scope, without the pendulum, without fore the time of Herodotus, they had dif- numerical figures, without logarithms, covered the neceility of introducing five a gebra, or fuxions, how cumbrous and intercalary days ; but it was not till about opcrote must their aftronomical calculathe time that Plato and Eudoxus travelied
tions have been ! into Egypt, that a still remaining defi That other sciences, as well as astrociency of fix hours was perceived, in their nomy, have been continually improving, computation of the solar year. The first might be easily shown. Nor will it be Tudiments of Grecian astronomy were cer- disputed, that there has been a fimitainly borrowed from the Egyptians; and lar progress in the Arts. Those arts Thales, who was inftručied in Egypt, which furnish the primary necessaries and has been celebrated for predicting an conveniences of life, were doubtless ineclipse ; but there is no proof that his vented in the first stages of civilization. prediction amounted to any thing like When men began to form themselves
The Enquirer. No. X, into society, they soon learned to provide pacity of happiness ; for it will not be themselves, by means of manual opera- disputed, that knowledge is power, or tions, with food, clothing, habitation, and that, in proportion as men increase in weapons of defence. But there arts were their acquaintance with nature, and in rude attempts, which a long course of skill to apply its laws to the various purexperience enabled them to improve: and poses of life, they multiply their means even after improvements have from time of health, security, and enjoyment. to time been made in the useful arts, But, in order to prove that mankind room has still been left for farther ad are actually advancing towards perfecvances. This sufficiently appcars from the tion, it is not only necessary to show that present state of manufactures ; in which their stock of materials, out of which it is impossible to doubt, that innumera- the web of happiness may be woven, is ble articles of utility and convenience continually increasing, but that they are are produced, which were either wholly improving, and likely ftill farther to imunknown to the ancients, or executed in prove, in that moral and political wisdom a much less perfect manner.
The in- which constitutes the practical art of bapcrcase of knowledge in mechanics and piness. In order to complete the proof of chemistry, has been a vast increase of the point before us, it must be fhown that power, which has enabled the inoderns to men are advancing in the dispolition, as carry their manufactures to a degree of well as the capacity, to enjoy life indiviperfection, to execute them with a degree dually, and to contribute to the common of facility, and to circulate them to a prosperity and felicity of the species. degree of extent, not to be paralleled in Without moral and political wisdom, the ancient times. The machines for abridg. external materials of happiness are only ing labour, which modern ingenuity nas so many diamonds thrown upon a dungintroduced into almost every branch of hill to be trampled upon by Twine. manufacture, have enabled inen to inui. The history of mankind proves, that tiply the supplies of human wants be- something has already been done towards yond every thing that could formerly their moral and political amelioration. have been attempted. Chemistry, has The pallions of men have been restrained been applied to the improvement of the by civil law, by the forms of politeness, arts in a thousand ways altogether new ; and by religious principles. 'War has and the mathematics have lent their aid been rendered less destructive, and the in all to which they could be use- glorious idea has been formed, of banishfully applied. Whilst almost every old ing it entirely from the earth. Humaart has been in this manner materiaily nicy and beneficence have been exercised iinproved, new arts have been introduced, in a degree unknown among the ancients; among
which may be mentioned, printing, and the narrow principle of exclusive as beyond all comparison the most useful patriotiim has begun to be absorbed in and important invention of modern times. the generous sentiment of universal phi
The general stock of convenience and lanthropy. More correct and enlarged enjoyment is thus perpetually increating ideas than were conceived by the an. by the advancement of science or the im- cients, of the nature and ends of civil provement of the arts, without any thing society, of the origin of all civil pouver, to place on the opposite side of the ac and of the method of conducting public count; for there is no sufficient ground affairs, have been conceived, disseminated to suppose that any onc valuable art, or among the people, and, in part, already useful branch of science has ever been carried into effect. The true doctrine wholly loft. The pretended inltances of concerning the equal rights of men has loft aris given in Pancirolles's work on been better underitood, and more genethis fubject, are either manifestly falte or raily diffused. In consequence of this, fabulous, or such trifles as have fillen into the combination among the higher ranks difuse through their inutility. Where of men to opprefs the lower, has any art has been loft, it has commonly been thaken ; flavery has become odious been either fuperfeded by foine more easy a free intercourse has been opened among and commodious invention, or has become men of all descriptions; and a general fuperfluous through a change of man
attentioa has been awakened to the in
terests, the rights, and the comforts of Enough has now been said to prove, the labouring part of mankind. that science and arts are progreflive. If Thele things clearly indicare, in the this be admitted; it ncccffarily follows, prefent time, an advance towards perfecthat inankind are advancing in their ca tion. It is true the progress of moral'
and political wisdom has hitherto been with the principles of individual happi: flow, because it has been retarded
by ness, and of public prosperity. Every bumany adventitious circumstances. The
man being, well instructed in his nature, rich and powerful, mistaking their own rights, and duties, will feel his consetrue interest, and too often indifferent to quence in the scale of existence, and will that of society, have strenuously opposed fill up his place in social life with an in. innovation : the governors and the go- dependent spirit. Policy will be uniververned in a fiate have been supposed Sally understood to be the art by which to have feparate interests : power has a people, voluntarily associated, govern been confounded with right : erroncous themselves; morality, to be the art of notions have prevailed concerning per- uniting perfonal and focial happiness; fonal happinets: personal manners have and religion, to be the most sublime been guided by the deluding meteor of principle of right conduct. Men will no fathion, rather than by the steady light of longer doubt, whether self-love and foreafon; and rcligion itfelf, which ought cial be the same, or be liable to make to have been infeparably leagued with those erroneous calculations, which at morality, having been associated withi fu- present tempt them to pursue their perftırion, and having entered into an own happineis at the expence of others. unnatural alliance with arbitrary power, Every situation in society will have its has often occasioned the very mischiefs proper offices and occupations, and will which it was intended to remove. at once afford individual happiness, and
From these and other similar causes, contribute to the general goud. In fine, it must be confessed, that mankind have, Liberty, with all its attendant bleilings
, in fact, made much less progrefs in will be universally enjoyed ; Induttry will practical wisdom, than might have been every where crown her sons with plenty; expected ; and, to own the truth, after all Virtue will reward all her votaries with that experience and instruction have health and peace ; and mankind will be. hitherto been able to effect, human na
come one family, governed by one mind, ture, in this important respect, is still in ' and enjoy all the felicity of which human a state of childhood, the dupe of patsion nature is capable. and fancy, rather than the pupil of rea In this manner I consider the world as fon and truth. But it is impossible that perpetually improving, and mankind in it should always remain in this state ; its continued progress towards perfection : progress to manhood, though low, is, and with this persuasion, I regard the neverthelets, certain. Its minority, what- condition of human beings as a part ever be its duration, will at length be ter of that great plan of Providence, in minated; and mankind, attaining their maa which Universal Love turity, will “ put away childish things.'
From seeming evil till educes good, This progreis is the gradual, but fure
And better thence again, and better ftill work of experience. All the misconcep
In INFINITE PROGRESSION ! tions which at present feduce mankind, and are the source of their follies and mi. feries, experience muy, and, in due course To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. of time, muft correct. By means of the
SIR, numerous opportunities which the art of
T a time when the high price of printing affords for circulating know
provisions has become the subject of ledge of every kind, this great operation universal complaint throughout England, will be materially expedited. Every ctals it may not be uninteresting to tranicribe of men will be 'instructed in that kind the fates at which certain commodities of knowledge which is suited to their
were sold at Elgin, in North Britain, in place in fociety. Those who are by pro- the month of March, 1796. The comfellion popular instructors, will learn to
riunication was made by a respectable direct their principal attention to the inhabitant, to his fon, in London. Your's, great object of teaching the people how Dec. 8, 1796. A CONSTANT READER. to become useful citizens and happy men. The education of youth, instead of being Oatmeal, 1s. 3d. per ditto, of
Fine Flour, 25. 6d. per yeck, of 8lbs. weight,
ditto. conducted upon antiquated principles and
The price of both these articles has fallen for the purpose of oftentation, will be
jince, as has also that of our quartern loaf. adapted to the particular destination of Veal, 4d. to 4 d. per lb. each class of pupils, and to the great end Beef, 34d. to 4 d. per ditto. of public good. By these means, all Mutton, 3d. to 4d. per ditto. orders of men will become acquainted Greens in great abundance, and very reasonable.
875 Very best fresh Butter, 24 ounces to the lb. at
Congregations. 9d. per lb.
Ineham Eggs, 2d. per dozen.
Merch Potatoes, 6d: to 8d. per peck, of 34'lbs.
Melborn Codfith, from rod. to is. each.
() er Haddocks, generally from 6d. to 8d per doz. Roy/?on Whiting , from 2 d. to 4d. per dozen.
Soham Lobsters, from 2d. to sd. each.
37 LIST OF DISSENTING CO GREGA
Note. There are about seven Baptist TIONS (CONTINUED.)
congregations in this county ; all the
others are of the Independent denomina.. Congregations.
It will be seen by the number of conAylesbury
2 gregations printed in Italics, that during Beaconsfield
the last twenty years, the Disfenters have Buckingham
increased considerably in CambridgeChalfont St. Peter's
thire. Chesham Cheney
I Bollington Gold-Hill and Money. Hill
Brailey-Green Great Marlow
Chester High Wycombe
Congleton Newport Pagnell
Dean Rowe Olney
Duckinfield Prince's Relborough
Hale Stony Stratford
Hillcliff Wend ver
27 Macclesfield Note. Nearly half of the congrega- Namprwich tions in Buckinghamshire, are of the Nor swich Baptist denomination ; the other
Partington Cross-street gations are Independents.
Note. In this county there are only Cambridge
3 three congregations of the B.:ptists. The Chatteris Catledge
other congregations are either of the InCottenham
dependent or Presbyterian denomination. Doddington
Since the lifts for Bedfordshire and Downhum
Berks were inserted in the Monthly MaDuxford
Igazine, I have rec-ived a letter from a Ely
2 dissenting minister, wherein he observes, Eversden
that two congregations were omitted, one Felborne
I belonging to each county.
If, in future, any gentleman observes any Guy ham
material alteration or addition, necesary io Haddenham
make these county lifts accurate, by transmitMONTHLY MAG, No. XI.
ting such alterations and additions to the rounded granulations, abounding with Rev. BENJAMIN CRACKNELL, Ware. vesicles, and mixed with very fine filaham, Dorsetshire, they shall be inserted in ments extending in all directions ; it apa general Appendix, afier the county lifts pears to differ from the pith, in scarcely for England are all printed.
any thing except colour; the inner bark, Wareham,
placed between the cellular membrane
and the wood, is composed of small plates, Dec. 16, 1796.
separable from each other by maceration,
and consisting of an assemblage of fapPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL
visels and air-tubes, besides the vessels ne. INSTITUTE.
cessary to their own nourishment. This inner bark is annually renewed. The
wood consists of the old inner barks, disdu Analysis of a Memoir on the Organiza- poled in concentric cylinders, of which
rion of Monocotyledonous Vegetables, read the inner part, called the heart, is of a to the first Class of the National Institute, firmer texture, and deeper colour, than
The centre of the stem or by Citizen DESFONTAINES.
trunk is occupied by the Pith, from ALL feeds, beside the germ, confift of which proceed a number of divergent
one or two lobes, which form, at the ramifications and processes, reaching commencement of vegetation, the semi- through the ligneous fibres, as far as nal lcaf, or leaves, whose office is to be the inner bark. rith the young plant, till its roots are The stems of monocotyledonous vegefufficiently large to fupply it with food, tables consist of most of the above-menobtained from the earth in which it is tioned !ubltances; but with such marked placed : hence results a division of vege- differences of structure, as to establish iables into fuch as have one feminal lcaf, two grand natural divisions of plants. and are called monocotyledonous ; and These variations will be pointed out by such as have two feminal leaves, and are observations made on the various classes thence named dicotyledonous. These and genera of monocotyledonous plants, two general distinctions, established by viz. the - Palmæ, Gramina, Asparagi, Cæsalpinus, have been admiited by feve- Dracontia, the Bulbous-rooted, the Fi. ral eminent botanists, fuch as Ray, Boer- lices, and Mulci. haave, Hicister, Vanroyer, Jullicu, &c., 1. Palms. A palin, at first fight, difand been employed to advantage in their fers essentially from an afh, a birch, or several arrangements.
any tree with two seminal leaves; the The discoveries of Bernard Juffien, trunk à regular column, whose summit Icdwig, and Swartz, warrant us in ar is crowned with a tuft of leaves disposed ranging the Filices, Mufci, and Algæ, circularly, one above the other : the new ainong the monocotyledonous.
leaves, in spring, push out from the top, In the following oblcrvations, on the while the older ones, placed below, wiItructure of Monocotyledonolis Vege- ther and, by degrees, detach themselves tables, the cxamples will, for the most from the tree, leaving those circular impari, be drawn from such plants as have pressions, or rings, which denote the age a ligneous stem, the substances of which of the tree, so long as it continues to they are composed being more apparent grow. The interior peculiarities of than in such plants as have herbaceous structure are as remarkable as the exItems, with the additional advantage of ternal differences : if a longitudinal secbeing capable of being examined in any tion be made, there will appear an afseason of the year.
semblage of ligneous fibres, large, folid, The stems of dicotyledonous vege- smooth, Alexible, slightly compressed, tables consist of the following paris : composed of similar smaller fibres, the the EPIDE «MIS, or ouler bark, which a greater number parallel to the axis of good deal resembles a very thin piece of the trunk, and reaching, without interparciment; it is pierced with innume- ruption, irom the top to the bottom ; rable minute pores, through which issues these are crossed and connected together the insensible perfpiration ; and when by others placed obliquely, fo as to form destroyed, is capable of being re-pro a very acute angle with the former; and duced. Under this, is found a second they may, with ease, be separated from covering, called the CELLULAR MEM each other in young plants, or those old BRANE, or middle bark, a succulent sub ones that are in a state of decay: if a stance, generally green, formed of small transverse section be made, no concentric