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A METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL, for MAY,, 1799, at Southgate, Middlesex. D, H.) B. IT. P.W. REMARKS, D. (H) B. T./P. W. REMARKS 1 6 29.12 37 502 w clear

16 623.87 40162 www partially clear 1 29:2865 do. cloudy.

12 29.89 4.6 429.171581 very cloudy

12 30.1238 1229.2840 SEE

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OBSERVATIONS. N. B. By perfe£tly clear is meant, a sky all blue and clear in the horizon-By clear, a sky blue but hazy in the horizon-By partially clear, a sky in which there is more blue than clouds By cloudy, a sky covered with light clouds--By very cloudy, a sky in which the clouds are dark B. stands for Barometer, at the head of the column; T. Thermometer; P. Pluviometer; and the figures denote the number of ounce measures that have fallen on the square in the last 24 hours-W. &c, means the quarter the wind blows from—The first expression of the Thermometer given each day is the lowest degree of heat in the preceding night, unless the con

Erary is noticed,

AGRICULTURE.

AGRICULTURE.

Monthly Report for fulz., THE frequent fhowers which have falı by the showers of July, and, in confe

len in the last three or four weeks, quence, there must in those places be light have proved very unfavourable to the crops of oats, BARLEY, and BEANS. HAY HARVEST. The crops were, in The PEAS promile better. In' dir. general, abundant, but on account of the tricts farther welt, where meist weather untowardness of the weather, the hay was less wanted, the spring-corns, in has been got in at a very unusual expence, general, cannot fail to be far more luxand in some places, for want of a suf- uriant. ficient number of hands, a confiderable The TURNIP-CROPS, and other kinds quantity has been spoiled. Hay, has, in of WINTER-KEEP, have been essentially consequence, advanced one-fifth in the served by the late rains. The PALLOWLondon markets, fince this time last ING allo goes on to advantage, the month.

showers bringing the annual weeds into The change of the weather bas, also, vegetation, and the foil not being so wet had considerable effect on the growing as to prevent the use of the plough. WHEATS.. In Scotland, and in the Though the price of BUTCHERS' northern districts, the early crops of this meat has been on the decline, yet grain are already much infected with the STOCK of all kinds have kept up their yellow rust, and the continuance of enormous prices, in almoft every part of cold, stormy, moist weather augurs ill to the kingdom. SHEEP, and WEANEDthe late hope of a productive harvest. LAMBS, and STORE-STOCK, have, indeed, In the midland diftricts, much wheat been fold at some late fairs for prices has run to ftraw, and in many places it hitherto without example. In the midhas been laid by the late severe storms. land counties, this advance is afcribed to In the eastern and western districts, the the plentiful stock of hay and other subprospect is more favourable ; and although fiftance on hand; in the southern and some corns are touched with the yellow western districts, it is ascribed to an acblight, producing, smut, yet, in the tual scarcity of live stock—an alarming west, more particularly, a plentiful har. fact, which is said to be clearly demonvest may be confidently expected. In strated at all the fairs and markets. the last week of June and July, the There has been little speculation at average prices of wheat, throughout the late great wool fairs, and the buyEngland and Wales, have been respec- ers have been, in general, very tardy. tively sos. 6d. and 818. 4d. the quarter. The prices have varied, between 155.

In the south and west the BARLEYS and 168 to 255. and 26s. per ftone. The also wear a very promising appearance, uncertain aspect of our political conand may be expected to be nearly as abun- nection with Spain, has been one cause dant as they were last year: a fortunate of this want of spirit in our wool-marcircumstance for those districts, on ac kets. count of the general and total blight and The HOP plantations continue to failure of the APPLE-TREES.-As little thrive, and to afford the prospect of a little or no rain fell on the north-east fide good crop. The market has been dull, of the island, during the months of May and prices have declined from ios, to and June, the spring-rown corns had suf. 155. per hundred weight since our last. fered much before they were refreshed

TO READERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. THE length of several temporary articles-bave unuvoidably compelled us to defer, till our next Number, tbe favor of A Poor Northumbrian—The Conclusion of tốe Paper on sbe Similes of Homer, &c.The Dissertation on OulawryAnd some interesting articles relative to Ireland and Scotland.

Several otber accepted and valuable communications on speculative fubje&ts, will appear as early as possible. Our Preface will best explain the prefirence we necesarily give ta all Communications of a practical naiure, or wbich appertain to matters of fa&t.-We ßball be glad to receive a specimen from M. of Chicbefier.We thank our Correspondent at Worcester, and promise an early a tintion to bis favour.

We intreat that our friends in Ireland and Scotland will, in future, supply tbemselves through the medium of ibeir respe&tive Booksellers, in the usual way of obtaining the atber Monibly Publications.

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To the Editor of the Monibly Magazine. vigorous prosecution of some particular SIR,

object, and they thereby acquire a degree ONE of your correspondents, who of celebrity which they would not other

subscribes himself M. H. has, in the wise obtain ; and education has a very Fifth Number of your Magazine, made powerful effect in the formation of the some obfervations on a letter of mine, human character, and operates strongly inserced in your First Nurnber, relative to with respect both to morals and to liteHelvetius's Treatise on Man, his Intele rary acquisitions. But when all this is lectual Faculties, and his Education: admitted, it amounts to no proof, that you will, therefore,. I presume, allow the intellectual powers of all human me to make some remarks on your Cor- creatures are originally equal, and that respondent's Letter, by way of reply. the apparent difference of their powers

M.H. fays, that " to talk of a human , is the result only of diference of educa" being, commonly well organized, with tion, accidental circumstances, and dif

an absolute incapacity for learning, or, ference of ftuation. It appears to me, “ what is synonymous, for receiving that neither Helvetius, nor your Cor

knowledge, is surely, equally absurd respondent, has produced a single ar"and unphilosophical." I never had guinent, in support of this hypothesis, the most diftant conception that any that is conclusive. human being, commonly well organized, Referring to a passage of Huartes, had any absolute incapacity for learning, your correspondent remarks, that some or receiving knowledge. Your Cor- particular train of circumftances might respondent's remark seems founded on a have led certain students, “in the courte quotation I gave from Huartes, a Spanish “of cheir education, to apply to the writer on Education, of whose work “ ftudy of one science in preference to there is more than one translation in the another." This

may

be admitted, Englih language. I gave the quotation without difficulty, but it will not thence from Huartes, as the observations of a follow, that all men are equally qualified writer, of some celebrity, whose system to pursue the same science with the same was in diametric opposition to that of success, if their dilligence, and their exHelvetjus ; but I am very far from con- ternal advantages, are perfectly fimilar. curring in all the sentiments of Huartes. Students may frequently be found, who I think the systems of Huartes and of discover'a confiderable 'thirst for knowHelvetius both erroneous.

Iedge, and who employ much applicaNothing that is advanced by. M. H. tion, and who yet never make the same has in the least convinced me of the progress with others, who do not dir. truth of the system of Helvetius. Many cover the same ardour for the acquisition of his observations may be readily ad- of knowledge, nor the same application. mitied, though that lyliem lhould be This case lo often occurs, that I should totally false. Those who can be taught suppose it hardly possible for any schoolthe first rules of arithmetic, may be led to malter, or the head of any seminary of make a greater progress; the sentes may learning, to be a disciple of Helvetius. be rendered more acute by use, and bodily Dr. Johnson says, “It has been oband mental powers are much Atrength "ferved, that the most studious are not ened by exercise and habit; accidental “always the must learned.

There is, circumstances sometimes lead men'to a “indeed no great difficulty in discoverMONTHLY MAG, No. VII.

3 X

"ing,

OF THIS

SORT

ing, that this difference of proficiency. " it is to the most trifling incidents the

may arise from the difference of in. “most illustrious citizens have some“ telectual powers, of the choice of “ times owed their talents. From whence “ books, or the convenience of informa “I conclude, that chance acts in a like os tion.” In many cases, it is apparent, manner on all mankind; and if its that this difference has not arisen from “ effccts on ordinaRY MINDS are less any, deficiency refpecting the use of “remarked, it is merely because MINDS good authors, or the conveniency of in

are themselves less formation, and appeared only to, arile " remarkable." If fame minds are orfrom the difference of intellectual powers. dinary, and others not ordinary, and if Rousseau, speaking of himself, says, “I there are minds originally of different

am not made like any one I have seen. forts, the system of Helvetius is not true. “ I dare believe I am not made like any Helvetius also says, that, “in children,

one existing. If I am not better, at “the difference of understanding and “ least, I am quite different. Whether character is not always very obvious." “ Nature has done well or ill, in break. But if it be ever very obvious, can the “ing the mould the cast me in, can system of Helvetius be well grounded? “be determined only after having read Speaking of different classes of men, " me." Without' adopting the ideas of your correspondent asks, * Who will Rousseau, a man must have a great deal of " look for honesty among lawyers?" I faith, who can believe, that such very thould not take it for granted, without fingular men as Voltaire, Rousseau, and some proof, that even our reverend Dr. Johnson, had nothing in them ori, judges were all men of incorruptible inginally different from the generality of tegrity; but surely all lawyers are not men; and that whatever difference af- all equally knaves. Sir George Jefferies terwards appeared, was merely the re and Sir Matthew Hale were both edu. kult of education, situation, or accidental cated lawyers, and both practised in the circumstances.

courts of England; and yet they were The powers of memory in different certainly very different characters. men are certainly very different; and M. H. says, “The institution of the what reason can be affigned why other “ Jesuits proves, on the surest of all intellectual powers should not also be 66 foundations, that of experience, the different? Helvetius, indeed, fays, that “force of discipline. A Jesuit, in " the memory is nothing more than the

every part of the world, amidst all “ effect of the faculty of sensation.” " the phyfical variations of temperaBut this is an assertion, of the truth of “ment and climate, was the same cha. which no real evidence has ever been

"racter,

having his views directed produced. The powers of the hunan “towards the fame end." It is natural memory, have never yet been fatisface to suppose, that there might be a genetorily explained by the faculty of sen- ral resemblance in members of the fame fation.

community, educated in the same manM. H. says, “That virtue, as well ner, and trained up with the fame " talents, are the product of education, views; but there can be no reafunable “ is a proposition for the truth of which doubt, and the history of the Jesuits will “ we may appeal to universal experi- prove, that those were intimately

Universal experience would acquainted with that fraternity, discoverca certainly prove nothing like it. That very considerable variarions in the cha. education produces very considerable ef. racters of individuals, with respect both feets; that a good education may greatly to morals and intellectual acquisitions. tend to improve a man's talents, and to the society of Jesuits, therefore, car lead him to a virtuous course of action ; afford no proof of the truth of the that particular fituations and circum- syitem of Helvetius. stances often operate strongly in the for. M. H. talks of "the true method of mation of human characters; all this “ GENERATING TALENTS.I do not may be readily admitted, but it amounts know that there is any method of to no proof that man's talents and virtues GENERATING TALENTS; though it is are merely the effect of education. certain, that powerful motives, and in.

The statements of Helvetius appear teresting fituations, will lead men to a fometimes to be inconfiftent; and it is vigorous exertion of their talents, and difficult to reconcile some of his obfer. occasion actions to be performed, and vations to his general fyftem. He says, works to be produced, that would not "I shall prove, by the aid of facts, that otherwise have had an exiftence. All

as

sence.

J. T.

1796.)
What man is made for.

523 this, however, amounts to no proof that decidedly of opinion, that many great the original powers of all men are equal. and important improvements may yet be But your Correspondent fays, that the made in education. " notion of natural powers, aptitude, * and dispositions, lias been productive " of infinite mischief: it has a tendency

To tbe Editor of tbe Montbly Magazine. " to produce habits of indolence, de:

SIR, " {pondency, and vicious indulgence :” SOON after the marriage of the dau. and it is certain, that for men haftily to phin and dauphiness of France (the suppose that they are incapable of lite. late unfortunate Louis XVI. and anrary or scientific attainments, or that toinette) when all the conversation ran such attainments are confined to a few upon the splendid fire-works exhibited men of fingular and uncommon genius, at their nuptials, a friend of mine, hapwould be a very pernicious sentiment; pening to be at Paris; was much amused but such ideas are not very common ;

with a circumstance to which he was nor is it necessary, in order to avoid witness, in a room full of company. A them, that a man should becoine a dif. boy about seven years old, possessed of ciple of Helvetius.

rather more than an ordinary degree of I sufpect, that the man who should that forward vivacitv which is so characaffert, that all men are equally tail or teristic of the youthful part of the French equally short, equally fat or equally nation, was haranguing, in the midst of lean, would approach as nearly to the the circle, with great volubility and emtruth, as the man who asserts, that the in- phasis, on the subject of fire-works, and telle&ual powers of all men are naturally giving a description of what he conequal, and that there is no difference but ceived would make a perfect spectacle of what results from education, or from ac that kind. But while he was painting, cidental circumstances.

with all his eloquence, the immense voI consider the system of Helvetius as lumes of fame, and prodigious exploa fanciful hypothesis, not supported by fions, that filled his imagination, a by. any proper or fufficient arguments, and stander ventured to observe, that all the repugnant to the general sentiments and people employed about them would be in experience of mankind: but I am not danger of being blown to pieces. “Oh certain that Helvetius's book may not be (says the boy, with a nonchulance wor. fomewhat the more entertaining, and thy of the privileged orders)-Ob, ils hare the more admirers, on account of font faits pour cela.' " It is what they parts of its being paradoxical, agreeably are made for.”' to an observation of his translator, Dr. This expression has often come into Hooper : “ A man who is master of a my mind, on reflecting upon the destiny " fine tyle, and is well versed in fo. of the great bulk of mankind, in all "phiftry, will always thine by taking part, and in the present periods; and i " che paradoxical side of a question. He have wished, if possible, to satisfy mya * that thould attempt to prove, that we self what, in reality, the human race was * see the light of the sun at mid-day, made for ; and I confess, willing as I " how juftly soever his arguments were am to entertain better hopes, I cannot

ranged, and how beautiful soever his discover from any principles of philofolanguage, would have but few readers: phising, so sure a ground for reasoning

whereas, he that should affert, that concerning the future condition of man. " we see the sun's light at midnight, kind, as the uniform experience of some " and support his affertion in pleasing thousands of past years. If I breed up

language, by something like argument, a horse for the course, or a dog for the * would have many admirers. For the chace, or a game-cock for the pit, it is "human mind, though not convinced, because a long course of experiments has " is always pleased to find the appear. convinced me that such is the nature of

ance of argument, where it has no those animals, and that I am pretty sure : "right to expect any argument at all." of finding in the progeny chose qua.

Though I do not consider the general lities and dispositions which I remarked Syftem of Helvetius to be founded upon in the parents. May not then a king of truth, I think that he has made many Pruffia, wich equal reason, train a num. obfervations which might be artended to ber of two-legged urfcathered with advantage, in the establishment of tures, called men, to pillage, enslave, and a dew seminary of education; and I am murder other'men, as the word of com.

mand,

crea.

3 X 2

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