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conferred on our author by the University works were translated, and their pretenof Oxford, July 6, 1759 ; on which oc- tions fully examined, yet there are others, casion le compiled an admillion ode. equally respectable and learned, who In the 26th year of his age, he married think ive need not be in any hurry either Miss Cecilia Young, a pupil of Gemini- to translate or discuss them, because they ani, and a favourite finger of those times. conceive they have discovered many After having refined his taste, he placed things which lufficiently evince their fuhimself under the instruction of the tility. “ For (say they) if he be so great a learned Dr. Pepuích, and acquired, with phil. fopher as his advocates pretend, why astonishing celcrity, that profound science are his writings disfigured by so many which his works occasionally display. ftrange and unintelligibie terms, as to And by the united aid of this science, require new dictionary in order to be and the gift of genius, he became the understood ? Is not this a circumstance first mulician who placed our claim to of ill omen? Does it not betray want harmonic excellence on a level with that of judgment! And how can we supof the Italians.

pore an author, who is involved in such Dr. Arne died the 5th of March, 1978, obfcurity, qualified to enlighten the aged 68, of a spasm on his lungs; re

world?" taining his faculties to the laft moment

However, from an intimate acquaintof his existence. With respect to his ance with KANT's writings, I can safely religion, he had originally been instruct. assert, first, that he has coined no new ed in the principles of the Romish church; words that, within the compass of his these, however, he had for many years

philosophy, only about thirty terms ocwhully neglected ; and, if we may allow cur, which do indeed found somewhat ourielies to judge from his unreítrained strangely ; but it is to those only who are mode of life, did not substitute any bet- unacquainted with the metaphysical works ter. However, in his last stage, thc dor of modern times : secondly, that those mant seeds of early maxims and preju- terms were the only proper ones that dices revived in his bofom, and the fond could be found to expreis the ideas which delusion of that religion on which he had

have been annexed to them, and that once been taught to rest, now returned ;

those persons in Germany who have cenand a priest was called in, by whom hé lured them, have not been able to prowas awed into repentance, and the lins

pose better : thirdly, that these terms of a whole life, not remarkable for its have been clearly explained by KANT, in moral purity, wholly forgiven ; and so their proper places; and that those who entirely was he satisfied with the holy

complain that they do not understand thein, father's pardon, and

assured of eter

either have not read KANT's works as nal happiness, that the last moments of is often the case, or have not read them his life were cheered by an hallelujah, throughout, or not in their proper order, sung by him eif.

or without due attention. But after all, Dr. Arne was naturally fond of plea.. if a new dictionary, to explain these surable ease ; and gaiety and revelry oc. ftrange terms, should still appear necefcupied most of the leisure hours of his fary, it will not, at the worst, occupy two life; hence, notwithstanding the number oćiavo volumes, nor indeed even one, and excellence of his publications, he but only the small space of an octavo died almost without property. The pe

page. culiarity of his genius was an almost con

“ But how then can it bappen,” ask Itant command of fiveerness and origi- difficult to be understood ? 'for fo he most

those antagonists of KANT, “ that he is nality of meiody. The feature of nature is prominent in all his airs; never certainly is. even according to the conaffected, never pedantic, never vacant,

felt on of his most zealous partizans. If his they are as remarkable for the juftness of language is not barbarous, he must netheir expression, as for their beautiful cefarily either want clear ideas of what fimplicity.


he teaches, or the fill of putting proper words in proper places ?

In antwer to this question, it may be To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. asked, what philofophic author. is there in SIR,

our days who, treating of speculative ob

jects, such as the mind, the foul, &c. THOUGH there are some very re would be properly understood by many spectable and learned men in this

more than that fećt to which he belongs, country, who fincerely with that KANT'S or which he has founded : Do not foine


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Mr. Nitsch on Kant's Philosophy.

703 of our materialists express themselves very “ Let us, however, grant for a moclearly and elegantly ; and are not their ment (say those critics) that KAT had works very much misunderstood by the constructed an entirely new system of fupernaturalists, idealists, and sceptics ? fpeculative philofophy, which appreaches And is not each of these in its turn, nearer to truth than any other known to equally misunderstood by the others ?- the world; bf what use can it be to a There are, indeed, fome men impartial lawyer, a divine, a physician, or a lover and inquisitive enough to understand fully of the fine arts, to employ his time up a what others have to state against their metaphysics, especially as every branch principles, but their number is too insig- of solid science has been very fuccessfully nificant to invalidate the truth of the cultivated, without their assistance ?". observation.

Now as the philofophic To this I must reply, that the question, public, though they are disinclined to of what use a science might be betrays follow the standard of any sect, are yet feldom a genuine love of truth; for whodivided into materialists, fupernaturalists, eer infits upon a clear answer to it, idealists, and sceptics ; and as KANT's before he can refolve to enter upon any, works contain a train of ideas, muitating will make great progress in none ; espenot only against all these parties, but alto, cially as the use of a thing cannot be in fome measure, againit the foundation clearly perceived before the thing itself of all the systems which they have hi is fully known ; and the most valuable therto formed, of the mind, of the foun discoveries would have been lost to the dation and principles of human know world, if the discoverers had tried noledge, of the moral nature of man, thing but what they knew before-hand of the Deity, *f a future state, &c. it would be of positive use to their designs. would be a miracle indeed, if, under such Befices, is it not suificient to know, that circumstances, these works should be di- the chief study of mankind ought to be rectly and generally anderstood, even by man, or at least the principal part of man, the most impartial enquirers after truth, which is the mind? Is it not clear that although the ideas contained in them, and every man of good education and learnthe language by which they are convey- ing, while he ranges about in the field ed, were models of clearness and pro- of external objects, and learrs to meapriety

sure the fun and the stars, thould resurve “ But (say those objectors) what can foine little portion of his time to get acwe expect from a fyítern which directly quainted with himse f, and with the inruns against the common sense of man variable laws of his mental faculties? kind, and prefumes to reject all the lyf. For it is enly by an accurate knowledge tems hitherto framed ?" To this I re of hese laws, that he is enabled to guard ply, that, if KANT's fyftem be false, it himself against the errors and fluctuating will be an essential requisite of the true opinion's, circulating in our days, regardone, to keep at an equal distance from all ing objects to which no rational being the fundamental tenets of those contend-' can be indifferent ; and it is only by an ing parties. For though each of these intimate acquaintance with the eternal parties must necessarily be right in fome laws of our judging, reasoning, and perrespects, becaufe otherwise they would ceiving faculties, that he will have it in not have been able to figur in the world his power to secure himself from that for one year, much less for many centu- defpondence and scepticism which must ries; yet each of these parties must also one day or other overtake him when he be wrong in some other relpects, or else comes to examine, seriously and calınly, it woud have been impollible for an op- those maxims and principles which he pofite party to arise, much less to flourish, has imbibed from his infancy, by which along with them for as many centuries. he has judged of l's fellow creatures, The true philofophy, therefore, must be the world, and himielf; and by which that which excludes the errors of each he has regulated his conduct. No man, system, and comprehends only the truthsi indecd, is perfect; he is ignorant of many contained in them all. If this observa- things; but hought not to remain igtion be well founded, and if KANT has · norant of such things as directly tend to discovered a road totally different from preserve the di nicy of his nature and that which other philofophers have pur- the rationality of that chara ter which sued, surely we may now expect much distinguishes inan from the brutes. If more of him than if he had followed a it be, therefore, cicar, that every man of fect, and supported the eternal diffentions education and learning ought to endca. ef speculative philosophers.

vour at an intimate acquaintance with

the laws of his mental faculties, it un. knowledge concerning the mind; for in avoidably follows, that every lawyer, di- this system, the principal question to be vine, physician, and every lover of the treated, will be, What is Realon ? What fine arts, in case they have not yet made is the Underttanding? What is Sense ? fuch acquaintance, should no longer hofi- But as thcle powers cannot be explained, tate to make it. And they will then but from their effects, and as their effects have abundant reasons to study the me are confounded with other, and different, taphysics of KANT; for this philofo. effects, we may easily conceive how the pher has opened new and important explanations must be qualified, which are proipećts into the field of metaphysics, deduced from such confused premises. which, however they may be at present Should not, therefore, every luver of disregarded, yet ought to be studied and truth and science, contribute something carefully examined.

to bring about an examination of the To know the laws of our mental pretensions of Kant: for so much is powers, it is requisite to know their ef. cear, that if they are well founded, a focis; for we can know powers only from great and unexpected reform in the whole their eneets. The mental phenomena, field of theoretical philofophy will be the called ideas, judgments, and reafonings, immediate confequence. But Ict none be are, indeed, in 10.e measure, the effects prejudiced again it this philosopher, from of external causes, or external objects; my having said, that our views of nature but KANT has fully demonstrated, that are, in some measure, perverted by the they are not entirely and exclufi: ely the present fyftems. Natural philofophers effcêts of these caures, and, therefore, ac have made folid and fubftantial discovequire another caule besides the external. ries. This KANT does not deny ; and This other caule is in the mind; is a when he says their views are perverted, mental power:

The sensible ideas of he means only that part of every one of external objects will, therefore, be the thein is so. joint produce of an external and a menial Let none imagine that this confusion cause. The effects of thele two different of thought is trifling, because it hinders causes, are, consequently,


toge not the progrels of great discoveries : ther, and constitute a fonfirle wea. Who a natural philofopher may discover many ever, therefore, would know the mirntal new and surprising properties of bodies, cause of a sensible idea, and get acquaint. though he cannot exactly distinguish beed with its properties, mutt firit of all be tween what, in his ideas, belongs to the able to distingu íh, in a sensible idea, that things, and what to the mind; as a man effect which belongs to the mental cause, may make great advances in agriculture, from that effect which belongs to the though he believes that the sun moves external cause. This distinction, of which round the earth; yet it was only by our philofophers do not even conceive leaving the sun at reft, and puiting the possibility, KANT has been so fortu- the earth in motion, that our grand nate as to establish. And in order to system of astronomy was construct show the importance of an enquiry in- ed. It will be by a like reforin in our to his philosophic systein, I need only views of things, by avoiding the confu. dwell a few moments upon this remark- fion of thoughts with things, and things able diftin&tion. If this distinction be with thoughts; and by a philosophy of true, and if our philosophers have not the mind, built on the principles of observed it, itfollows upavoidably, first, KANT, that the diffentions concerning that they have, in their ideas of the ex matier, coufe, effect, and Jubstance, can be ternal world, ascribed those effcēts to the brought to a final determination, and in external world which belong to the this manner the fundamental science of mind; and those effe&ts to the mind all natural philofophy be rendered conwhich belong to the external world; fiftent with itself, and complete; not to fecondly, that in so doing, they have con mention the beneficial effects which the founded thoughts with things, and things Kantean notions must produce upon the with thonghts; and thus, in some mea diffentions in Morals and Religion. fure, perverted the very view and aspect I am fully convinced, however, that it of nature ; thirdly, that by this remark- is utterly impossible to show the importa able confusion, they have given birth to ance of the Kantean System, by inere materialisin, fupernaturalisin, idealism, remarks on that system. As that man and fçepticism, which shake the very has a very imperfect and contracted view foundation of all human knowledge ; of the grandeur and beauty of St. Peter's and, fourthly, that they have rendered church, at Rome, who only saw a few it impulsible for themselves to construct disjointed pillars of that noble building; a consistent and satisfactory system of so he must have but a precarious idea of



Mr. Nitsch on Kant's Philofophy.


the importance and the extensive utility contain those very truths which human of the Kantean Philosophy, who only, reason has fought in vain for many conreads a few remarks on some principles turies, and which it wants, to become which have been torn from their con- consistent with itself, particulariy in nection with the grand and ingenious thole more important and still contro. whole of this celebrated system. At all verted questions regarding the properties events, the whole must be ftudied, every and powers of the mind perceivable to part of it must must be clearly viewed man, the origin and principles of human in its coherence with the whole; other-, knowledge, the fource or imoral and rewise, neither the whole, bor any part of it, ligious ideas, &c.; should this be the case, will be properly understood. And I may what man is there, that has a heart warın add, that if the whole of the Kantean for truth, who who would not sincerely philofophy were found to be false, yet lament, that in our enlightened times, so the plan and articulation of that Systein many years should have elapred before alone will greatly reward the trouble of such valuable discoveries could obtain a its study, and for ever remain a subject of candid examination ? admira:ion ; independent of the consi Having, therefore, a more favourable deration that the refutation of the fup- opinion of the impartiality and justice of pored new errors of KANT, might lead the Britisl

, public, and being convinced to the discovery of new truths.

that if truth is to conquer in the end, a “ Bur (say fome men of experience and time must approach when the Kantean learning) as the favourable and unfa. principles will be as generally admired and yourable accounts of the Kantean system adopted, as they are at present unknown have hitherto been very vague and un- and despised; and although it is true, I satisfactory, and as mankind, in dubious have as yet met with littie encouragecases, are inclined to believe rather the bad ment, I am will firmly resolved not to than the good reported of a foreign author; relax in those exertions which I have not only great doubt is still generally en- made for three years past, to bring those tertained of the importance of Kant's principles to the bar of the public; and, metaphysics, but this doubt has degene. therefore, respectfully invite the genuine rated into such a degree of inactive and friends of truth and philosophy to fup. frigid indifference, that if a man of pro- port me with their encouragement in ilia perty does not step forward to get them great and difficult undertaking, trandated at his own expence, Kant's The means I propose for the accomworks, though they might have been plishment of this object, are Writing and examined twelve years ago, will, in all Lectures. If the first is used alone, the probability, not be translated for many progress of truth and enquiry will be years to come. For what man will un- low ; for as Kant's notions do not dertake the task of translating KANT, square with the common run of popular if it is difficult for him to find a pub- opinions, they will either be considered as lither; and what bookseller will have any false, or as insignificant, and in either cafe thing to do with them, when he fears it be very little examined. And if the last is will be difficult to procure readers ; and employed alone, few persons will be able how many readers can be reasonably ex. to get acquainted with Kant's ideas, pected, when the public at large are pre- and the advancement of truth and enjudiced against KANT; and how, and quiry will be equally now. It is, therea when, will these prejudices be removed, fore, belt to combine then; for it is by when so many unfavourable reports are, this combination alone, that the princidaily circulating against him, and when ples of KANT can gain the most ample this philolopher has to few friends to re publicity, and excite a sufficient number cominend him, and to defend his preten- of respectable opponents and defendants fions from calumnies, invented and propa- , to bring the truth to light gated by ignorance, and, not unfrequent It is therefore my intention, provided ly, by malice "

it should meet the approbation and enBut whatever may be said of the dis- couragement of the public, in the course position of the public towards KANT, I of the ensuing winter, to read Lectures, cannot believe that it is so unfavourable, and to publiih “ An Analysis of the Pere as has been represented. Suppose it, for ceptive and Reasoning Faculties of the a moment, to be pullible (and I defy any Human Mind.” bindy to prove the contrary) that KÁNT's

P.A, NITSCH. works should, after much ftraggle, and No. 34, Wimpoleaftreet, against all expectation, finally appear to October 8, 5796.


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THE INQUIRER. No. IX. mature age, it is found, that some emQUESTION: Ought Sensibility to be cherise pourable to fenfibility than others; and

ployments and professions are more faed, or repréfect ?

that those who live in the daily exercise 0, SWEET SENSIBILITY! SOUL OF THE SOUL! of the kind affections which belong to

domestic life, commonly discover a larger

portion of this quality, than those who OF THY KINDLY SPIRIT WHEN ONCE WE'RE feclude themselves from the world in foBERETT,

litude and celibacy.

It is evident, then, that sensibility adDr. Glikin.

mits of voluntary diminution or imSENSIBILITY, that peculiar ftruc provement : and a question of great im

ture, or habitude, of mind, which portance in moral dilcipline arises, whedispuses a man to be easily moved, and ther this mentai habit thould be resolutely powerfully affected, by surrounding ob- restrained and represed, or industriously jects and patling events, is a quality pof- cherished and stren thuned ? Telled in very different degrees, by diffe The current of talte and opinion seems, rent persons. The organs of some men at present, to tend toevards the negative are formed of luch coarse materials and side of this question. There was a time, their fpirits fiow in to Nuggith a current, when fenfibility was taken un er the pathai they seem almost incapable of any other tronage of that powerful arbiter of ma.. Sensations than those of animal appetite ; ners-fashion. Then, height of breedsuch persons; being merely fleth and blood, ing was measured by delicacy of feeling; live for no othe: purpferuan io confume an! no fine lady, or fine gentleman, was the fruits of the earth : they doze away alhamed to be seen figning over a pathe. a languid exigence, with ut any enjoy- tic ftory, or wecping at a deep-wrought ment fieprior to that of their kindred tragedy. As every iling in fashionable. herds in the vicld and the fall ; and at life haftens to extiemes, the affe&tation the end of their days, provided they have of refinement produced a degree of fofthad enough, and to fpare, lay themselves nets, which foon became ridiculous : by quietly down to reit. Nature, on the a sudden stroke of caprice, the polite contrary, has cast others in fo fine a mold, world pasied over to the contrary extreme and trained them so luceptible of every of affccted infenfibility; and now it is impression of joy or grief, thar scarcely a become the mode, to consider every exmement of their lives passes, without it's pression of tenderness as a mark of vulpleasures or it's pains." To such minds, garity; in the most interesting fituations, not only is every real occurrence interest. a freezing air of indifference is assumed ; ing, but imagination itself creates inny- thosc delicate tints, which the feeling merable occasions of vexation or delight. heart'would spread over the cheek of inBetween these extremes, are many fades nocence, are conccaled ; the involuntary of temper and character, foine approach- tear of fympathy; left it lhould be seen, ing ncarer to the one, and fome to the is haftily wiped away ; in short, nature other, as they have been, respectively is banished, to introduce, in it's stead, a diversified by the hand of nature or of rude and vulgar kind of stoicism, of which education.

Zeno would have been ashamed. That education, as well as nature, is By a kind of league, which has hitherconcerned in forming this feature of the to not been common, and which is, cerhuman mind, appears from fact and ex- tainly, not very natural, philosophy has perience. Though fome of the seeds of affociated herself with faihion, to bring sensibility are fown in every breast, fa- fenfibility into disrepute. We do not vourables circumstances are necessary to often, indeed, from the sages of the prebring the tender plant to maturity. Chil. fent day, hear the rant of the ancient dren whose natural dispositions are, in ftoic school, concerning the exclusive this respect, nearly alike, will discover fufficiency of virtue to happiness, and more or less of this qsality, according to the confequent indifference of all external the connections in which they are placed, circumstances. We are not told, that a and in proportion to the degree of culture witė man will raise his mind above all which has been bestowed upon their un foreigu impressions, and will not suffer derstandings and their hearts. And, at himself to depend for any portion of his

happiness, upon the lenses or imagination; Nos numerus jumu., et fruges corfumere that pain does not belong to the mind, nati, Hor,

and therefore is no evil; and that com


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