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NEW PATENTS. It will form a REGULAR PART of our future plan to present the Public with an abridged Jketch of the specifications of all new Patents as SOON AS THEY ARE ENROLLED, We bave no doubt but Patentees will liberally contribute towards the perfection of our plan, by transmitting copies of their specifications, and we have no befitation in offerting, that our plan itself is frauzbt equally with benefit to the Public and to the Pütentees. Such of our readers as wiss for more exact information, will doubtless bave recourse to

the offices of Enrollment, in Chancery-lane. Mr. Desmond's TANNING PRocess. all cases be easy to ascertain, whether ON the 15th of January, letters patent any given substance contains this prin:

were granted to MR. WILLIAM ciple or not. DESMOND, No. 6, New Palace-yard, *«« In the course of these lixiviations, Westminster, for his invention of a two things will be observed; first, the method of tanning all sorts of hides and liquor running from the first digestor, at skins, and of rendering more folid and length loses its colour: if in this state incorruptible in water, several vegetable a little of it be taken in a glass, and the and animal substances, such as fax, hemp, former experiment be repeated, the licotton, filk, hair, wool, &c, as well as quor no longer becomes turbid, but the manufactures inade thereof.

remains clear, which thows it contains The principle of this invention is exa no more of the tanning principle ; but if plained in the specification, by the fol- you pour into the same glats a few drops lowing account of the process :

of sulphat of iron, the liquor becomes “ Provide five vessels, called digestors, thick and black. This liquor is not to with an aperture at the bottom of each : be poured on the tan in the second diand let them be elevated upon ftillages. gestor, but is to be laid by and used for Fill the digestors with tan; pour water the depilation, or taking off of the hair or on the tan in the first digestor, and wool. It is distinguished by the name of draw it off presently afterwards ; pour gallic lixivium, because it appears to this liquor on the tan in the second di-, contain the same principle as galls. gestor, draw it off, and pour it into the “The sulphat of iron is obained, by third, and so on till it comes through the dissolving a linall quantity of iron in oil fifth and last digestor. The liquor is of vitriol, dilu:ed with water; or by difthen highly coloured, and marks from folving green copperas in water. This fix to eight degrees on the hydrometer solution serves to ascertain such subfor falts. This liquor may be called stances as contain the gallic principle. the tanning lixivium. It has this pecu-, Lime-water will also produce this cfliar

property, that if on a small quantity fect. be poured a few drops of a solution of “ When the liquor ceases to grow black, animal glue, the liquor which hefore by the mixture of the fulphat of iron, was clear becomes turbid, and a whitish it will be useless to pour any more water substance falls to the bottom of the glass, on the tan in the first digeftor. This The precipitate thus obtained by means being exhaufted both of the tanning of the folution of glue, is a sure indi- and gallic principles, must be removed, cation that the liquor contains the tan ard new tan put in its place. ning principle; for this reason, that glue “ It will be observed, lecondly, that the being of the fainę nature with the skins liquor after running through all the or hides of which it is made, whatever digestors, at last grows weak. Add to fubftance unites itself indissolubly with your stock of tanning lixivium, all the the former, will do fo likewise with the liquor that makes from fix to eighe latter. This folution is made by diffols- degrees on the hydrometer; what aftering a little common glue in water over wards proceeds from the last digestor, a moderate fire; by means of it not only is to be poured on the new tan in the oak-baik, but also the bark of several first; then the fresh water is to be concther trees, fuch as plane-tree, chesnut- veyed on the tan in the second digeftor, tree, the American hemlock-tree, pop- and the liquor of the first to be laid by, Jar, elm, willow, &c. as well as divers while it marks fix or eight degrees on the Inrubs and plants, such as myrtle, &c. hydrometer, and added to the tanning all of which I call tan, are found to con lixivium, which must always be carefully tain the ranning principle; and by em feparated from the gallic. In this manploying the folution as above, it will in ner, the tan in all the digeftors may be




3796.] New Patents of Mr. Potts and Mr. Pratt. 723 renewed, and the lixiviations continued. Petty Bag Office, by MR. THOMAS The number of these lixiviations, as well Ports, of Sanctuary, in the parish of as the mode of making them, may be Penrice, in the county of Glamorgan, waried at pleasure : the essential point is fur his invention of a machine for the to repeat them so as to give the liquor moving of vessels, boats and barges on a fufficient degree of concentration, canais, and other still waters.

The inawhich may be determined by the hy- chine consists of a vertical oar, which is drometer, and proportioned to the quick- made to act at the stern of the vessel ness required in the operation, and to that is required to be moved forward. the thickness of the hides and skins to The car is put in motiou by means of a be tanned, all which experience will pole, to one end of which it is fastened, foon teach. As all kinds of tan are not which pole is suspended above the deck equally good, it will sometimes happen by a rope or chain, on which it swings. that fix or inore filtrations will be necef The pole is kept steady and in its proper sary, to obtain a lixivium of fix or eight direction, by lateral beams that project degrees ; in this case, the number of as far over the stern of the vessel, as digestors may be increased, and the same the oar is intended to move backward method pursued as above, and when a and forward. The vertical oar, weaker lixivium is wanted, three or four power, is readily pushed backward, and filtrations will be sufficient.

drawn forward by means of the swing“The person who direets these lixivi- ing pole, on elevating the end of the pole ations should be provided with the folu- when the oar is to be pushed back, and on tjon of glue and sulphat of iron already pulling the end down when the oar is to described, in order to ascertain the qua- be drawn forwards. In these alternate Jities of the different lixivia, as well as movements consist the practice of the with an hydrometer, or areometer, pro- invention. The broad surface of the perly graduated, to determine their de- oar, varying in its size, according to the gree of concentration or specific gra. depth of water and weight of the vessel, vity."

is not expressed in the specification. Besides the very great savings in point COMPOSITION MILLSTONES. of time and labour, the leather tanned

MR. MAJOR Pratt, lime-burner, according to the above method being of Running Waters, in the parish of more completely saturated, will be found Pittington Halgarth, in the county of to weigh heavier, to wear better, and to Durham, obtained a patent, on the oth be less susceptible of moisture than the of March, which was enrolled on the leather tanned in the usual way. The 6th of September, for a method of 'manuthickest hides may be tanned in about facturing a composition stone, that will fourteen days, and a boar's fhield has anfwer the purpose of grinding every been completely tanned in about three species of corn, and all the other purweeks, that, according to the common poses to which foreign and other millmethod, would require six or seyen ftones ate, or may be applied. The ycars. The faving, moreover, in other principle of his invention confifts in a respects, is at least 120 per cent. due mixture of filiceous and argillaccous

The other animal and vegetable sub- earths, under certain circumstances, and stances already mentioned, by being converting the fame into stone by the steeped for a certain time in a weaker application of heat. To produce the or stronger tanning lixivium, will acquire semi-vitrification necessary to the hardkrength and incorruptibility. Cords, ness of the stone, an addition is made to ropes, and cables made of hemp or spar- the mixture of about one seventh of tery, impregnated with this principle, calcareous carth, for which he found line will support much grearer weights with

to answer well; but various other subout breaking, will be less liable to be stances he conceives may accomplish the out by friction, will run more

same end, such as gypsum, alkaline salts, fmoothly on pullies, &c. This liquor coal, iron, &c.

This liquor coal, iron, &c. The heat requisite in fort will be found so advantageous, should vary according to circumítances, particularly in the rigging of vessels, as to render the use of tar in many cases faine as that used in the calcination of

but the degree found to answer, is the neceflary. Even meat may be prę, lime, some of the composition having ferved by it without salt.

been prepared in a line-kiln, during INLAND NAVIGATION. the usual process of burning lime. On the ioth of August, the specifica Mr. PRATT conceives his composi. tion of a patent, was enrolled, aç the tion, by being burnt in moulds of any MONTHLY MAG. No. IX.



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particular figure, may be well applied in The lengths of the rack-work are building-ornaments, and to other useful joined together by means of mortices and purposes, and prove more durable than tenons, with a spring which holds them itucco, or any other compifition now in fast

. In each length is a joint, by which use.

the rack work will accommodate itself CLEANSING CHIMNEYS. to angles or turns in the fues. To the On the fourth of July, letters patent first or uppermost length is affixed å were granted so Daniel Davis, of the brush, of hair, or wire, or spunge, or parish of St. Giles, Middlesex, for his other elastic fubtance, as the occasion invention of a machine, by which he may require. proposes to sweep and cleanse chimneys, This invention is, doubtiefs, well and extinguish chimneys on fire, withcalculated to answer the purpose intendo out any person going up the same, as is ed, and may, perhaps, be the means of now the practice. The machine consists diminishing the number of those objects of an apparatus of rack work, of various of misery, the unfortunate chimney: lengths, which, by means of a hand- sweepers. turn, is made to afcend the chimney.






[This article is devoted to the reception of Biographical Anecdotes, Papers, Letters, &c. and

we request the Communications of such of our Readers as can aslijt us in these objects.] ANECDOTES OF PERSONS CONNECTED tranquilifing the overheated imaginations WITH THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. of the leaders of that great event, and [Continued from our laft.]

tempering the public rage against the CAAUMETTE.

rcal or lupposed enemies of the new

order of things, Chaumette was still PIERRE GASPARIS CHAUMETTE, the farther inflaming it, and directing it in

revolutionary recorder of Paris, was vengeance against particular individuals. a native of the town of Nevers, in the It was Chaumetre: that inftigated the Orleanois. Few men cxcited more at commune of Paris to demand the trial of tention in France for a time, or had the queen, and he was of the conimittee more hateful task to perform, during the which prepared the charges, and regu; mest tragical part of the Revolution, lated the evidence againit that ill-fated than Chaumctic. He had been bred to the

He was himself a witnefs too sca, but not relithing that life, and failing against her, at the revolutionary tributo obtain expected preferment therein, nal, and undertook to reprimand M. LA he quitted it, and lived by the use of his Tour Dupis, lately war minister to pen, which le certainly knew how to Louis XVI, for not exposing those paris manage more to his profit, than the com of Antoinette's conduct, which, it was pass. He could, however, speak better, infilțed on, he was privy to, or acquaint, and more fuently, than he could write. ed with. The most odious part of this He had also been employed as a librarian man's character, as to his charge againty and amanuensis to a dignitary of the this imprudent queen, was an incertuous church, in the diocese of Nivernois, but penchant towards her infant son, till then ar the commencement of the troubles in confined with her in the temple. This France was actually a clerk to an attor- infinuation, for it could be calleu no more, ney, and occasionally wrote for the newf- shocked the whole court and auditory, papers, as well as trifles for the stage. and especially the female part of it, and He was one of the chief disciples of CA- immediately tunk the accuser in the poMILLE DESMOULINS. and among the pular opinion. Even Robespierre him: first who put the tri-coloured cockade folf, under whose auspices he was bein his hat just before the taking of the lieved to act, grew outrageous when he Bastille. , He greatly out-ran that apot: was told of this article of accusation, rte in zcal for the new faith, for when more absurd than all the reft; and it is Camille was composing the first number not denied, even by her leverest enemies, of his Vieux Currielier, with the hope of that that culpable and loft princess was


1796) Original Anecdotes.Duke de Bourbon,

725 murdered, under the form of a revolu- former resolution, and that it became tionary trial. Whatever might have been them, like dutiful children, to submit. the amount of her crimes, had they been Hebert, Momora, and Mazuel, were fairly enumerated or weighed, and soon after accused as traitors, imprisonwhatever punishmient might have been ed, tried, and executed, but Chaumette pronounced on them, it is not less a fact, survived a short time longer, as his enea that nothing like justice was done her in mies thought it safer to wear away by that mock ceremony.

No sooner was degrees the remaining popular partiality Robespierre informed that the procureur of for him, before he ihould be itruck at. the commune had exhibited a charge of so He was taken up, however, on the 26th rinnatural á die against the miserable pri- of March, 1794, under a charge of confoner, than he exclaimed, “ The fool ! fpiring, with the foregoing men, against was it not enough that he had proved her the government, and guillotined on the a Messulina, but he must make an Agrip- 13th of April following, without the pina of her too?" Robespierre instantly smallest effort, on the part of Robespierre, saw this abominable conduct of Chau- to save him. mette would hurt the credit of the cause, He said, at the place of execution, en which account he never forgave him; that the revolution had inflamed his imathough he allowed the zeal to continue to gination, and at times intoxicated his operate on inferior objects, till it whelmed brain, from the too free gratification of the zealot himself in ruin. Chaumette his vengeance for the personal injuries had credit now with none but the very he had received. He said, also, hat fcum of the revolution, and such recre three instances had come to light of his mentitious matter will always be thrown aristocratic and inveterate enemies atoff in national ebullitions of this kind. tempting his life ; and that a defire of

Robespierre was at this time in the reprisal, in which he conceived the safe wery zenith of his power, yet Chaumette ty of the commonwealth in a measure inmoved such a proposition in the full coin. volved, made him seek all occasions for mune, as gave reason to many to believe arrogating power, but that he never chethat he would set up as his rival in the rished an idea of poffeffing any permacity. This daring motion was for unit nent authority, not even of a secondary ing all the heads of the forty-eight fec

or subordinate nature. tions of Paris in one council, a measure

The DUKE DE BOURBON that would have superseded the force of the legislature itself, if not its authority. Is descended from the most ancient faThis was a project, conceived in com- mily of Europe, and one which was mon with the famous HEBERT, MoMo. also reckoned the most illustrious during RA, and MAZUEL, and would have been an age when birth, and not virtue, aided in its execution by the daring conferred a claim to immortality. Being ROUSIN, who at that time commanded of the branch of Bourbon-Condé; and a body of the armé revolutionaire:

son of Prince Louis Joseph de Bourbong How far Robespierre was apprised of, and Charlotte Godefride Elizabeth de or approved the scheme, does not ap Rohan-Soubése, he is consequently pear; many threwd observers of what nearly related, not only to the late king, was palling, seemed satisfied that it was of France, but also to the kings of Spain, to have been only a prelude “ to the and the two Sicilies, and many of the swelling act” that was to follow, when princes of the cmpire. the hero of the piece was to have been in The history of this nobleman carries a full play. The majority of the conven moral along with it, and ought to teach tion law through the veil which covered humility to the aristocracy of Europe. the workings of the plot, and anticipated To those who are zealots for the rights their own danger, ihould it be carried of humanity, his misfortunes, however, into effect. They, therefore, without will scarce afford even a transitory pang, loss of time, annulled the proceedings when it is recollected, that on his imalready had in it, declared all to be rebels mense estates, the life of a partridge was who should perlift therein. Chau. in equal estimation with the life of a mette appeared to put a good face on peasant, and the game laws enforced fac the correction. He told the commune, more strictly than the criminal code ! on its next meeting, that his proposition The duke lately resided in Goldenmust be relinquithed, for that the con- square, where he acted as an agent for vention, with a voice paternal, though his cousins" the emigrant princes ; he feycre, had stamped with pullity their is not, indeed, acknowledged at the

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court of St. James's, as their ambassador, battle of Worcester, he has since led a but he has solicited in their naine, al- wandering life, subsisted on the precathough hitherto but with little effect. rious bounty of his friends, and been The last fùm delivered him, on behalf so reduced, as almost to excite the humi. of the once splendid house of Bourbon, liating pity of his enemies. From Veis said to have amounted to less than one

rona he was lately dismissed, with an unhalf year of his own income, before the

courteous precipitancy, by the senate of revolution !

Venice, a body that, by means of its W’hile the son acts occasionally in a din policy, has been able to maintain its plomatic capacity here, the father,

power undiminished amidit the innova

tions of ages. His brother, Prince Louis Joseph DE BOURBON- Charles Philip COMTE D'ARTOTS, CONDE,

Once the most gay, gaudy, fluttering, A warrior grown grey

under arms, is

accomplished, luxurious, and expensive at the head of a body of emigrants on the prince in Europe, has at length found borders of Swisserland. These have at

an asylum in the ancient palace of the different times been subsidized by the Scottish kings : and that nation now recoalesced courts, and are said to be at

pays to the Bourbons, at Holyrood-house, this moment in the pay of England. Of what the Stuarts were indebted to them, all the enigmas of the present day, the in point of hospitality, at St. Germain's. greatest, perhaps, is, the refusal to allow His reception, however, owing perhaps these men to fight their own battles !

to the latitude of the place, is very cold; The French noblesse have repeatedly foli, and the ill furnished and ill lighted apartcited to enter their native country, fword

ments at Edinburgh must recal, from the in hand, and have been threatened with very contrast, the-fuperbly decorated halls. chastisement for perlevering in this wish! of Versailles.

THE SOI-DISANT Louis XVIII The Count d'Artois, or Monsieur as he (For fo he must be styled, until he is ac

now styles himself, was beloved by the knowledged by fome one court of Europe, for to his extravagance they attributed,

courtiers, but execrated by the people according to diplomatic etiquette) was known, before the revolution, by the (perhaps unjuftly) great part of their name and titles of Louis Stanislaus Xavier, reproached with having supplied both

Certain it is, that Calonne was Comte de Provence, and Monsieur.

He is now in his 42d year, and his him and the queen with immenfe fums of confort, a princess of Sardinia, in her money; and some of the immenfe defuit

has been referred to that source ! During the late reign, he participated laws, it might be painful to recolle&t that,

Were it not for our attachment to the but little in either the intrigues or the in our own time, a king* has been imdebaucheries of the court. His brother, mured within one of our English gaols, Louis XVI, attached himself to the study and that, at this very day, a prince of of charts, while he addicted himself to books—their conforts were fond of far the most powerful house in Europe is different amusements!

actually confined six days of the week It must not be omitted, that, at an

within the purlieus of a Scotch abbey.

The count's establishment is far from early period of his life, he discovered a taste for poetry; and as he has actually fitted up under the direction of the ba

being fplendid. The apartments were written fome very pretty verses, he may at leaft.claim to be admitted into the cata.

rons of the Exchequer ; who, it must be logue of “ royal and noble authors."

acknowledged, have displayed no incliPreviously to the fight to Varennes, ture--the candles, which are said to be

nation to encourage a wasteful expendiboth the king and his brother were greatly respected, and the bulk of the tallow, are administered so sparingly, as people relied implicitly on their reite

to produce“ darkness visible” rather rated oaths and proteitations to remain than light; and it is well known that his in France, foine of which were pre- officers, at a fide table. This is, no

royal highness dines, daily, with his own peetedly. Luckily for Monpeir (if it doubt, a mortifying situation to a branch really may be called fo) while Louis of a family proverbially proud; but a took'the road for Montmedy, he pursued

more expensive establishment would be that which led towards Mons, and ef- necessarily deemed an injustice towards ruped. Like our Charles II, after the

* Theodore



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