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AGRICULTURAL REPORT FOR SEPTEMBER:

The CROPS of every kind of Grain have been secured in fine condition, and such plentiful ones are not remembered. This obfervation applies to Great Britain generally. The PRICES of Grain still however keep up in many markets, though the average price for England and Wales has fallen wirhin the month from 755. 6d. to 64s. 7d. and when the demand for tecd-corn is over, a greater fall may be reatonably expected.

The TURNIPs and LATTERMATHS, which were at a stand during the late dry weather, have been fo much brought forward by the late rains, as now to promise well. The FALLOws for wheat-lowing have also been improved by the fame cause, and afford a flattering presage of another good crop.

The SMITHFIELD MARKETS having fallen lately, STORE STOCK felt a d -pression in confequence; but the late rains will probably be a means of their rifing again. Beer sells at this time in Smithsield from 35. 40. 40 4s. per stone. MUTTON, from 45. to 4s. 6d.

Woor looks up again on the prospect of a Spanish war, Hors in Wef Kent have fallen short at leait one third ; Canterbury has failed generally; and in Worczflerhire the crop does not promise a fourth. Total duty not more than 90,000l. or 100,000l.

A METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL, for JULY, 1796, at Souihgate, Middlesex.

1

NE

29 09:58

SW

NE

SW

very clear

E

SW

2

6 30

N

SW

N

SW

z z z

SW

SW

SW

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D (H. B. IT., P., W. · REMARKS.

D. H. B. IT: P. W. REMARKS. 6 (30.1553

clear
15

partially clear P.M 3130.01108

partially clear

129.09 751 12 30.01155 Jo. 1329.7565

clear after an im. 00 very cloudy--some

mente display of drops of rain in

lightning the night

16 6 29.07163 partially cloudy 12 29.8765

do.
P.M 12 29.0655

clear 12 29.87160

uo.

17 7 29.0663 partially clear 3 29 82160 partially clear... P.M 11 29.08 52

SW Near
drizzling rain in 8 6 29.09 53

cloudy
the night
P.M11 29.07 581

partially clear
11298260
cloudy--drizzling 197 29.65 55

very cloudy and rain

rainy
6129.8672

cloudy
P.M129.95 511

clear
11/29.82 48
do.
629.9560

do. 72908152

do.

P.M
330
52

partially clear P.M11 29.63541

1 29.091581

cloudy
5
do, drizzling rain 6129.95581

do,
329 37156
cloudy

partially clear
6
1294153
partially clear 1129.85501

clear 1 29.41150 Tainy 629.75 531

partially clear ,6 6 1 29.0350

cloudy
P.M11129.0850

do,
12 29.04:53
cloudy--- showery ||23 629.0750

do. 129.55.50

partially clear
P.M 729 07,60

do.
6.29.0748
7
partially cloudy 11 29.07 53

do.
3 29.77156

do.
24 629.0553

sisw heavy rain and ID 29.8546 dur. sww cle:r

brick breeze 6 29.8 50 last sw'w partially cloudy P.M 4 29.0508 partially clear 2 29.07153 | four sww partially cloudy & 112905 90

cloudy
days
showery
25 629.05 55

do.
11 29.08 43 64 NW

partially clcar

PMII 29.45561 do. & windy 6 29.0343/ 32 ww do.

26 6 29.45 501 sw. do, 9.M!! 29.0852

do.
P.M11 29.0554

SW do.
8:29.07531 cloudy & windy 27 629.55581

partially clear 2.M 6129.08153 NNW partially clear

P.MU 29.07150

clear
12 29.08148
NNW clear

28
29.75:53

partially clear 12 29.8659 NNW raiis very hard

P.M 1 29.07 56

sw heavy rain P.M 729.80150 NNW drizzling rain 29 6129.63156103 sw rainy 1129.09|4.8 NNW perfectly clear

P.MII 29.08 53)

clear
6129 0948
wywido,

30
6 29 0853

do. P.M11 26.0653 cloudy

P.M 1229.8353

do. 13 6120.75,55

31 6 29.8558 P.M111 29.3558 Nww partially cloudy PMII 29.08 58 cloudy 14 1.6-9.0859 SW do. y.mu.29160 ssw cloudy and windy,

* The Law, DRAMA, &c. are unavoidably omitted.

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For ibe Monthly Magazine. made the price of his protection, not ON THE CONNECTION

without large presents to boot.

BETWEEN
LOVE OF PLEASURE AND GREAT- Nequidquam duras tentafset Cæsaris aures ;
NESS OF CHARACTER.

Vultus adent precibus, facieique inceita perorat. MR.GIBBON, remarking upon a pa

Exigit infandam corrupto judice noćıcm. rallel which has been drawn between Pax ubi purta ducis, donisque ingentibus emta the emperor Severus, and Julius Cæsar,

eft, observes, in a note, that “the idea Lucan Excepère epuiæ tantarum gaudia rerum. gives of the latter hero, where he de In truth, no civilized people ever less icribes him at the same time making love entered into the refinements of the amoto Cleopatra ; sustaining a siege against rous paifion than the Romans; and it the power of Egypt; and conversing does not appear that an idea of the con. with the fages of the country, is, in re né&tiun between the propensity to sexual ality, the noblest panegyric.' It is cafy indulgences, and a disposition to perform for one acquainted with the mode of great actions, ever entered into their thinking of this historian, to perceive heads. On the contrary, such a notion that this observation is the offspring of would have opposed the whole stream of that French (chool of morals whence he their primitive manners and sentiments. has derived so large a share of his senti. Continence, self-command, and contempt ments; and of which it seems to be a of pleasure, were the characteristics of favourite maxiın, " that a love of plea- all their distinguished personages ; and fure, especially of the kind arising froin they had almoit conquered the world, the commerce between the lexes, is an before they thought of enjoying it. essential ingredient of a great and gene To conứder the subject in a general rous character." Voltaire has dressed point of view, we may, first, observe, that out this opinion in the most alluring co as the original appetites and passions of kurs, both in his profe and his poetry; man all result from his organization, a and Buffon has even extended it to the certain degree of strength and vigour in brute creation, and made it a fundamen- them is essential to the perfection of the tal principle in natural history. Since, human system. If, therefore, it were however, it appears to me not less falsé asserted, that the individual who feebly, than it is dangerous, I shall endeavour to or not at all, feels the common impulles How how little support it receives either of his nature, betrays an imperfection in from fact or reasoning.

his bodily frame, whence unfavourable It is scarcely worth while, in a general conclusions may be drawn as to his mendiscussion, to enter into a critical exami- tal faculties--the position would have a nation of the passage in Lucan, which fair analogy for its support, and might gave occasion to Gibbon's remark; yet it probably be confirmed by actual observamay not be improper, in order to display tion. But such instances being exceptions the levity with which it was made, to to the common law of the species, in. observe, inat the poet, in his narration, stances of the opposite kind can be contiis so far from countenancing any notion of dered as nothing extraordinary ; and it ingenious or sentimental gallantry in this is absurd to look for the cause of any making love of Cæsar, that he represents thing whereby one man is diftinguished it in plain terms as a borgar struck with from another, in suine what which belongs Cleopatra, whereby her favours were to the general definition of man. An MONTHLY MAG. No. IX,

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ordinary susceptibility, therefore, of the fured that his head did not run upon impressions of sense, and an ordinary de- feasts or love adventures. But it is need fire of natural gratifications, can be no less to multiply ancient authorities on a marks of superiority of character. Will point, concerning which all antiquity the theorist, then, maintain that exiran speaks but one language. The fable of ordinary sensibilities in these respects are the choice of Hercules may stand for the proofs of excellence Will he look for universal doctrine of thosc ages--tliat the the seeds of greatness in the voracious love of pleasure and the spirit of performappetite of a Vitellius, or the insatiable luft ing great actions, are in direct opposition of a Caligula ? or, turning his view upon to each other. inferior animals, will he infer generosity Were the principles of modern times and nobleness of nature froin the incli- really those of the religion professed in nations of the ass, the goat, the monkey, them, the question, as far as relates to and the hog! A founder philofophy them, would be instantly decided; for a would lead us to conclude, that there genuine Christian Hero cannot be a volupbeing always a certain relation between tuary. But since, in fact, men have the power of being excited and actual known as well how to conciliate licentie excitement--the former fuffering exhauf- ousness in conduct with rigidity in printion in proportion to the repetition of the ciple under the systems of Christianity, latter--the more the susceptibilities of as under those of Heathenisin, there is our nature are wafted upon common pro- ample room for the same enquiry respecpensities, the less alive will they be to ting distinguished modern characters, as the rarer and more exalted. Thus, the the ancient have afforded; and I doubt indulgence of appetite will weaken paf- not that the same result would be the fion ; that of the meaner passions will consequence. After all that Voltaire has Rifle the nobler ; fondness for the plca- done to throw a splendour round his amisures of sense will damp the ardour for able hero of the Henriade, sober history will pleasures of the understanding. And tell us that he was not a great man, because experience, on the whole, seems to con- he was the slave of appetite and passionfirm this theoretical deduction. For that had he not possessed, in Sully, a mithough there are some ardent natures nister whose talents were equalled by his which carry every thing to its extreme, morals, he would probably never have and seem formed for whatever is exqui- risen even to the rank of a great kingfite, both in sense and intellect, yet the and that his fcandalous indulgencies with quick vicissitudes to which they are liable the sex, at an advanced period of life, in their pursuits, must ever prevent their were proofs of an incurable weakness of attaining that high degree of perfection, character, and involved him in perpewhich can only be the result of steadi- tual difficulties and disgraces. Who was ness and self-controul. An Alcibiades or the only king of the English line truly a Villiers may obtain distinction by being deserving the epithet of great? The

every thing by turns, and nothing temperate, virtuous, and indefatigable long ;" they may dazzle by the variety Alfred. What made the two Swedes, of their powers, and excite vulgar ad- Gustavus Adolphus and Charles XII, miration by the apparently incongruous the one the greatest hero, the other the mixture of levity with serioufneis, dis- hardiest warrior of his age, but their fipation with industry-but they can rigid sobriety and self-command? Wher never rise to the character of true greai. was the power of the Spanish monarchy ness, more than of folid virtue. If Cæsar wielded with so much vigour and regard be considered as one of the first of men, to the public welfare, as by the aultere it is not for his debauched youth, but Ximenes? WVcre not the ministers of for his sober and ledate manhood. Cara- Elizabeth as much diftinguished by reline, who continued to be at once, all gularity and decorum as by capacity ? that Cæsar was at different periods, rose Were not chastity and temperance quaonly to be the head of a desperate lities in high efteem in the age of chivalry; banditti. Scipio is as famed for his con the principles of which, fantastic as they tinence as his valour. The Spartans

The Spartans were, in fomc refpects, undoubtedly tended conquered themselves, before they came to the elevation of the human character to be the conquerors of nations Even Did not even the severity of religious selfthe elegant Athenians became the disci- denial mingle with habitual contempt of ples of philosophers, before they were pleasure in those numerous chara:ers of advanced to high offices in the state ; and vigour and ability which the civil trouwhen Themistocles could not sleep for bles consequent to the reformation, exthe trophies of Miltiades, we may be af- hibited in to many countries ? To con

clude

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1796.) Letters between Mad. Necker and Dr. Percival. clude-the late king of Prussia, to whom pre cæur, je tourne sans cesse ma penall cotemporary monarchs were pigmies, “ lée vers une revolution, sans laquelle though sufficiently Epicurean by princia “ il me semble que nous ne pourrons japie, did he not in practice exercise ab " mais esperer d'etre Chretiens, ni meme folute dominion over all voluptuous pro “ d'etre hommes ; ou, pour trancher le pensities, and was he not notoriously indif " mot, sans laquelle on peut nous affimiler terent to feminine allurements ?

aux ours et tigres, qui font la chasse dans I know it would be possible enough to « les forets. Continuez, genereux Anadduce a number of examples of an oppo “ glois, à donner l'exemple de tout le site kind-for man is man--the love of “ bien qui se fait sur la terre. Puissions plealure is a part of his nature, and extra nous etre toujours vos rivaux, et jainais ordinary efforts are requisite to bring it « vos ennemis.'' under subjection. But it is sufficient for TRANSLATION... Your wishes for my purpose to have shown, that there “ the fuppreflion of the trade in Negroes is po necessary.connection between strong "" are not more ardent than mine. The propensities to sensual indulgence, and English have many treatises upon this exalted moral or intellectual faculties; “ subject ; and nothing, I think, ever and that a man may eafily be as great a

“ did more honour to their nation. But debauchee as Cæfar, without being su a general concurrence of all the Europerior in understanding to Heliogabalus; pean governments being wanting to whilst, on the other hand, he may be " effectuate the abolition, the wishes of sober and continent, both by habit and « individuals have been hitherto renderdisposition, with the enterprise of a 46 ed fruitless. I can answer for the Frederick, and the sublimity of a New 6. heart of M. Necker; a heart which

«6 embraces the whole human race, and J. A. “ which knows no greater felicity, upon

or earth, than that of contributing to To the Editor of ibe Montbly Magazine,

bo make their lot more comfortable; but SIR,

6 he is a minister of Itate; and he inuft THE sentiments of the late celebrated * endeavour to give consistency to his MADAME NECKER, on the ABOLI

66 various duties, and to consider the TION of the SLAVE TRADE, cannot good of France before that of Africa.

interesting to every friend of “ For my own part, who judge of things justice and humanity. I send you, there 66 only by sentiment, and am accountafore, for insertion in the next sumber of “ ble only to my own heart, I turn my your Magazine, the following extract of “ thoughts incessantly towards a revoa letter from that excellent and most ac

6 lution, without which, it appears to complished woman:

me, we can never hope to be Chrif

66 tians, nor even to be men; or, to Extra&t of a Letter from MADAME NecKER 10 DR. PERCIVAL, of Manchester ;

• speak plainly, without which we may

“ be justly compared to bears and tigers, dated Versailles, March 9, 1789. 66 which roam the forest. Continue, • Vous ne faites pas de veux plus ar generous English, to set the example que moi pour la suppression de la “ of all the good which is done in the

Vous avez beau " world. And may we be always your coup ecrit en ce genre, et jamais rien, “ rivals, and never your enemies !” je pense, n'a fait plus d'honneur à la In the course of correspondence with "nation Angloise : mais ce concours fi MADAME NECKER, the following an" necessaire de toutes les puissances rend swer was returned to these observations: * infructueux jusques à present les vaux “ Permit me again to solicit your influ“ de tous les particuliers. Je suis bien ence with M. NECKER, in behalf of the " sûre du ceur de M. Necker ; ce ceur

poor Negroes. The terms in which you " embrasse tous les hommes, et ne con- state his comparative obligations toward "noit point de bonheur plus grand sur France and Africa, are not strictly ac** la terre, que celui de contribuer à curate. A great minister is reponsible “ rendre leur sort plus doux : mais il est for the honour and probity of the people, " administrateur, et il faut qu'il cherche whose affairs he directs; and no end, " à concilier les devoirs, et qu'il confi. however legitimate, ought to be pursued " dère le bien de la France avant celui by unjustifiable means.

But in nations, “ de l'Afrique. Pour moi, que ne juge as amongst individuals, there subsists a

des choses que par le sentiment, et qui high and magnanimous, as well as " n'ai de compte à rendre qu'à inon pro. fordid and ignoble interest; and when

4 S2

ever

fail to

.66

di dens
4 traité des negres.

rence.

ever these are in competition, there can the condemnation of Jefferies, cannot have assuredly be no doubt about the prefe- been founded in truth. Mrs. Rowe

With regard to the traffic in the was born in September, 1674, the conhuman species, I trust it will appear, demnation spoken of was in September, that policy and profit are light in the 1635. As this lady was only then about balance, when weighed against huma- eleven years of age, we cannot suppose nity and rectitude; and that they will, that the was sent to a man of Kirk's lan. eventually, on a more enlarged view, be guinary temper, to folicit the life of a found to be perfectly compatible."'. perion under fentence of death, It may afford satisfaction, Mr. Editor,

Your's, to many of your readers, to be informed, Froome, Sept. 14.

A. C. that there is reason to believe M. NEC. KER would have emloyed his most ítrenuous exertions in the abolition of the For the Monthly Magazine. slave-trade, if the distractions of France

CHRONOLOGICAL REMARK ON had not driven him from the helm of

GENESIS. government. The Rev. Dr. FROSSARD, author of an admirable work, FROM Diodorus Siculus (lib. i.) Plu, entitled, La Cause des Escloves Négresit

tarch (Life of Numa) and Pliny (lib, des Habitans de la Guinée portée au Trilu

vii. C. 48) it seems, that the Ægyprians nal de la Justice, de la Religion, de la Po- originally dated by lunar years, by years litique, published at Lyons in 1789, thus of one month each. They afterwards expresses himself in a letter to the writer dated like the Chaldeans, by the year of of this article : “ My work has receiv

365 days (Newton's Works, vol. v. p. 21) " ed very flattering tokens of

and fron the æra uf Nabonaflar*, which

appro" bation from M. and Madame Necker. began 747 A.C. That they received this They have both thanked me in the solar year fu foon as the Chaldæans, is most honourable manner: and the unproved; but their country being, in " letter of this excellent minister gives fome degree, a dependent province upon

me assurance, that he will enter on the Babylon, they probably derived it from “ business of the abolition of the flaves the lame edi&t at the same time. “ trade as soon as the establishment of

Eichorn (Einleitungins alte testament, « affairs in France will permit.”

vol. ii. p. 264) has observed, that the book M. TURGOT, who was comptroller been pu: together from fe:eral docu

of Gencfis, in its present form, must have of the finances of France in the years 1774, 1775, and 1776, and who is uni

ments; and although he may not, perversally allowed to have been a man of haps, have completely and accurately pre-eminent talents, and of the most com

discriminated them (Geddes's Preface to prehensive views, proposed it, as one ob- the Holy Bible, p. 5) he has at least afject of his administration, to fuppress the forded clues, which may allist in the se. traffic in the human fpecies. The Mar- paration. The admillion of this is efQUIS DE CONDORCET records the føllowing fact concerning this enlightened * Jemshid (according to the thort History of minifter:

"A merchant defired to give Perfia prefixed by sir William Jones to his Life " the name of Turgot to a vessel, in

of Nacer Shah, p. 42) introduced the use of the “ tended for the negro-trade. With the

solar year amon, the Persians, and ordered the « indignation of a virtuous mind, that

first day of it, called Nuruz, to be folemnized by a splendid fettival

Probably, the fular year “ could not be familiarized to a crime af. Jemihid was no othe: than the year of 365/ “ from the habit of seeing it committed, days, the use of whịch Nabynaffar communi« M. Turgot rejected the offer; and he cated to the Chaldeans and Ægyptians. When

was not afraid, by this refusal, of de- jemlhid inftituted this year, it began in the

claring publicly his opinion, at the month of the lamb, while the sun is in Aries. $6 risk of exciting against him all those The first year of the æra of Nabonafiar began on «who considered the promotion of their the 15th of February, while the sun is in 66 fortune as connected with the continu Pisces. Now tne Nuruz of this year recedes " ance of this infamous traffic."

one day in four ytars, or very nearly fo: it will A CONSTANT READER. therefore have fallen upon ihe vernal cquinox

137 years before the aia of Nabonassar. This is To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,

a highly probable period ior its inftitution. The

astronor: cr, who ascerta ned the length of the SIR,

yaar, would naturally fix upon th equinox for T! HE account given in your last, of its commencement.

may venture, then, to Mrs. Rowe's going to Kirk, to so correct the chronology of Sir William Jones, Ligit a pardon for a young man, inder and to plaec Jem lhid 884 years before Christ.

fential

Oft.2.

We

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