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Thus, Pollux, thus the rover Hercules

50 and the 100 acres were true, there Stove to attain the beamy seats above, would be no doubt of it. As for the Where in the nectar'd bowl

small farmer's selling his hay and straw, They tinge the rotier lip:

and bringing back “their value in coin," Thus, tiger-curbing Bacchus, couldīt thou climb that is very feldom done. Perhaps near The home of Gods-Quirinus thus ascend

London, and some few great towns it Borne on the freed of Mars i Beyond the foud of death.

inay, though even there manure is always brought back; but in the country, far

mers are obliged, by their leafes, nine To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

times out of ten, I may say 99 times out of 100, to expend all their hay and strawy

on the premiscs: CIRCUMSTANCES prevented my The charitable reason given, viz. the

feeing your Magazine for June, till mildness of the winter, why farmers did very lately, clse I should have endeavour not thrash out their grain sooner, is, I ed before this to have answered the ob- fcar, far from the real one. Monopoly jections wnich your correspondent, G. in corn can only take place when the brings againit my letter, on the compa- crops are indifferent, and little doubt is rative advantages of large and small entertained but that the crops of the two farms.

preceuing years were so; and I also What your correlpondent seems par- believe that little doubt is entertained, ticularly anxious to prove is, that on

that corn

was both inonopolized and largt farms a less number of horses, and withheld from market. Perhaps it was fewer labourers in proportion are ein not monopolized by the farmer alone, ployed, than on small ones. This I allow but I know, from facts, that many farto be the case in a trifling degrec; I do mers did buy it up, as well as withhold it. not mean to íay that a large tarm has no When I said that the small farmer is advantages, I only contend that the an- obliged to tell his corn at the usual time nihilation of finall farms, and the present to pay his rent, I did not suppose it could System of encreasing them to the very be urged as an argument against small great magnitude that now we lo often farms. Surely that which tends to keep oblerve, is disadvantageous. By so doing, the price of grain tolerably low, cannot the body of the ycomaory is very much be said to be detrimental.' G. need not diminished, and one man occupies what be afraid of its finking tou much. But woulů support, in a respectable way, when is the little farmer compelled to perhaps half-a-dozen.

neglc&t his land to thrash ? He says “the great source of ill ma usual time, I do not mean that he is nagement in farming, is the kecping of forecd to thrath it to a day; I only mean an unnecessary number of horses or oxen that he cannot afford to let it lie spoiling to cultivate the foil;” and then adds, as in his barns, sike the rich and purse-proud an undoubied fact, that the same number : farmer. of cattle which are necessary for the ma The comparison between a manufacnagement of so acres, are equal to the tory and an inclosure, does not hold good, management of 100. That it is a bad for here realoning is superseded by fact; fystem to keep an unnecessary number of for that the poor's rates are generally inhories I allow, but I am apt to believe, creased on an inclusure taking place, is thar bad cultivation proceeds oftener too well known to be controverted. I from too few than from too many being can cite many and many instances. I do employed, and as for the assertion that not by this mean that I condemn ina man can cultivate 100 acres with as closures in toto, but, except when a fmall a number of cattle that he can go, it considerable quantity of waste land is is too extravagant to require confutation. brought into cultivation, I do not conIf we are to reason in this manner, we ceive them to be very advantageous. may go on and say 1000, or 10,000. Because I said that a small farm held Afterwards I am asked, if I never heard out an incitement to industry, it is not of any other manure than the house to be concluded that I wish all farms to be dungáill? I have not lived most of my let to men, who by their care and prudence life in the country, without knowing that have saved a small fum of money. A manure is chiefly obtained from the farm person who has been thus prudent and yard; and it is therefore probable that laborious, will most probably do his ut. the small farmer will have the more in most to cultivate the land properly; and proportion. If Gi's assertion about the furely it is a good thing that an incite.


By the

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1796.] Addison's Drummer. ... Imprisonment of Seven Quakers. 617 ment to industry thould be afforded. I To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. know many men who now are respecta

SIR, ble farmers of isol. a-year or mort, who

HAVING understood from Dr. Johnwere twenty years ago nothing but com

fon’s Life of Additon, that the latmon labourers. Is it not more advan. I

ter had never acknowledged the comedy tageous that their money should be thus of the Drummer to be the production of employed, than spent in drunkenness and his pen, and that its claim to tuch an oridebauchery?

gin depended merely on its having Perhaps I did not fufficiently explain been delivered by Adcison to Steele az myself with regard to milk, for I was un

a tavern, as the compolition of a gentlewilling to take up inore rooin in your

man in company; I was somewhat furMagazine than was ' necessary. I only prited to find in the edition of Beaumont said that another consequence of large and Fletcher, by Thcobald, Steward, and farms was, that the poor could not ob- Sympson, vol. I, p. 294, a note by Thetain milk ; but I did not mean fo much obald, which, if ič may be credited, will from the scarcity of it, as that the large place the claim of Addison beyond disfarmer will not sell it them. He is too rich and too much set up to receive their vil, in the Scornful Lady, he says,

pute. Speaking of the character of Sa.

The halfpence: no, it feeds his hogs; and, ingenious Mr. Addison, I remember, told in his eyes, that is a matter of much

me that he iketched out the character of greater importance than the health of Vellum, in the comedy called the Drumhis poor neighbours. I say beul!l), for

mer, from this model.” The character nothing contributes so much towards the of Theobald, I believe, was not much health of a poor person's family, as plenty diftinguithed' by veracity, and in this of milk.

instance his memory might have failed G. thinks poultry a luxury and be- him. Perhaps however fome of your neath confideration, but whether juftly correspondcnis may be able to ascertain or not, I much doubt. Whatever like what fort of credit is due to the above poultry is reared at little or no expence, assertion; and in doing this they will and is, besides, a plain and wholesome

oblige, food, I can never conceive as a luxury or

Your's, &c. as beneath consideration.

Norwich, Sept. 12, 1796. J.C. F. I cannot but suppose, but that which destroys the just gradation of the different orders of society is detrimental. This To the Editor of the Montbly Magazine. is a matter of opinion, but I believe of

SIR, an opinion very generally received. — However, it certainly is a matter of fact, THE imprisonment of feven Quakers that large farms do destroy this grada- tithes (mentioned page 350 of your mil

in York Castle for refusing to pay tion. I have thus, sir, briefly endeavoured to

cellany) was a subject which had long defend my opinion on this subject. How engrofled my attention. That the pub far I may convince others, I know not ;

lic might not be deceived as to the cir. but of the truth of what I advance, I

cumstances of an affair, about which there myself am, from experience, fully per month of May lali, a pamphlet entitled

was a general curiosity, I wrote in the fuaded. It is not iny intention to enter

“ Strictures on the conduct of the Rev. into any farther controversy on the mat

George Markhain, A. M. Vicar of Carlter; but if any other person chuses to take it up *, I shall be happy to see my several members of the people called

ton, occasioned by his prosecution of assertion defended by abler pens, for it is a subject well worthy discussion. Did Tithes." This was published in June,

Quakers, for their non-payınent of not circumstances prevent me from taking the pains due to what appears in your Ma by Mr. Owen, and I have reason to begazíne, perhaps I might have defended has been approved by many worthy and gazíne, perhaps I might have defended lieve that the tendency of that pamphlet it better myself. I am, &c.

distinguished members of the Church of Olney, Sept. 4.

A.Q. Q. L.

England; who being attached to the pre

fent establishment, and fully convinced * A communication, which takes this side of the excellence of chriftianity, cannot of the question, written by our able correspond

but view the line of conduct which Mr. ent, A Poor Northumbrian," is unavuidably

Markham has pursued, as aiming to dedeterred on account of its great length. Enitor. Atroy the existence of the former, and di


rectly hostile to the principles of the There are in the Welsh (he says) words latter.

perfectly similar in found, to the mytho. I afferted, page 6, that “in the reign logic names of the ancient world, anof Charles I. the society was perle- swering exactly to most of the explanacuted with the greatest degree of violence, , tions given by Gebelin and Bryant. which did not abate till the accellion of Mr. Bryant is a very learned man, but William and Mary to the British crown.” though his system inay amuse us by its I have since been told that the society ingenuity, it is not accurate enough to was not persecuted in the time of Charles convince. Sanconiathon, Manetho, and 1. I am willing to acknowledge that Berosus, afford but bad premises on the assertion is made with too great a la- which to erect a demonstration. The titude. As a society perhaps they were explanations which Mr. Bryant has ginot persecuted, no laws, that I know of, ven of what he calls the Ammoniat being made against them. But it should particles, and on which he founds his also be remembered that the heads of this system, are entirely conjectural; and his society were made the objects of personal conjectures have been proved by Mr. violence, and became the victims of bru. Richardson, the ableit of our oriental tal cruelty even before the time of the fcholars, to be totally ufounded. commonwealth, especially during the Meirion says, “ there is not the least ftruggle between the Parliament and the difference between the language of the King ; and what the state had not time laws of Howell in the tenth, or Geoffrey or opportunity to perform, the priests of of Monmouths history in the twelfth that day took care should not be neglect- century, and that now spoken in Wales;" cd. Persecution is persecution, whether but, Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote in it be received from the state or from in- latin, and the British History which he dividuals, or whether you fall under its is said to have translated, was brought lath either personally or collectively. from Armorica, by Walter Mapæus, the

I believe this is the only mistake I celebrated archdeacon of Oxford, and have made, excepting a grammatical one,

at that time carried marks of great an. at the beginning of the paragraph, page tiquity. A copy of this original history 37, which escaped me in the hurry of is said to exist at Wynneftay; if Meirion compofition.

means this copy, he has confounded the I am one of those who consider perse. Original with the translation, consequentcution of our fellow creatures as rebellion ly his dates are wrong, and this proof against God. It is to me equally hateful of the stability of the Welsh language whether it proceeds from a monarch or a

invalidated. priest ; whether it resides in the temples

Dr. Percy in his preface to his very of luxury, or fi:perstitiously hides itself valuable translation of Mallet's Northern in the gloom of a convent. I am strong. Antiquities, has given the Pater Noiter ly inclined to think that Mr. Bourn was

in the ancient and the modern British right in saying “ there are no characters languages. I know nothing myfelf of in the world more opposite to each other, the language, but the difference to the than those of a christian anda persecutor* eye is as evident, as the difference be

I think, sir, I have not disgraced my tween Chaucer and Dryden's tranflation character, as a member of the church of would appear to a man who understood England, by exposing the conduct of one neither. of its teachers. The propriety of such an

The advocates of Welsh poetry have establishment I am ready to confess, and extolled it too highly. The fair Pil. am equally ready to declare, that the grim, which EDWARD WILLIAMS has purer it is kept the longer it will last. translated from Dafydd ap Gwilym, is fir,

the best specimen I have seen ; and a few Your humble servant,

detached sentences in Llywarch Hen L-, Aug. 9, 1796. CHARLES Wilson. are very beautiful; but these must not

be compared with the wild majesty of To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

the Runic poems, or the remains of SIR,

Ollian, whole exquisite merit has ever PERMIT me to make a few remarks on been, and ever will be acknow ledged, the observations of your correspondent fee nature, and the heart that can feel

by 'those who possess, “ the eye that can MEIRION upon the Welsh Language.

nature." * Bourn's Discourses, vol. ii. p. 438.

September, 61b, 1796.

B. 3

I am,



Answer to Heraclito-Democriteus.

619 To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine: ality, &c. which history and experience SIR,

abundantly furnish, who will lum up

for us the contrary instances of love to YOUR ingenious correspondent Herac relatives, friends, neighbours, strangers,

clito-Democriteus has assumed a very enemies, and the brute creationwho apposite signature. He reminds me of thall reckon up the innumerable instances a person I have somewhere hcard or

of private virtues in the middle claties zead of, who had such a command of of life, which are seldom regarded as muscles, as to laugh on one side of his within the province of history; instances face, while he wept on the other. I of temperance and chastity, genertiy, could have indulged a hearty laugh at gratitude, and compallion, courage, huthe wit and humour with which his let- mility, patience, relignation, piety, &c. ter abounds, had I not been checked by and strike a fair balance? These larter, the thought nugæ in seria ducunt. like cheering suns, fertilizing showers,

Swift's Yahoo, though there are many healthful and fruitful seasons, the common strokes of wit and satire in it, I cannot phenomena of nature, occur often, mix. but consider as a piece of 'blafphemy themselves with most common against human nature, and from my foul thoughts, words, and actions, and pass abhor the sentiment he utters in a letter little noticed; while the former, efpeto Pope : • I love Peter and I love John, cially if joined with power, as they ulubut as for that thing called human na- ally are, like storms and tempefts, fature, I deteft it.” It has been said, and I believe, justly, stronger and more lasting impreífions,

mines, plagues, and earthquakes, make that the scorn and contempt with which and occur to the memory and imaginathe unhappy Jews have been for ages tion, more readily in all enquiries of this invariably treated by the good orthodox Christians, has been one cause of that

Let us see, then, Mr. Editor, whether base and abject fpirit which is so gene we cannot, as Her. Dem. desires, from a rally attached to their character; and I

fair drawing after nature, give a better cannot but suspect, that if, instead of in and more favourable portrait of this aniculcating that truly noble maxim of the mal, man, than his Simia fine Cauda old philosophers, “ Reverence thyself,we exhibits, or, at least, mend his draft ? are presented with degrading caricatures Homo : Animal sui generi.; os subof human nature, however humourously lime; intelligens ; boni investigator ; 1adrawn, and highly finished, it may have gax; audax; consortio gaudens; animaa similar effect.

lium reliquorum domitor ; fermonis, arYour correspondent, indeed, appeals to tium & fcientiarum multarum, capax ; history, and the uniforin experience of cælum intuens & illorsum tendens. paft ages, to prove, that men were made for the purpose of pillaging, enslaving, I am, sir, your humble servant, and murdering each other, at the com

Номо, , mand of tyrants and leaders of armies :

Hackney, Sept. 8, 1796. but this is surely a very partial and incomplete view of the subject. Was I about to draw the general moral character of the inhabitants of London and Westminster, would it be fair to form THE ENQUIRER. No. VIII, my estimate from the annals of Newgate, and the Old Bailey, or from the scum of QUESTION: Wherein do the present Modes mankind, as corrupt courts, wicked of Popular Instruction admit of Improveprinces, armies and their leaders, usu. ally are ?

History is, in fact, little more, confi Without thee, what were unenl ghten'd man ? dered in a moral point of view, than the

A savage, roaming through the woods and wids

THOMSON. history of the canaille of mankind, and

In quest of prey, -by no means proves that there is mor moral evil, than moral good in the world. It has hitherto been too much the How, indeed, thall we make the com practice of the higher orders of society putation? For after heaping together to treat the lower ranks with contempt, the many instances of ambition, violence, The philofopher has spoken of the vulimposture, cruelty, revenge, ingratitude, gar as a favage herd, whose thoughts want of natural affcetion, brutal sensų. are all vanity, whose words are all falle, MONTHLY Mag, No. VIII.



4 K


hood and error; who censures that which Philanthropy must reprobate the idea is good, and approves that which is bad; of keeping men ignorant, in order whole praise is disgrace, and whole ac- keep them flaves. Knowledge is the nations and enterprizes are folly*. The turab food of mind; and to deny men historian has allowed the common people the opportunity of attaining it, is as unneither judgment, nor honeftyt. Even just, as to withhold from them the means the good-natured poet, who has had of acquiring their daily bread. Capable the canduur to acknowledge, that the as every man is by na:ure of deriving opinion of the vulgar may iometimes be pleasure and benefit from the exercise of right I, has not scrupled to ipcak of thcm his intellectual powers, it becomes one as a many-headed'inonsters, and to great end of social alliance, to furnith spurn them with indignant disdain il. By each individual with the means of instatesmen and politicians the common creasing his stores of rational enjoypeople have been regarded as a herd ment, by improving his understar.dof sw're ; stupid, troublesome, and un- ing. Besides the increase of

permanageable; as beaits of burden, formed fonal happiness, which, in a well reonly to toil and fiveat, that their fupe- gulated Itate of society, would be the riors

may live in case and luxury ; as necessary effect of increasing knowledge ; wheels in the great machine of com it is evident, that the interests of society merce, in which no other power is re are best promoted by a free diffusion of quired, than that of moving in their pro- intellectual light, through the general per places; cr, lastly, as mechanical in. mass of the people. It is only by itruments of defence or hoftility, to kill, the cultivation of the understanding, or be killed off, at the pleasure of their that the grossness of brutal manners leaders; and not lets blindly under their can be corrected, that the violence direction, than the gun or the bayonet of appetite and paifion can be rewhich is put into their hands,

strained, and that man can be rendered If there be any ground for these

66 mild and sociable to man.” No one, contemptuous notions of the common who has actually compared the character people, it can only be found in that of the most illiterate with that of the better ignorance which their degraded itate instructed poor, in different places, will has hitherto rendered almost unavoidable, doubt, that the easiest and surest m.cthod or in those prejulices which their fu- of making men good citizens, is to afford periors have thought it their interest them means and opportunities of informato fofter. The wealthy and powerful tion. have been afraid of communicating to Admitting the utility of public instructhem that light which would enable tion, as a point which will be controvert. them to see both their rights and their çd only by those who have finifter ends wrongs. The wise have inade a to serve by keeping ihe people in ignopoly of their wisdom; shutting it up in rance, it is important to enquire in what the schools, or shrouding it under the manner this business has hitherto been veil of hieroglyphics and mysteries. In conducted, and in what respects it is caftead of providing for the instruction of pable of iinprovement ? In the most cithe multitude, or even leaving them to vilized nations of antiquity, the commuthe unbiaffed operation of their rational n'cation of knowledge to the common powers, it has been the constant practice people appears to have been almost ento institute systems of delusion, for the dis- tirely neglected ; the idea seems scarce. honest purpose of feeding credulity and ly to have occurred to their most encherishing superstition. What right have lightened philofophers; and it would be those, who have thus enfeebled men's difficult to find, in the writings of the understandings, in order to subjugate ancient Greeks or Romans, any explicit their wills, to complain of vulgar igno- affertion of the neceflity or utility of porance and prejudice ? First to put out a pular ivftruétion. Soine individuals, inman's eyes, and then to blame him for decd, of more than ordinary benevolence, not finding his path, is to add insult to took upon themselves the character of cruelty.

moral instructors. Pythagoras and Socrates, are celebrated names which come

under this description. Of the former, * Charron. + Tacitus. I Interdum vulgus we read, that at Samos, his native place, reElum videx. ŞBellua multorum eft capitum. in a semicircular building, in which the Odli furo. fa-rum vulgus & arces, &c. Har. inhabitants had been accustomed to meet



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