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923 Peltier op......

Faulkner ...sois... 483 Hayes,..........

.812 Laccpede .742 Nicol ........ .60% Fairman.

.434 Hayley... ..451, 486 Leach..... .492,569 Nicholson Fortune.. .570 Hearne

.486 Lebar....
.474 Nitsch

..892 Farringdon.... .571 Helme 899 Lebreton .... .793 Nolan..

.812 Fischbien........ .,811 Hering.

.655 Ledwich.... .485 Nouendorff Fauvel.p......433, 844 Heywood, 492 Lefebure

19 Nimnich... Fiorillo.. ...895 Hickman 475 Legouye .795 Nouet.

.551 .897 Hinckes..... 492 Legrand .472 Northcote. .571 Fabrc...... ....662 Hoakeley .652 Legrange ............719 Olivier ..............712 Falconer..... ...733 Hobart... .741 Lelievre, ..473 Oureley

.........485 Fawcett... ...483 Hoche... ..662 Lemonnier ...., 474 O'Brian

......738 Fearon .......811 Holcroft. .735 Levesque.. .795 Osborne

...658 Ferguson.. ......604 Holland... .473 Lieblc.... .474 Offory..

..740 Ferrari.

..656 Holman...... ..898 Linley....... ..1737 Owen .448, 486 Fitzwilliam. 140 Holmes....... 470, 482 Lloyd

..899 Paine...... 482,548 Fleet. .734 Howard.... ..736 Loft ....... .484, 898 Palmer

..569 Fleurieu .794 Howell ..570 Lowndes .799 Park.

..569 Forfait. .795 Hughes... 649 Luke....

..652 Parker .569, 898 Fontanes... .795 Humbolt 471 Lyme.... ..604 Parmentier. ..474 Fordyce.. ..659 Haffal...... 487 Mace

473 Peyrouse

.962 Fourcroy 632, 633, Hutchinson... 892 Macklin

..572 Payne

.733 709 Ibbetson .487 Macknight.

481 Pearts.

..485 Fox 651, 731, 740, Johnson

.541 Malham ......,
.482 Pearson.

..658 903, 904 Jacques .553 Malkin...... .483 Pelletier.

.473,633 Frend...492, 556, 879 James. .737 Malmsbury.

..806 Gail. 474 Jeaurat .806 Malone .488 Perry..

-,565 Gardnor .487 Jollie..... .892 Malherbe............719 Peyre

..794 Gell... .492, 570 Jerningham .......

.899 Marshall....
..651 Pinch.

..734 Gibbon

.767 Imlay... .736 Massena ......668, 746 Pitt.....444, 492, 743, Giffard.. .811 Inchbald 488 Maurice

485 901-2-3-4. Gilbert.. .651 Ireland 470, 493, 889 Mayer

..843 Playfair

..812 Gofrelin .799 Ives .812 Maxwell... .604 Plumptre

418 Gower .806 Jeffries

.572 Meares.... .734 Pocock.... ..572 Grattan .745 Jones....484, 492, 896 Mechain.... .635 Pole.

659 Gregoire... ....632 Joyce ......571 Mentelle .794 Pollard... ..572 Gregory, 477,492,689 Jourdan ..747, 668 Miles .........484, 492 Pope

.734 Grey .796 Kant ....813 Miller........... ....604 Potts

..723 Guyton ....632 Kelly ..........492 Millin... .......474 Pratt..........486, 723 Gauss.......

......494 Kirwan ......485 Mengs .......735 Price ..492, 537 Garipuy.............553 King.......... 492, 734 Miroir.... ......479 Prony.........636, 795 Galignani...........570 Knight........ 487,881 Michel... .......483 Pichl

..896 Genlis... .......649 Knox .482 Moitte ..............474 Porson

..482 Gilbert ........651 Kyd ..569 Montalernbert.....472 Priestly

..482 Gmelin... .844 Klopstock 489 Mongez..... .795 Paley.....

483 Gren........ .843 Kotzebue..... 733, 492 Monvel

..795 Paffon.

.485 Grenville.. .922 Klügel.

..554 Moreau

.501 Pleyel..

.492,895 Girtanner ..........844 Kray

..582 Morgan
.483 Perncy

552 Glaffe. ..897 Kleber ...............581 Morris ....... 734, 780 Piazzi

.554 Harbour .896 Laurence.....492, 898 Morton ..............812 Percy

.618 Haycock.. .881 Lamb .........889 Moser.... .892 Percival

.685 Housinan .862 Lindsey ............888 Moulds ..... .........814 Pictet

.893 Hollis .... .482 Latham. .658 Mountmorres ......892 Richery.. ..746 Harper..............485 Ludlam.....

443 Moyle.......
..813 Ratcliffe

.899 Home ...............487 Lewin........ .485 Murphy

..486 Ray

..633 Hunter........768, 541 Laporte......... .487 Marsh

.482 Ræderer

.793,637 Hautpois............553 Lamb.

.491 Mickle
..451 Renou................

.474 Herschel............554 Lacaille ....... 551 Maseres

.492 Reeve Hafler. ..........554 Lefrancois .... 551 Montloifier.... 492 Richmond .893 Habn................554 Laplace... 552 Molenaer

443 Rion......... ... 746 Hutton..............558 Love. ..571 Meflier..............551 Roberts

..658 Hauy ..634 Laffus .632 Maskelyn...........551 Robinson

.488 Haighton...... ..658 Leroy

.633 Marlborough ......552 Roscoe........443, 486 Hoffmeister.... ..814 Lowder. ..........658 Mann...

.721 Rush

..484 Haigh.. ...656 Laharpe ...473 Manning ..733 Rufrel.........571, 734 Haley.. .499 Lalande 473,550, 632 Motte ....... ....898 Roxburg ..899 Hamilton...........811 Lamarck...... 796 Moorehead.........895 Revely...... ..445 Hampson......... .....811 Lamertherie........471 Masson .............

.....898 Rumford...... ..484 Harley ..............487 Laumonier .........796 Naigeon ............474 Randolph ..

..402

Rat

......

...895

..474

....4.893

........489

...........571

............570

***.552

805, 811

Raf ................492 Stockdale....487, 571 Townshend.........484 Walker ......492, 899
Ramsden ...........552 Stedman....... ..492 Thompson..........486 Warren .............477
Rault .........737, 896 Slop............. .554 Tulis.................551 Washington ........816
Rickman
.570 Schroeder.. .554 Turtin...... .554 Watson

...482
Richters, .571 Schrader... .554" Tralles... ..554 Weft.................812
Richter
.721 Schiller.. .569 Throlhy...

.571 Weftrumb..........843
Roufe,
.Fei Skirving.
.571 Taplin

.898 Wheeler............896
Row.

,733 Saunders.. .658 Valletti ...734 Wieland......463, 736
Sacy..

.474 Stewart,.. .733 Vancouver... .570 Wilcock........81
Salkeld

.569 Saugrain...... .893 Vanloo........ ..474 Wilkinson ......... 658
Salmon

.488 Staunton...... .894 Vaughan......... ... 499 Williams ....468, 485,
Sanderson .814 Tarleton. .743 Vaugondy...... 417, 569, 649, 734
Sarcrien ...... 474 Taylor ..805,889 Vauquelin....719, 796 Withering..........569
Sejan................474 Tench..

.485 Veysee....... ..462 Wollstoncraft......486
Sellon... ...570 Tenon....... .636 Vien........ .474 Wrangham.....
Seward. .487, 794 Teyffier.......553, 787 Vigenoni.....,

.493 Wynne...

570
Sheffield.. ..486 Thelwall......484,736 Villeterque..

.794 Wyvil.......

.734
Shield.......... .814 Thiel.

473 Vincent..

.474 Winchefer.
Sherlock.. .807 Thomas.. .754 Voght....

484 Wurm...

55%
Sheridan., .743,903 Thornton........ .571 Volney

.472 Woodward ........

-..570
Smith... .569, 888 Thouin...... .796 Vanfittart 483 Wefall
Smyth .......484, 780 Thouret........ .794 Vidal

.553 Wilson...............618
Soules...............474 Toller......... 183, 649 Van Mons .........

.632 Woodville.........733
Southey.............487 Tremlett............484 Uptop...............737 Weftrumb..........844
Steedman ..........,882 Trotter..............898 Wartensleben......606 Winter..............897
Stouff ..........474 Tooke.........441, 442 Waddington 558, 812 Yearsey.
Stuve.... ..472 Tierney g...........803 Wailly........473, 474 Zwoega.............493
Suard.... .473 Thellufon...........905 Wakefield 482, 484, Zach............
Surr....... 654 Tarleton ........824
Shephard............B97 Trollope ............584 Watkins 483,569, 739

Remarkable Persons Deceased, with Biographical Memoirs.
Allan

.600 Christie .............671 Hampton........... 759 Picket..............909
Amadeus III... .753 Clarke ........838 Hanrott....... .909 Pennock............507
Anders........... 679 Codd..

.836 Hartold.... .758 Pingé.................670
pleby. .833 Coleman. .679 Harrrison...... 690 Pivet ................590
Arne..... .847 Cook ..., .837 Hayford 595 Powel...............599.
Aubrey.
.716 Condorcet.....

641 Hibberdine.. .838 Priestley ............832
Auftin.... .517 Cornthwaite ..674 Hofsack.. .761 Rittenhouse ........750
Baker..... .680 Cranstown .......... 760 Hunter......... .510 Robertson ..........563
Bailly...478, 555, 832 Crocket.............757 Hunt ...........

594 Robinson
Beale... 840 Croule ..............839 Hutton........,

.835 Rowley .......... .750
Bearcroft.. .851 Cunningham.......839 Jackson........ .761 Saron.................555
Bearpacker.... .678 Danvers......677, 757 Inkerfole..... ...757 Saunders.............680
Benyon

.679 Davies ..............841 Johofon. ..590, 833 Sawbridge ..........516
Billequer...... .670 Dumont............. 479 Jones...... ..677 Sejun..............555
Birch..
-563 Dupuis .508 Juliana Maria, Queen- Shaw................

..836
Bolt....
674 Edy

.761 Dowager of Den- Shepherd....... .508
Bourne .759, 917 Elliot...

840 mark

.752 Stevens,
Brewster
838 Fimer..
.834 Kemp., .506 Sechy

.678
Broadbelt...........833 Fiximillner.. .554 Keighley ........... 755 Tate.................832
Broughton ....670 Fletcher. .836 Kirkpatrick..

.674 Thomas.............591
Brown .598,680 Fordyce........ .753 Langford...... ... 678 Thompson..........844
Buller.
...909 Foster

.677 Larne
..555 Thynne...........

.832
Burns...
.600 Fothergill...... 678 Lebrun

..559 Titcher .......599
Campbell.....692, 911 Fox........ .518 Lowe.................756 Turnbull............ 673
Carra... ..481 Genionne...........642 Lusac .........670 Vandermonde .....508
Carr

.670 Gleadow............511 Mansfield........... 672 Uri
Carles........ .837 Gilbert...............

..832 Marceau.....
..751 Watson .............

..761
Catherine, Emrefs of Goff, .........918 Merovitz............555 Webb ................920

Ruffie... .971 Goodman...........593 Monchy ............670 Whicher............597
Cavendith .910 Goodwin.............592 Morgan.

..............595 Whitbread .........508
Cerutti

..560 Gordon ........ ..670 Moore ...............841 Whitehead......... 675
Campfort. ,418 Gouffier

.555 Mullins.

.............597 Wilkes...............839
Chaumette .724 Gray..........

.517 Necker......... ...685 Williams............681
Charters ... .838 Green.......... .753 Norris...............515 Wood ........833, 834
Chevalier ...........670 Hamilton.........508 Oldham...........510 Yates .............1.578

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MONTHLY MAGAZINE.

No. VI.-FOR JULY, 1796.

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS:

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ETYMOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. two such eminent members of the body To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

natural, as the head and nose, came to dea

note abstract qualities.--I conjecture, that SIR,

thing or ding will prove to mean some MORE active occupations have, I be- ftriking object in one of its fixed corpo

lieve, finally diverted me from a de- real senses. sign, which I long cherished, and to which, 2. This analysis, carried to its utmost after Mr. Tooke's labours, I fancied my- extent, would constitute a reformed dicfelf equal.--the design was such an ana- tionary. Every person apprehends the lyfis of our language as seems to me to metaphorical use of a term the better for constitute the effence of grammar. Those knowing its original meaning; and how who have not made the trial, will be iur. invariably have dictionary-makers disseprised to find how little difficulty there is vered the foul of a word from its body! in reducing our abstract words to a fen- Thus, Spite and spit (the culinary imple. fible or objective signification: I do not say, ment) are clearly the same word. To to their primary fignification; for prece- spite a person is to run a spit into his mind. dence may give rise to frivolous disputes The very metaphor, I think, occurs not here, as in other nice cases.

infrequently in the poetry ascribed to king You will perhaps indulge me with room David; and Shakipeare makes Hamlet to exemplify my manner of proceeding. resolve to " speak daggers.,' We have a remarkable class of noun sub To consolidate HEED (care, caution) Pantives, as they are called by the gram- with HEAD, may appear too bold an ada marian; though, according to the meta venture, even in etymology. The differphysician, they are mere attributes or qua- ence, however, in spelling is of no account, lities; that is, they cannot stand by them- the present orthography being modern. Í selves, but are supported by substances. think, both words are spelled alike by some The words I mean, are good-ness, great- old writers, bede. In use, there obtains fuffi. ness, and their fellows. We have similar cient similarity, at the present moment. I do words, ending in -head. Onhed, in old not HEED (head) thai. I do not mind that. Englisk, is unity, (one- head). It will not, We say, he puts a thing to heart; and, I presume, be denied that head (caput) is had it been stamped by ulage, beart would here used in composition. Now, in the have paļsed just as currently as head for other cale, I suspect, that it is part of the one of our verbs. I DO NOT HEART that. head which is ufed; the nose, ness, nez, Certain languages have it so,or very nearly, French. Both words have been indiffe as every scholar knows. rently employed to mark the points of land, 3. The substantive verb, am (obs.com) that are or have been conspicuous. Will be (obs. bee) is, probably, some mode of not this geographical analogy be admitted motion or appearance; and, if traced as a strong confirmation of my opinion? higher, may turn out fome animal, whose If ness be any part of the body, what part mode of motion is striking. To walk (inelse can we imagine it to be, whether we cedo), to emerge (evado), to echift (stand regard found or situation? There exists out), are, in Latin, perpetually synoni, an etymological, as truly as a moral sense, mous with to be. In Grerk, to be is the self. and those who have acquired the former, fame word as to go, though split by gramwill feel by how very natural a transition marians and lexicographers, MONTHLY MAG. NO. VI,

3L

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grow old.

4. To alter is a good example of a

is but a differtation on the meaning of word retaining an objeétive fignification Terms; and to language alone, Horne in one dialect of a language, and not in Tooke attributes those operations, which another. To alter, means in German, to

Locke considers as intellectual. Whether

this be acknowledged to its utmost extent, The booksellers, I think, might render or not, the strict connection between an effential service to education and letters, words and thoughts must be granted. by engaging fome intelligent person to in- Those philofophers, who build their thetroduce, more and more, genealogies of lig- ory of the human mind upon the associnification into the common English dic- ation of ideas; and those moralists, who, tionaries, as new editions are printed. To whilst they deny inherent moral qualities complete the investigation of our words and propensities in man, consider him as would take time; but, with a proper ad- the creature of circumstances; will alike vertisement, an imperfect, would, on one

be sensible how important the habit of coraccount, be preferable to a perfect diction- rect thinking and speaking must be in the ary; it would induce some to observe and formation of the intellect. They will think for themselves.

deeni that science highly profitable, which I am, fir, your's, &c.

thall facilitate the adoption of a perfect THOMAS BEDDOES. theory of language, free from all anomalies Clifton, June 26, 1796.

and idioms, which will impart to every

word a precise signification, nor luffer that To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. fignification to be varied when the word

is compounded with another, or when it SIR,

is used in the distinct claffes of compofi-. • UNDERSTAND your Miscellany is I open for the reception of detached If the habit of correct thought be good;

tion, whether argumentative or poetical. thoughts on language; and I therefore and I allume it as a principle now; then submit a few remarks to the conīderation it behoves those who would promote the of your readers. It has given ine much

acquisition of it, to inculcate, even on compleasure to observe, within a short time, a gradual change of opinion with respect to

mon occafions, a perfect correctness of lanthe utility of grammatical studies, and par

guage, though it inay violate the forms of ticularly of verbal criticism. The wits of the ignorant. I recommend, therefore, to

common specch, and excite ridicule from the last age were accustomed to treat ver. bal çriticism as the fruitless and unprofita- subject; and if each of them would com

your readers, an accurate attention to this ble employment of learned dunces, or lite- municate the observations he may have rary coxcombs : and, certainly, the abi occasionally made on what Johnson hapfurdities of some of the commentators and critics of the ancient claslics laid the foun- idioms, and irregulor. combinations,'a valu

pily terms colloquial barbarisms, licentious dation of this general ridicule. The cri- able collection of criticisins on particular tifs of the vulgar tongue were included terins and phrates in common ule, would in the general censure; and gentlemanly be foon connunicated to the public; and writers affected an easy negligence, a gen. I do not fuppose the Editor of the Monthly teel carelessness of compofition, which Magazine would decin his sheets unprofit. might distinguish them from professional ably filled by them.* As a specimen (not authors. Of late, the study of language in execution, but in design) of this kind of has risen high in general estimation. The criticism, I offer the following obiervaimportance of logic was never doubted, tions on COMPARATIVES: and the habit of correct thought, and of a Adverbs and adjectives of comparison judicious arrangement of ideas, has been ever considered as essential to the cultiva- tives, by a reference to known qualities in

are uied to express the qualities of fubitantion of the intellect. But it has not yet other substantives; they have generally been universally acknowledged that logic referred to the relations of quantity; and and grammar are but once Icience, or, at have, of course, been exprellive either of leaft,collateral difquifitions, springing from increase, dininution, or equality. As all the same source, and leading to the same comparisons are used only to describe what end. This, however, will be maintained by is louse and uncertain, they should never be all the disciples of HORNE Tooke; and, made, unless there is in the subject an uncerI believe, it is not presumptuous to say, they are as numerous as his readers. In the ! Diversons of Purley," we are told, that * Note. The Editor cordially aftents to the Locke's Essay on Human Understanding wishes ct this correspo.ldcat.

1696.]

Proposal, &c. for improving our Language.

443

tainty of degree only,which can be removed hanged. And a found mathematician will or lessened by comparison. To express teach you the cafeff, mode of solving a the unascertained part of an house, we problein which could not in any manner say, it is more or less high than another, be done without considerable difficulty, which we see. We may establish it as a These remarks will, I must, be fuffi. rule, that where any thing exists in a fu- cient to induce every person, who is de perlative degree, or where the subječt ad- firons of speaking correctly, to examine mits of no variation or degree at all, every how often he employs comparisons where 'comparison must be abfurd ; since com- they ought not to be made; and fays, parison is employed to remove uncertain- he likes that best, which, in truth, he difty of degree. I have seen, in books of likes the leafi.

SINBORON. logic, those reasoners censured, who attempt to explain ignotum per ignotius. A To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. little attention to the forms of logic shows

SIR, this language to be abfurd and contradic- I FIND there is no bouk of more fashiontory. A fact is unknown to me, but an able reading at present, than the Life other fact is still more unknown. It fol- of Lorenzo de Medici, lately given to lows, then, that in as much as my igno- the world by Mr. Roscoe.

I do not rance of one fact exceeds my ignorance of pretend to deny the merits of this pubthe other fact, I have an imperfect know- lication; it may be very elegantly writledge of that fact: but this is contrary to ten, and the ingenious author may be the first polition. There is not a more ge. deeply versed in Italian literature, but I neral (more universal would be objection- mult take the liberty to say, that in one able) expression, even by our best writers, material point the history is miserably than more perfekt ; but, surely, perfection defective. It wants, fir', the eflential cannot admit of degrees, though the term requifite of credibility. Mr. Roscoe tells is grammatically positive. There are us, that this Lorenzo (who, to be sure, many adjectives, from which, I think,com was as rich and as magnificent as any paratives ought to be excluded; and those, prince before or since his time) in a town I think, are the words expressive of some abounding with every incentive to pleadeterminate and precise quality. I would lure and dissipation, established a sort of say, “ Erskine is the most eloquent of Eng- philofophical club, where he and his falith Barristers," for the degree of attain. vouriteș, men also of birth and fashion, able eloquence cannot poslibly be fixed: or rich bankers and merchants, amused but I would say, “ Johnson is the least in- themselves with ftudying Greek, and accurate of writers ;'' for accuracy admits reading Plato. Moreover, when Lonot of degrees, and does not, perhaps, " renzo went down to his country feat, to strictly exilt in any form. I make use of which the most learned men in Italy the phrase " less unhappy” because I doubt resorted, Mr. Roscoe pretends (I give whether the term happy, when strictly con his own words) “ that it was the cuitom fidered, does not exclude the use of com for one of the party, after dinner, to leparisons; for it means the highest state of lect certain passages from the works of enjoyment. But it may be laid, that the Plato, which were submitted to the elucomparison of equality, would, in such cidation of the company; each of the cases, be less absurd than the adverb of in- guests undertaking the illustration or crease or diminution ; but, at least, it is discussion of some important or doubtful positively useless. Instead of saying, that point. Though Lorenzo was confessedly the manufactures of one country are as at the head of the State, we are not in- . perfect as those of another, we should fim- formed that his own birth-day was kept ply say, they are perfect ; for nothing is with any peculiar festivities; or that 10 gained by the comparison. There is an- much as his tradelimen lighted a candle other fault, which, with respect to com on the occasion : but the birth day of the paratives, we daily commit, by employing laid old Greek philosopher was celebrated a verb, which directly opposes our real every year in the most folenn manner'; a sentiments, and connecting it with a qua- person of rank, as well as learning, prelifying adverb); when, correctly, we should fiding at the ceremony, The most ready ulé both verb and adverb of directly con. way to the favour of Lorenzo, seems to trary import. A person who is reduced have been either to bring him fome old to a choice of difficulties, will yet express Greek MSS, or an antique gem os vale himself as if he had objects of defire before not as prefents, for he bcught them, and himn. A convict might, perhaps, tell you, was heard to say, as the account goes, he liked better to be transported, tlax that he could not lay out his iminense

fortuna

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