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Thursday, in Paffion Week, the Cal. After the Monmouth rebellion was vinift preacher was. suddenly taken ill; subdued, an order came from court to and, at the request of the congregation, Kirk, then general of the troops in the the Lutheran preacher did duty for him west, to take out of the gaul; rwenty of on Good-Friday, and Easter-day, and the rebels, and have them executed by fome other days; after which, the Cal. mart al law. It is true, this was in vinifts sent for a minister of their ovn. di fiance of the laws of the land, but Both parties, Lutherans and Calvinists, thuse were not then much regarded, attended the funeral of a Calvinist citio when they stood in the way of those zen, and have thus afforded us sufficient who were in power. Accordingly, twenty ground to believe, that the difference of of these rebels were taken out of the religious opinion, between these cwo gaols, to be executed on a market-day, fects, will be no longer thought of so in (I think) the town of Taunton, in much importance as Christian love and Somerfecshire; bur I am not quite pofi. mutual benevolence.

tively sure that was the town, though I W.F. am, in my own mind, pretty strongly

persuaded it was.

There being at that time a notion of For the Montbly Magazine. a woman going in whire to beg publicly

the life of a condemned person, the STORY OF GENERAL KIRK

morning of the execution, some of the RECTIFIED

relations of one of them thinking of [The following letter was found among the this, obtained of Mrs. Elizabeth Row

papers of the late Dr. Smollet, and is now in (a lady of a great and most amiable cha. the possession of a Physician, at Wilmingtoir

; racter, and for whicn the was deservedly in North America, w ho has obliging.v favour. famous all over the West) to go in whire, ed us with a copy of it. We gladly infert it and beg the life of this person from the for the purpose of rectifying a story, which has become a part of Englih History, and general, who, with several of his officers, wiping off a Itain from the memory of a

was standing in a balcony to see the exe

curion. man, who, bad as he was, does nor Jererve

She went to him, when the to be treated with calumny.]

criminals were in the cart, and already

tied up to the gallows, and begged the SIR,

life of the person above mentioned. THE so .

firous to convey to Dr. Smollet, tenant, who stood by him, and who was was what you will find here below, in remarkable for being the stupidest fellow order to confute a vile and horrible in the whole reniinent, and laid, in his story, falsely told of General Kirk. short bluff way, Go and bid the execu. This story chic y gained ground by a tioner cut him from the gallows; taking poem of Pomfrer's, called Cruelty and it for granted that Bush, who food close Luft, and which is printed with his other to him, heard who Mrs. Elizabeth Row works of that fort, and from thence has had begged off. But he was mistaken, crept into those of writers of history, for that stupid fellow, Bush, not only had memoirs, &c.—The story is this: not attended to the name of the perfon

“A young man being condemned by Mrs. Elizabeth Row had interceded for, military law to die, for having been in but even did not think to ask it, buc the Monmouth rebellion, his lifter, in went to the executioner, and said, You order to save his life, went to Kirk must cut him down. The executioner (the general) to intercede for him. She replied, Cut him down! which him, for being a pretty woman, inflamed the there are twenty? Now it happened, general, who attempted to debauch her; that the man who had been begged off, but the being virtuous, his attempts were being attentive to his prayers, had not vain, till he told her, that her brother's attended to any thing which had passed, fate depended upon her consent. To save so took no notice of what Bush said; but her brother's life, she consented, and another 'of the criminals, who passed the night with the general, upon minding something else besides his prayhis promise that her brother thould be ers, seeing a lady in white in the balcony, restored to her the next morning—but with the general, and hearing a talk of the general deceived her, for though he cutting down, smelled out the ching, and restored him the next morning, he was told Buih, that he was the person the first put to death."--Now the truth of lady had begged off. Bush wisely took the fact is this :

his word, and turning to the executioner,



too late.



Story of Kirk. said, This is the man. Upon this, the historian, to convey to posterity the executioner cut the rope, and immedi- exact truth of things, without partiality, ately the man jumped out of the cart, and to do justice to the character of men, and went away. Soon after, the signal especially when they have been falsely was given for the cart to drive away, and injuriously represented, so I look and the man who was really begged off, upon it to be the indispensible duty of was hanged, the truth being found out every man, as far as lies in his power,

to furnish historians with those lights This account I had more than once which wiil enable him to do it. And from Mr. Martin Kiliigrew, who was in this instance, I have no other motive at that time an officer in General Kirk's than that of atlifting the above-named regiment, and was upon the spot when gentleman--conveying truth to the thing happened. This I can testify, kind, and doing justice to one, who, as will, I dare say, if applied to, Mr. however faulty or criminal in other reBavenall, nephew to the laid Mr. Killi- fpeéts, is in this, an innocent and ingrew, whose name was Lister, but he jured man. changed it to Killigrew, upon marrying The inaccuracy, and all other faults of one of fir Peter Killigrew's daughters, this letter, I must desire you and Ductor which said daughter of fir Peter Killi- Smollct to excuse; as, from my prelent grew, was fifter to my wife's grand- fituation, I have no more time than is mother; I remember, I asked Mr. Kilii. just sufficient to it, currente calamo-and grew, if he knew of any thing relating had I more, it would be useless, as the to this affair he had not mentioned, bet style and manner I could inake ule which might have given rise to this re: of, would be unworthy Doctor Smollet, port? He said, he knew of none but or any other historian, and my only pur. the violent and universal hatred which pose is to convey to him the plain matter prevailed all over the west country of fact, together with my proof, which against Kirk, and that outrageous, pal. he will make use of in the manner he fonate behaviour, which was fo ha- thinks proper. I am, fir, bitual to him, that it was become even his Your most obedient, humble servant, constant one, thought it very feldoni went

JOHN MERRILL. beyond words, and of which he gave me Poland-street, March 12, 1759. an infance, which he chose as being a If it thould be asked, how Kirk could frequent one. When his regiment was answer at court his having hanged only out on field days, he would curse, swear, nineteen rebels, when he was ordered to and threaten, like a madman, declaring hang twenty? the reply is easily made : and swearing he would have the men Every one who is thoroughly acquainred whipped, hanged, and otherwise pu: with those times, knows that he was nihed, so that a bystander who had then so great a favourite there, and was not known him, would have thought so intrusted with discretionary power, that a quarter of the regiment was to that he might without any danger have have undergone punishment; and, after taken a greater liberty. Besides, every having behaved in this manner for hours, one who knows any thing of him, he would go out of the field, and not a knows, that he was a man, who did acts single man punished, ordered to be pue and took resolutions, suddenly and raînly, nilhed, or any court-martial called to try without looking to consequences; of any man; and this was his constant which his proceedings, at that time, and practice. I then asked Mr, Killigrew, afterwards, are most convincing proofs. if Kirk had not some woman with him There is a thing not to be passed over the night before the execution above- unnoticed, viz. that a story, quite simimentioned ? He said, he did not know; lar to this attributed to Kirk, is to be but that it was very probable lie might seen in a book, written before Kirk was hare a woman with him, as he believed born, in the History of Charles the Bold, that was what at that şime happened to duke of Burgundy, and related in the him two or three times a week, as it Spectator, No. 491, in which the only was his custom continually to have com, difference (I mean with regard to the mon prostitutes to pass the night with persons, not the sequel of it) is, that it him; and therefore, it was very proba

is a husband instead of a brother, and a ble, he might have one that night, as governor inftead of a general; the place well as others; but that if he had, it had it happened at, Zealand (now one of the no relation to the affair above-mentioned. Şeven United Provinces); the governor's

Į have sent this to you, to communi. name, Rhynsault; and the husband's, Paul cate to Doctor Smollet; for as I look Danvelt. And Shakspeare, who lived upon it to be the primary duty of an long before Kirk, has written a ple MONTHLY MAG. No. YII,

4 A



that plan, viz. Measure for Measure- gravior, a gentler found than usual; and in which the condemned person is a and has accordingly, with wonderful dexbrother. "And it looks a little odd to tell terity, accommodated the expression of a story of Kirk, which was well known to the compared sounds to this idea : the world long before he was born. It is likewise to be observed, that Mrs.

Soft whispers then, and broken sounds are heard; Elizabeth Rowe, who begged the man's such filed noise as thie"ciose jurnace hides,

A when he woods with gentle winds are fiirr’d; life, was never suspected, nor washere Or dying murmurs of departing tides. DRYD. ever the least hint given, that the ever had, either with Kirke, or any one elii,

This is, indeed, “ roaring like any any correspondence contrary to

the fucking dove :” but notwithstanding the strictest rules of virtue or módesty, she happiness of language in this tranNator, having to her death, and ever lince

, it is evident that he has quite mistaken sustained the clearest and most unbie-'the “mure sollicitum firidet,' and the “ramished character.

pidus ignis jual," of the original.

The Roman poet makes a nobler use For the Montbly Magazine.

of the murmuring noise of wind, when

he employs it to represent the sound of SIMILES OF HOMER, VIRGIL, AND

assent uttered by the airembly of the gods. MILTON (CONTINUED). E proceed to fimiles more directly Cælicolæ affenfu vario: ceu flanina prima

cunétique fremebant drawn from

Cum deprensa fremunt sylvi, & cæca volutant WIND, STORM, AND TEMPEST, Murmura, venturos nautis fuadentia ventos. the sensible effects of which are

Æn. X. 96.

the gods divide, striking and terrible, considering their

And in mixt murmurs vote on either side : frequency, than those of any other phe- So, pent in woods, at first with fullen sound nomena of nature.

The wind low-murmuring rolls the forest round; The awful found of wind is one of the A dreaisui signal to the naval train, circumstances attending it most obri. Of the loud &orms impending o’er the main. ously fitted for poetical application.

Pitt. Homer has properly joined it with the

Our great countryman, who never borrearing of the waves, and the rating of

rows with ut luci inprovements as give fire, as a comparison for the noise and

bi ni all the inevit of originality, has a beau- tumult of battle :

tifui pallage founded on this fimilitude, Not ocean's chafing waves so loudly roar, It is at the close of Satan's noble speech to Dath's on the ftrand by Boreas' bittur breath; his peers: Not rattling fames, devuu ing in their march The mou ain foreit; nor the ang!y wird,

He scarce liad finish'd, when such murmur fill'd Howling with rzge arnid the high topp’u oaks ; Th' assembly, as when hoilow rocks retain As board the mingled din of cither it, The sound of bluít'ring winds, which all night While, thouting dread, they rush'd to mutual. long fight.

Il. xiv. 394. Had soul'd the sea, now with hoarse cadence

lul The expressive sonorcusness of the

Şea-jaring men o'er watch'd, whose bark, by Greek lan unge is no where more ftrik chance, ingly exhibited, than in the original of Or pinnance, anchors in a craggy bay these lines. Virgii has copied the images, After the tempeft.

PAR. L. ii. 284. but has judiciously lowered the expref- This fimile is truly Homeric, but in fion, in his application of them as ob

Homer's best manner. The scenery, into jects of comparison to the hum of bees.

which the description wanders, is highly Tum fonus auditurgravior, tractimque fufurrant; picturesque, and, though fomewhat diFrigidus ut quondam sylvis immurmurat Aufter; gressive from the main purpose of the Ut mare sollicitum ftridet refluentibus undis;

fimile, yet is in perfect harmony with it. Æftuat ut clausis rapidus fornacibus ignis.

The violent action of wind is closely

Georg. iv. 260. connected with its found, and still more 'Tis then in hoarser tones their homs resound, striking to the fenfes. Homer aptly comLike hollow winds, the rufiling forest round; pares a fierce conflict, between the Greeks Or billows breaking on a distant shore,

and Trojans, to the contention of two adOr fames in furnaces that inly roar. Pitt. verse winds, rending a forest.

It is curions to compare Dryden's As on the hills, with Eurus, Notus strives, translation with the preceding. He In fierce dispute, to shake some thick-grown. seems to have understood by "fonus wood



1796.] Similies of Homer, Virgil, and Milton.

547 Of cornel, alh, and beech ; the wide stretch'd South, east, and west, on airy courses borne ; boughs

The whirlwind gathers, and the woods are torne: Mingle with horrid noise, and, breaking, crash: Then Nereus strikes the deep, the billows rise, So ruth'd, amain, the sons of Greece and Troy, And mix'd with voze and sand, pollute the To mutual Naughter. Il. xvi. 755. skies.

DRYDEN. This fimile is adopted by Virgil in Hector, dealing destruction among the forme very fine lines, in which, however, Greeks, is, in the following passage, com- . the application is les happy than in pared to a tempest: Homer's. He is describing fincas afrail. As when the west-wind drives, with stormy ed by the patlietic entreaties of Dido, but

gult, withstanding all their force :

Clouds, by the south conipell’d, on ocean's Ac velut annsso validamu cum s kore qusrcum

face Alpini Borex nunc hinc nunc fa:ibus illinc Thick roll the swelling waves ; while, dash'd Eruere inter fe certant; it stridor, & wlte

on high, Confternunt terram concuffo ftip te frondes : The foam is scatter'd by the founding blast; Ipsa hæret fcopulis ; & quantum vertice ad So frequent fell the heads beneath the stroke

Of Hector.

Il. xi. 305: Æthærias, tantum radice in Tariara tendit.

The point of comparison here is very Haud fecus afsiduis hinc atque hinc vocibus

loosely stated; for though, in the appliheros Tunditor, & magnio persentit pectore curas.

cation of the fimile, the number of the Mens immota manet; lacryniše volvuntur fain is the only circumstance noticed, inanes.

Æn. iv. 441. which has no parallel but the waves, the As when the winds their airy quarrels try,

real resemblence consists in the force of Josling from every quarter of the sky;

Heftcr, compared to a whirlwind, scatterThis way and that the mountain-oak they ing the Greeks like foam. But this is a bend,

negligence, or inaccuracy, very frequent His bows they thatter, and his branches in the Grecian bard. Virgil, in a very rend;

spirited imitation of this fimile, has apo With leaves, with falling maft, ihey spread the plied it with more correctness :

ground, The hollow vallies echo to the sound :

Ac velut Edoni Borex cum spiritus alto Unmov'd, the royal plant their fury mocks, Infonat Ægæo, sequiturque ad littora Auctus, Or, shaken, clings more closely to the rocks;

Quâ venti incubuere ; fugam dant nubila cælo ; Far as he shoots his towering head oo high, Sic Turnus, quacunque viam fecat, agmina So deep in earth his fix'd foundations lie:

cedunt, No less a storm the Trojan hery bears,

Conversaque ruunt acies. Æn. xii. 369. Thick messages and loud complaints he hears,

As when loud Boreas, with his bluft'ring train, And bandy'd words ftill beating on his ears.

Stoops from above, incumbent on the main ; Sighs, groans, and tears proclaim his inward

Where'er he flies, he drives the rack before, pains,

And rolls the billows on the Ægean shore; But the firm purpose of his heart remains.

So, where resistless Turnus takes his course,

DRÝDEN. The scattered squadrons bend before his force. The action in the fimile is surely too

DRYDEN, violent for a just resemblance. Of this,

The same poet finely illustrates the the translator seems to have been sensible, speed of a courser, by a comparison with from the pains he has taken, even by the north wind: hazarding something of the ludicrous, to heighten the impression of the wordy Qualis Hyperboreis Aquilo cum densus ab oris affault upon his hero.

Incubuit, Scythieque hyemes atque arida differt The following comparison, applied to

Nubila : tum segeres alta campique natantes the Greeks bursting into Troy, is some- Dant sylvæ, longique urgent ad litora fluctus

Levibus horrescunt flabris, summæque sonorem 'what different in its imagery, and better Ille volat, símul arva fuga, fimul æquora verrens. adapted to the occasion :

GEORG. iii. 196. Adverfi rupto quondam ceu turbine venti Like Boreas in his race, when rushing forth, Configunt, Zephyrusque, Notusque, & lætus He sweeps the skies, and clears the clouds Eois

north : Eurus equis : Aridunt fylvæ, sævitque tri- The waving harvest bends beneath his blast; denti

The forest shakes, the groves their honours Spumeus, atque imo Nereus ciet æquora fundo.


Æn. ii. 416. He flies aloft, and, with impétuous roar, Thus, when the rival winds their quarrel cry, Pursues the foaming surges to the shore. Contending for the kingdom of the sky;





any description of allion, applied as would feel, would not be very great; it a similitude, the principal point of com- would, indeed, be some temporary inconparison may be either taken from the venience, but no more ; to which the ins thing akting, or that afted upon : both, dividual, or the nation, would soon ac. indeed, ought to have their parallels in commodate their habits. the real scene ; but, generally, one is the Adam Smith has, with great propriety, leading, and the other, the subordinate compared the coin of a kingdom in the figure in the piece. In most of those de highways through it; Neither of them, rived from the action of the wind, which says he, produce any thing; on the conare quored above, its power is the main trary, they are both to be kept in repair circumstance, though expressed by dif. pt a certain expence; but they greatly ferent effects. There are others, here. facilitate the conveyance from one place after to be produced, in which the effets to another, and from one person to anare meant io be brought to view, more other, of whatever the land has produced than the cause : lueh are especially' those by agriculture, or what active capital has in which the various appearances of a produced by manufactures and commerce. form at sea are minutely painted. Paper money, continues he, has the

J. A. fame effect, that a waggon-way, could To be continued.)

it be formed through the air, would have on the highways, it would admit of their

being all changed into corn-fields, and REMARKS ON MR. Paine's Pam- producing food for man, instead of trans.

THE ENGLISH SYSTEM initting what was produced by the neighOF FINANCE

bouring grounds from one place to an-To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

other; in the same manner, a well fe

cured paper money has enabled a very SIR,

considerable part of the bullion which the THE pamphet of Mr. Paine, entitled exchange of property formerly required,

the Fall of the Englith System of to be sent to foreign nations, and exFinance, having attracted general notice, changed for the raw materials of our a few remarks upon it may deserve a place manufactures, whereby it is converted in your admired Magazine.

into a productive transfer of other proThrough the whole course of thi

perty, from one and to another. work, in which the author affures us, One of Mr. Paine's objections to pa. that the coin of the kingdom is rapidly per money is, that it pulls down the diminishing; he seems to speak of the value of gold and filver, in those counprecious metals and of wealth as syno. tries where it has obtained most cir. nimous terins; to infer that a nation culation; and that in England those mewhich possesses but little of the former, tals are not of so much value, as where cannot have much of the latter; and, paper money is not in use. If this were that receiving taxes in paper, and paying the fact, I apprehend, that almost all our the interest of the funds in paper, is all gold and silver would long ago have been a bubble.

carried away by foreigners, in preferThere can be no doubt, that gold and ence ro our manufactures; but we know filver coin is wealth, but it is equally to a certainty, that Spain and Portugal, clear, that is but a very linall part of the countries where paper money is but the wealth of any nation; pio abiy, not little used, are constantly taking our more than one fitrieth part of the wealth manufaćtures, and sending us their gold of England, which has lately been cal- and filver, which of course must be lower culated to amount to between tweive and in value with them, as much as the thirteen hundred millions; while the cur amount of the freight and insurance rent coin has been estimated ar between from thence to this country. Some part twenty and thirty millions; admirting of these metals are generally employed the medium of these two calculations to in our manufactures, and the surplus exbe near the truth, the one will be exactly ported to the East-Indies and China, one fiftieth part of the other. Now, sup- where they are still higher in value than posing an individual, or a nation, to they are here. I do not mean to assert, lose completely a fiftieth part of all the that the precious metals flow in this property either of them possessed, let the course from South-America to the East. lofs be either in coin or any other valu. Indies at present, but that a considerable able commodity (exclusive of the article quantity of them do so, in most years of of food); the poverty or distresses they peace. Our author does not apprehend



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