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ness,

he was

THEOLOGY. boldness." But Jeffrey, a short time later, of the trials and triumphs through which that

RAWICZ, M. Der Traktat Megilla nebat Tosafat, vollpraised Hayward's summary of Lord Chester distinguished lawyer rose to fame.

ständig ins Deutsche übertragen. Frankfurt-a-M.: field's career as “very pleasant, sensible, and THE death is announced in South Australia, on Kauffmann. 2 M. 50 Pr. intelligent,” and his account of the character December 23, of Harriet Miller Davidson, the

HISTORY. istics of “English lawyers” as pleasant read- eldest daughter of Hugh Miller, and widow of BERGBOHM, C. Die bewaffnete Neutralität 1780-63. ing.” The conclusion at which the hard Scotch the late Professor of Moral Philosophy in the Eine Entwickelungsphase d. Völkerrechts im essayist at last arrived has been confi ed University of Adelaide. She had herself written Seekriege. Berlin: Puttkammer. 6 M.

CODEX diplomaticus Salemitadus. Hrsg. v.F.v.Weech. every quarter by thousands of readers. There several stories, of which Isobel Jardines History, 5. Lfg. 1267-74. Karlsruhe: Braun. 3M. was not one of Mr. Hayward's articles which a temperance tale, is perhaps the best known. CONFRATOM. Die enitome stactien regibus. Mit An. did not merit the praise of “pleasant reading,' She was only in her forty-fifth year.

röm. Rechts in Mittelalter. Berlin: Weidmann. and they were as readable in their reproduction

14 M. in his volumes of Essays as on their first

MATZAT, H. Römische Chronologie. 2. Bd. Berlin :

Weidmann. 8 M. appearance in print.

MAGAZINES AND REVIEWS.

PUYMAIGRE, A. de. Souvenirs sur l'Emigration, l'EmThough Mr. Hayward could sneer at the In the Antiquary for February Mr. Cornelius SCHACK, H. v.

pire et la Restauration. Paris: Plon. 7 fr. 50 C. conduct of a politician or the attempt of a lady Walford continues giving the world the benefit

Beiträge zur Geschichte der Grafen u.

Herren v. Schack. I. 200 Schack-Estorfische to get into a position in society to which she of his investigations relative to fairs. This

Urkunden aus der Zeit von 1162 bis 1303. Berlin: had no claim, his conduct towards his strug

Baensch. 10 M. gling brethren in literature was full of kind- time it is Westminster Fair that engages his attention. Mr. Karl Blind has a learned paper

PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY. Fifty-two years ago Carlyle, not yet rich and not yet famous, found to his surprise Odin." He believes that it has been transmitted on the Hawick gathering cry, “Teribus ye teri ABHANDLUNGEN zur geologischen Specialkarte si

Preussen u. den Thüringischen Staaten. 5. Bd.

1. Hft. Berlin: Schropp. 4 M. 50 Pf. that Mr. Hayward, whom he happily characterised as “a small but active and vivacious to us from the days of our heathen forefathers, HOERNES, R., 1. M. AUINGER. Die Gasteropoden der

Meeres-Ablagerungen der ersten u. zweiten minman of the time,” took to him by a strange chief god of the Teutonic mythology: This and that the last word is really the name of the cänen Mediterran-Stufe in der österreichisch

ungarischen Monarchie. 4. Lfg. Wien: Hulder. impetus, and introduced him to the rising has been called in question, but we think that JAEGGI, J. Die Wassernuss, Trapa natans Lau, der young men of the day. A week or two later

Tribulus der Alten. Zürich: Schmidt. 1 M. 60 PL. Hayward induced Dr. Lardner to promise that Mr. Blind is almost certainly in the right. If

Die Ausgrabungen zu Szeged work over which there had been so much dis- survivals with which we are acquainted. The PERRIER, E. La Philosophie zoologique avant Darwin. Carlyle’s History of German Literature-the it be indeed so, it is one of the most curious LENHOSSEK, J. von.

Paris : Alcan. 6 fr. appointment-should be published in the Cabinet Rev. John Brownbill contributes a scholarly Encyclopaedia; and, although the promise came Earl of Essex. Until he came into power, with paper on the early life of Thomas Cromwell, ZOPF, W. Zur Kenntniss der anatomischen Anpassung

der Pilzfrüchte an die Function der Sporenentto nothing, Carlyle wrote that for Hayward's such terrible results for the mediaeval church

leerung. I. Mechanik der Sporenentleerung bei

Sordarieen. Halle: Tausch. 7 M. kindness, " then and always, he was heartily grateful.” When Thackeray was slowly pro- had little to tell about him. Mr. Brownbill's EPHEMERIS epigraphica. Corporis inscriptionum latinorganisation, historians and biographers have

PHILOLOGY. gressing in the walks of literature, Hayward

arum supplementum, cura G. Henzeni. Th. Momngave him a helping push by a kindly article in paper is only a first part; we believe when it is

seni, J. B. Rossii. Vol. V. Fasc. 1 et 2. Berlin : the Edinburgh (January 1848) on the Irish finished we shall have a clearer idea of the

Reimer. 7 M. 20 Pf. “ malleus monachorum " than it was possible HORAWITZ, A. Griechische Studien. Beiträge zur Sketch-Book, the Journey from Cornhill to Cairo, to have before. Mr. Gomme's paper on the

Geschichte d. Griechischen and the earlier numbers of Vanity Fair, and House of Lords is a first part only, dealing with MUSEO italiano di Antichità classica.

in Deutschland.

1. Stück. Berlin : Calvary. 2 M. prophesied that Thackeray would soon become the question of its origin.

Diretto da

Domenico Comparetti. Vol. I. Puntata 1. Turin: one of the acknowledged heads of novel-writing

Loescher. 20 L. in England. To have aided Carlyle while THE Archivio Storico italiano begins its issue SEUME, H. De sententiis consecutivis graecis. Göt

tingen: Peppmüller. 1M. poverty, and to have befriended for the present year by publishing some inThackeray while he was comparatively un- teresting documents. Sig. del Lungo has known, are merits in Mr. Hayward's literary discovered a spirited poem dealing with an

CORRESPONDENCE. career which may far outweigh a few faults. episode of condottiere warfare—the Lament of

THE LATE LORD LYTTON. The possessor of unrivalled knowledge in his Count Lando after the defeat of the Gran own sphere, and the master of a graceful Compagnia in Val di Lamone in the year 1358.

17 Hill Street, W.: Feb. 2, 1884. literary style, he leaves no one behind him to It is written in the form of a ballata, and is a I venture to solicit your good offices in relafill his place. He was born October 31, 1802, contribution to the popular poetry of that age. tion to the following circumstances :-About and died February 2, 1884.

Sig. Guasti has discovered some archives of six weeks or two months ago, I was favoured W. P. COURTNEY. Stephano del Buono, Papal secretary from 1406 by a communication from a gentleman, whose

to 1415, who, as Bishop of Volterra, accom- letter I have unfortunately mislaid, and whose JOHN HENRY PARKER died at his house in stance. The first instalment gives some details to place at my disposal certain published refer

panied John XXIII. to the Council of Con- name I cannot recall, but who kindly offered Turl Street, Oxford, last Thursday, in his of Innocent VII, and Gregory XII. Sig: ences to my father, collected by him as materials seventy-eighth year. For more than half a Belgrano supplies an account of the career of for a biography of the late Lord Lytton, which century. he had won the regard of successive Egidio Boccanegra, a Genoese who served as an he had abandoned on hearing that I was myself generations of university men as bookseller and admiral of Castile in the fourteenth century, engaged upon the same task. The loss of my as antiquary. He took an active part in the and was put to death by Peter the Cruel in correspondent's letter has deprived me of the revival of Gothic architecture in the third and

1367. fourth decades of this century, and the cause of

means of privately communicating to him my

thanks for his obliging offer, and excavation at Rome owes more to his enthusiasm

my

desire to than to that of any other single man.

SELECTED FOREIGN BOOKS. hear from him again on the subject of it. If,

In 1867 the university conferred upon him the honorary

GENERAL LITERATURE.

therefore, you will be so good as to accord to degree of M.A., and three years later he was

BELOT, Ad. La Tête du Ponte. Paris : Dentu. 3 fr. this expression of my wishes a place in the appointed the first Keeper of the Ashmolean BISMARCK. Zwölf Jahre deutscher Politik (1871–83). ACADEMY, the service will be gratefully appre

ciated. Museum under the new arrangement.

LYTTON. He CORDIEB, A. Pour lire en Wagon. Paris : Ollendorff. was nominated C.B. by Mr. Gladstone in 1871.

D'ARBOIS DE JUBAINVILLE, H. Le Cycle mythologique

irlandais et la Mythologie celtique. Paris : Thorin. SIR JOHN BARNARD BYLES died at Harefield

THE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY'S ENGLISH House, near Uxbridge, on February 3, aged DESCHANEL, E. Le Romantisme des Classiques.

DICTIONARY. eighty-three. His reputation as a judge lies DZIEDUSZYCKI, J. Der Patriotismus in Polen in seiner Racine. Paris: Calmann Lévy, 7 fr.

London : Feb. 1, 1884. outside our province; but we may note that two geschichtlichen Entwickelung. Wien: Gerold. 5M.

The duty of the English-speaking public all of his works in literature, a volume on bills of JAEGER, E. Die Agrarfrage der Gegenwart. Social- over the world towards this great national exchange and a pamphlet on the sophisms of

politische Studien. 2. Abth. Berlin : Puttkammer. work is (1) to buy it, in order to enable the

5 free-trade, enjoyed a great reputation.

Lias. B. de Saint-Pol. Chez les Atchés : Lohong. Clarendon Press Delegates to bear the heavy
Paris : Plon. 4 fr.

cost of its production, which is far greater than The biographer of another eminent judge NEUBAUE, L. Die Sage vom ewigen Juden. Leipzig:

was at first estimated-unless ten thousand died, at 16 Montagu Street, on January 26. RAMBERT, E. Alexandre Calame : sa Vie et son Euvre, copies of each part can be sold, it is doubtful This was Miss Emma Leathley, of The Hall,

d'après les Sources originales. Paris: Fischbacher. whether the work can be carried on on the scale

7 fr. 50 c. Datchet, the only daughter of Mr. William RODBERTUS-JAGETZOW. C., Aus dem literarischen on which it has been started; (2) to complete it Leathley, who married, in December 1810, Nachlass. II. Das Kapital. 4. Berlin: Putt- (a) by a certain number of folk helping, as subEmma Maria Maule, a sister of Sir William Thomas, A.

kammer. SM.

Francesco da Barberino et la Littérature editors, to arrange each some part of the Henry Maule. Miss Leathley published in provençale en Italie au Moyen-âge. Paris : Thorin. enormous mass of slips sent in for the work, 1872 a Memoir of the Early Life of the Right TOPPHER, R. Caricatures et Paysages inédits

, Paris : and to fill up the gaps which occur in the Hon, Sir W, H, Maule--a bright little record Fischbacher, 50 fr,

in : for

3 fr. 50 c.

8 fr.

YOUNG WITH ITS BLOOD.

THE MOON AND THE HARE.

tionary;"

" the army” not one extract was sent in, and I monsters whose religion is atheism, and whose The pictures in old emblem-books and the and other searchers have had to hunt up the political principles render them the enemies of the figures on ecclesiastical structures would doubtslips required for it; (b) by noting fresh words universe.”

less have been familiar to Shakspere, so that and meanings not in the Dictionary, and

OSCAR BROWNING.

one would suppose that he must have shared in earlier instances of those which are there.

the common belief that the pelican was, someFor the last few weeks I have kept back the

THE STORY OF THE PELICAN FEEDING ITS

times, at least, an eagle, and not always the “8-ant” slips I have by chance collected.

water-bird-a bird probably but little known These give only five words not in part i. of

in England in mediaeval times, except to the Dictionary :-"abusant," adj. (“in tearmes

Preston Rectory, Wellington, Salop: Jan. 15, 1891. a busant," circ. 1630, A Scottish Pasquil, p. 6);

I think there is some evidence to show that the pellicaine, of the sea fowle above all other

voyagers such as Hakluyt (1598), who noted "accoucheurship,” n. (“The resident appoint- our English word pelican was not always rements consist of Five House Physiciancies : stricted in its use to denote the water-bird of not common in England, famed to be the lovingst

bird that is, which rather than her young should one Accoucheurship,” 1883, Daily News, Sep- that name. The old story about the pelican want will spare her heart-bloud out of her belly" tember 18, p. 1, col. 7); “amorce,” n., toy per- feeding its young with its own blood is not (royages, il., p. 520). cussion-cap (“purchased a dozen boxes of amor- a classical one, as generally believed ; Greek

I should be obliged for any information on aus... These toy pistol caps ... were made of and Latin classical writers make no mention of

W. HOUGHTON. 3 very dangerous explosive," 1883, Birming- the myth, neither is the pelican (water-bird) the subject of this letter. ham Veekly Post, December 15, p. 7, col. 5); the original bird of the story-which seems to ** Anglo-Saxonising," adj. (that great Anglo- have originated in Egypt-but the vulture. Saxonising amalgamating mill, the United Horapollo (i., cap. 11) says that a vulture States," 1883, Lord Lorne, in Pall Mall Gazette, symbolises a compassionate person, because

London: Feb. 4, 1884. November 14, p. 6, col. 2); “ amalgamationist,” during the 120 days of its nurture of its off- Mr. Brown's letter on Moon and Hare myths to, an advocate of marriages of negroes with spring, if food cannot be had, it opens its own is interesting, as it shows just the places where whites ("* * You are an amalgamationist!' cried thigh and permits the young ones to partake the untutored anthropologist is compelled to she. I told her that the party term was new to of the blood, so that they may not perish from part company from the true scholar. After me," 1838, Harriet Martineau, Western Travel, want. That the vulture was considered a very observing that “the connexion between the

affectionate bird is an idea shared by the Moon and the Hare is familiar to mythologists, Of earlier instances, I have “accidious,' Hebrews, who called it râchâm, “the affectionate Mr. Brown says, we may safely conclude slothful, from the Pore Caitiff, before 1400, bird ;” among classical authors the love of the with Gubernatis that the mythical Hare is unagainst the Dictionary's “ 1731, Bailey's Dic- vulture for its young was proverbial. The doubtedly the Moon.” Distinguo, says the “admitting," n., 1537, against the ecclesiastical fathers

, in their annotations on the anthropologist. Persons who are connected Dictionary's 1598 ; "adverse,” n., an adversary, Scriptures, transferred the story from the vulture are not necessarily identical-Lewis is not opponent, in 1593, against the Dictionary's to the pelican, unless under the word weekâv, Allenby. In the myths referred to by Mr. 1830; "addressor,” the signer of an address, in pellicanus, they meant the vulture. But oddly Brown, the story commonly ends in the Moon 1642, against Dictionary's 1690 ; "aghastness,” enough, and concurrently with the idea of striking the Hare and inflicting on him his 1870, against Dictionary's 1881.

the pelican being the bird of the myth, appears hare-lip, or in the Hare being transported to Of slightly differing senses I have, perhaps, the actual representation of a bird feeding its the Moon, or in someone marking the Moon's one or two instances; 1883, an aldine young ones with its blood in architectural church face with the figure of a hare. Now surely we dolphin spouts water into a basin; " the ornaments, on tombstones, and in old books of may distinguish thus :-When the Moon marks alphabetical gunboats sent out to China,” &c.; emblems; and the bird is always, I believe, not the Hare it is in “ origin of death” myths. but nothing important.

a pelican, but a vulture or eagle. In an old The Moon, having to tell men that they, like My slips are mere chance ones, as I have book of emblems, entitled 4 Choice of Emblems her, are reborn after apparent death, sends a said, but if folk will only collect deliberately, and other Devices, by Geffery Whitney, 1586, swift beast as a messenger. But the swift and send their slips to the editor, Dr. Murray, there is a woodcut of a vulture or eagle pierc- beast loiters, or forgets : le lièvre perd la Mill Hill, N.W., I have no doubt that they ing her breast with her hooked beak, in a nest moire en courant. The Moon hits him on the will enable a very valuable Appendix to the surrounded by her young ones, whose mouths face, and hence the hare-lip. But how do Dictionary to be made. Such a work can never are open to receive the flowing blood. Under- we learn that the Moon is the Hare? In be entirely complete. I can only express my neath are the following lines :

the other myths, Aztec, Indian, and what surprise how near completeness part i. is--nine- “ The pellican, for to revive her young,

not, the object is to account for what Pluteen out of my thirty-three slips were antici- Doth pierce her breast, and give them of her tarch calls is the face in the Moon” and we pated in the Dictionary—and I heartily con- blood.

“the Man in the Moon.” Apparently, many gratulate Dr. Murray and the Philological Then searche your breste,” &c.

races have recognised a Hare where we see Pociety on the result. Our twenty-five years' This figure of the life-rendering pellican a Man; the spots in the Moon are just as like work has not been in vain. The Dictionary is feeding her young with her blood may be seen

as the other. We have a Sabbatical story -I say it deliberately-far and away better in Knight's Shakspere (vol. vi., p. 184). The to explain how the Man got into the Moon, than any other of any living language.

picture representing an eagle or vulture, and and Aztecs and Indians have a story to explain F. J. FURNIVALL.

the word a pelican, was a puzzle to Sir Thomas how the Hare got into the Moon. But what Browne. “In every place,

,” he says, “we

one objects to is the inference that “the BURKE'S “DAGGER SPEECH."

meet with the picture of the pelican opening mythical Hare is the Moon.” Another point.

her breast with her bill and feeding her young Mythologists of Mr. Brown's school are apt King's College, Cambridge: Feb. 3, 1884.

ones with the blood distilled from her." His to differ in their interpretations. Mr. Brown I discovered lately among the Auckland description, as condensed by me, continues :- recognises in Aeetes, Lunus (Myth. of Kirke, sapers a contemporary account of Burke's

p. 52), a male Moon. Sir George Cox goes in smous dagger speech, which differs consider- These pictures contain, many improprieties, for

something connected with the motion of ably from that published in his collected disagreeing almost in all things from the true and the air” (Mythol. Ar. ii. 150). Mr. Brown's speeches. It is in the handwriting of the first proper description; the pelican exceeds the mag, Medea is the Moon, like his Hare. Sir George's

; the the is Led Auckland.

described as of the bigness of a hen, as having Medea, at least in one passage, appears to be \r. Burke, in his speech of the 29th December [it divided claws; those of the pelican are fin-footed; the Dawn. Now, the Great Hare of all mythic ** really December 28, 1792] used the following lastly, there is one part omitted more remarkable Hares is Michaboz, the Algonquin Hare hero, Esp :

than any other, that is the chowle or crop ad- whose mantle, I suspect, has fallen on Ole *** Daggers are ordered at Birmingham: how many hering under the lower side of the bill and so Brer Rabbit. Well, this Great Hare ought I know not. But I have reason to believe that they observable, and of a capacity almost beyond ton, both in his Myths of the New World

to be the Moon, I presume; but Dr. Brinfor esportation, how many for home consumption, descending to the throat-a bag or sachel very are meant to introduce French fraternity into the credit” (Vulg. Errors, ii., p. 1., Bohn's edition).

and his American Hero Myths, says that the earts of Englishmen, for there! there ! (throwing It may be doubted whether the pelican was Great Hare is the Dawn, or the Light. Moredagger upon the floor of the House) there is the generally known to the early ecclesiastical over, he gives philological reasons for this

anity of Frenchmen; there is the fraternity writers, and they may have considered the opinion. At home we know Hares best (mythwich they wish to bring to the bosom of our king, Greek word to denote some eagle or vulture; ologically) as the animals into which witches 1 of every honest, every virtuous Englishman it is difficult, otherwise, to account for the prefer to turn themselves.

is loyal to his sovereign; and who worships his med Beware then, O my countrymen, of the

many improprieties” referred to by Sir T. This is a long letter, but perhaps I have made rternal kiss of France; beware of the smiles of

Browne. As in church architecture, so in it clear that persons connected” are not necesFrachmen: their kiss is treason, and their smile

heraldry. The bird, though conventionally sarily identical; while it must be admitted that ózath. Avoid them, O my countrymen, as a drawn, is always, I believe, an eagle or vulture, wholly different explanations of the same Festience, as a banditti' of assassins, as a nation of but it is still called a pelican; sometimes the myths-explanations equally facile and plaurus; as monsters practising every evil; as nest and young are depicted on an oak-branch. sible--are often put forward by mythologists

n

8 p.m.

Mr. R. F. Conder.

own.

8 p.m.

of the prevailing school. But while one scholar 8p.m. Anthropological : “Exhibition of Objects are really Greek words, written in Roman from an Early Cemetery at Wheatleyoung near characters, and explained by Latin glosses

. sees the Dawn where another sees the Moon,

Park and a third, perhaps, the Cloud, or the Wind,

,” by ; they are all united against the dull person who Commerce in Prehistoric Times."Ohj Miracles W. Many of the Latin words are of a rustic

or thinks that, when mythopoeic man spoke of a from the stoke Newington and Clapton Gravels,” that not even Ducange's Dictionary will always

Buckland Some Palaeolithic Fishing Implements Low-Latin type, and the spellings are such Hare, he probably meant a Hare sans phrase.

by Mr. J. T. Young. A. LANG.

Society of Arts;. "The Portuguese help. Again, the scribe not unfrequently PS.--I have not replied to Mr. Taylor's in

8p.m. Civil Engineers: Speed on Canals,” by misspells words, or adopts a method of his

And, when all the elements of uncervitation to“ name some half-dozen Greek myths 8 p.m. Colonial Institute: “The Australasian which the orthodox or historic method (that of

Dominion," by Mr. R. Murray Smith.

tainty are taken into account, the student Bréal and Kuhn) has failed to explain.” If WEPRESDAY, Feb. 113, 08. P. M. Society of Arts: "New soon discovers that he will need all the help Kuhn is orthodox, 80 am I. Mr. Taylor's Adolph Keim, of Munich,” Roy the Rev. J. A. he can get in order to decipher the sense, for

Rivington. quarrel with me that I illustrated a Greek

the gloss is sometimes as obscure as the word

8p.m. Geological. myth by a Maori parallel. Has Mr. Taylor 8 p.m. Microscopical : Annual Meeting. which it is supposed to explain. There are forgotten that Kuhn does precisely the same

THURSDAY, Feb. 14. 3 p.m. Royal Institution: "Music
for the Pianoforte," V.. by Prof. Pauer.

cases in which the Latin word explains the thing?_In Kuhn's case the myth is the Vedic 7 p.m. London Institution: Modern English English one; and there are also cases in one of Urvasi and Paruravas. Mr. Max Müller saw in this myth the Dawn and the Sun; Kuhn

8.p.m. Royal Academy : Ancient Egyptian which it is the English word which explains Architecture," II., by Mr. R. S. Poole.

the Latin one, as the scribe intended that sees in the tale a myth of Fire. These two

Telegraph Engineers: “Some New scholars (as usual) give different interpretations

Instruments for indicating Current and Electro- it should. On the very first page we

motive Force,” by Messrs. R. E. Crompton and find amsanti glossed by undique scanti, of the names of the hero and heroine. But Gizbert Kapp: Kuhn buttresses his opinion by adducing Maori

8 p.m. Society for the Encouragement of the which is not very helpful at a first glance; parallels. That in the scholar is “historic”

vocal and other illustrations, by Mr. Lennox and, again, before we can understand what is and “orthodox” which in me is “the Hotten- Browne.

meant by axungia, glossed rysil, it is necessary totic heresy." Now, if it is historic and 8 p.m. Mathematical : “ The Relations of the

Intersections of a Circle with a Triangle," by Mr. to be aware that rysil is the Old-Engish orthodox in Kuhn to adduce a Maori variant H. M. Taylor ; The Difference between the word for fat or grease, unless, indeed, one of the Vedic myth, why is it heretical in me to adduce a Maori variant of a Hesiodic myth?

(4n + 3) Divisors of a Number," by Mr. J. W. L. happens to know the sense of axungia (use?

Glaisher; Perhaps I need scarcely add that the anthrop- Theories of Systems of complexes and Spheres," the by Pliny) without looking it out in Lewis and ologist sees neither a Dawn-myth nor a Fire- FRIDAY, Feb. 16. 8 p.m. Society of Arts: "State

Short. It is, moreover, extremely easy to be myth in the central incidents of the story of

misled. Monopoly of Railways in India," by Mr. J. M.

Thus, on p. 2, we find aquilae : Paruravas, though the story was hitched into

Maclean.

segnas. It might be thought, at first, that the fire-ritual of India.

8 p.m. Philological: "Extracts from my Dialect Glossaries," by Mr. F. T. Elworthy.

aquilae means eagles ; but the gloss shows that 8 p.m.

Civil Engineers : Light-Draught it means not the birds, but the famous Roman

Launch," by Messrs. Cowan and Fawcus. A NEW DEPARTURE IN CRITICISM.

9p.m. Royal Institution : “The Chemical Work ensigns that so often led the soldiers to of Wohler," by Prof. Thorpe.

On p. 22 we find rumex : edroc,

victory. London: Feb. 5, 1884.

SATURDAY, Feb. 16, 3 p.m. Royal Institution : "Life

and Literature under Charles I.,” V., by Prof. whence it might be thought that edroc means Your contemporary the Spectator is a journal Henry Morley.

a dock (plant); but, as Mr. Sweet proves at which I have always looked upon with the

p. xi. of his Introduction, rumex is miswritten greatest respect. Its high moral fervour is well known, as well as its freedom from

SCIENCE.

for rumen by confusion with the preceding religious bias ; but I think the world knows The Epinal Glossary, Latin and Old English. word remex; and the English edroc is made little of its wonderful catholicity in matters of of the Eighth Century Photo-lithographed Vocabularies (i. 54) viz., " Ruminatio

, eiwung

plainer by the following gloss in Wright's literary criticism, of which I have just furnished the Standard with a remarkable illustration.

Edited, with a Transliteration, Introduc- [a chewing], vel edroc, vel aceocung. In case your readers have not seen my letter, tion, and Notes, by H. Sweet. (Trübner.) glosses of the class to which the Epinal MS.

Mr. Sweet thoroughly discusses all the I should explain that the facts are as follow:

(First Notice.) On December 15 last, a novel from my pen

belongs. They are all of high importance

, The student of philology will hail with the and are known respectively as the Epinal Through the Stage Door-was reviewed in the Spectator , not merely adversely, but in terms of tion of a most remarkable Ms. Some delay Glossary, and the Leiden Glossary. These

greatest satisfaction this excellent reproduc- Glossary, the Erfurt Glossary, the Corpus strong abuse ; described as “trashy,” altogether “repulsive," and such a book as was à dis- has been caused by the editor's laudable four MSS. really furnish us with six Gloscredit to the sex of its author. Last Saturday, endeavour to obtain a photo-lithographic repro- saries, which Mr. Sweet distinguishes asFebruary 2, the same novel was again re- duction of the MS. free from all touching-up (1) Leiden ; (2) Epinal-Erfurt, a glossary conviewed in the Spectator, in terms of cordial by hand. The result is that the less distinct tained in the Erfurt Glossary and agreeing praise ; described as a lively and pleasant portions are not always clear; but a great with the Epinal Glossary; (3) the Second story, and warmly recommended to the reader deal of it can be most exactly made out, and Erfurt Glossary; (4) the Third Erfurt Glossary as, above all, “ sound and wholesome." Now, when all is said and done, nothing can

some pages of it (e.g., pp. 6 and 11) are (5) the First Corpus Glossary; (6) the Second be more kindly meant than this method of beautifully distinct in every letter. It is Corpus Glossary. It thus appears that the reviewing, which enables an editor to box your most fortunate that the difficult task of editing Erfurt MS. really contains three, and the ears with the one hand and pat your cheek the MS. has fallen to Mr. Sweet, whose care Corpus MS. contains two, distinct glossaries

; with the other. “Miss Jay,” he cries, “is a and accuracy are thoroughly proved by the and they must be considered accordingly. loose and degraded scribbler ; but”-here I minuteness with which he enters into details fancy I can see his oracular smile as he adds, in his valuable Introduction. It is also most editor, in his patient and masterly treatment

We have no space here to show how the sicudi alteram partem”! The method, however, fortunate that Mr. Sweet has not confined his of the whole subject, 'explains the way To make it quite perfect, the two opinions attention. solely to the Epinal Glossary, but which the alphabetical glossaries were com ought to be printed, not with an interval of has studied, word by word, and letter by piled, how certain glosses came to be repeated several weeks, during which the author is kept letter, the other important Glossaries of a what books were the sources of them, an in agony, but in the same number.

This is the true key to the how certain class-glossaries must have been HARRIETT JAY. whole matter. He would be a rash man who already in existence before they were com

should attempt, except in tolerably easy cases, piled.' By class-glossaries we are to under

to explain the words, whether Latin or stand glossaries in which“ names of beasts APPOINTMENTS FOR NEXT WEEK. English, which this most important MS. con- birds, fishes, minerals, and other natura MONDAY, Feb. 11, 5 p.m. London Institution : "The tains. This can only be done with certainty objects, were collected in separate groups. Storm Cloud bithe Nineteenth Century" (repeated), by collating all the older Glossaries with one such a glossary is the well-known

Elfried Society to in Arts in Cantor Lecture, another ; and even the later Glossaries, such Glossary, printed by Somner and reprinted h “Recent Improvements in Photo-Mechanical Printing Methods," III., by Mr. Thomas Bolas. as those printed in Wright's volumes of Wright. Mr. Sweet next considers in detal the Congo," by Sir F."9. Goldsmidecentes on the Vocabularies, will be found to give some “ the structure and relation of the variou

assistance in many cases. TUESDAY, Feb. pm. Royal Institution Scenery difficulties of many kinds. Some of the words readings and occasional errors. His “ sum

We are met by | texts,” and minutely discusses the variou British Isles," , by .

similar type.

8 p.m.

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B.C.

mary" is so important to a clear un lerstand- may at once help the student to remember procession of the equinoxes discovered. These ing of the whole subject that we must do that the letters n and r, however different in twenty-eight constellations are arranged from him the justice to quote it in full, premising form at other periods, were at this period west to east, and Spica Virginis has always been that by “a-order” is meant an order in almost indistinguishable.

On p. 25 (col. 6) regarded as the first. My own idea is that this which words are arranged alphabetically we find gundaesuelgiae, in which an has nasch, the seventh star in Ursa Major,

was simply because it lies underneath Benet

and according to their initial letter only, while by been dropped, precisely as if we were, at the therefore be considered as the gate of the ** ab-order" is meant an order of words col- present date, to write goundsel for groundsel. heavens. Several of the stars in this zodiac are lected according to the first two letters. On the same page (col. a) we have scrirpea mentioned in the Yau tien, which is found in

“Sacred Books of the “. All the glossaries are based on interlinear for scirpea. The scribe was not always sound Legge's Shoo King, glosses, Latin and English, in Latin books, and as to his initial h; perhaps haues for aues, East,” vol. ii., and professedly belongs to 2350 on Latin-English class-glossaries, probably at (d,

If a line be drawn from Benetnasch to Canterbury, other English glosses being after shocking that an Englishman should call a the present pole star and bisected, we get wards added in the process of copying and com- hasel " a azel,” as he practically does when he one of the stars in that region to represent the

approximately the pole of that period. Taking pilation.

gives us auellanus : asil(2 b 31). Colera (8 a 2) pole star, we find that Benetnasch, the leading "Various independent glossaries were com

is repeated as calera in the same column (1.29): star of the Bear, instead of being forty degrees piled from these sources, at first non-alphabeti: Calear (8 c 34) is glossed by spora, “spur,” and from the pole, is only twenty or thereabouts. fused together in various later digests, a-order is therefore miswritten for calcar. Litura: a But Spica lies below this star, and would be being often made into ab-order.

limendo should clearly be a liniendo (13 f 26). drawn up with it into a correspondingly higher “The Leiden MS. is a German copy of an Oria: misteria bachi (17 c 39) is probably altitude. In that age, whenever the Bear passed English non-alphabetical collection of literary meant for orgia; the spelling oria could hardly round on the south of the

pole, Spica would be and class glosses. have been intentional. We find uaser : uersutus

seen a few degrees north of the equinoctial line

near the meridian. Speaking roughly, the "All the others are in the later alphabetical (28 e 7); and, only two lines below, we have Bear would then subtend an angle of ninety order, but are not based on the Leiden copy, uauer : callidus. The forms waser and uauer degrees, say, from Spica to Castor and Pollux, thongh they all (except, perhaps, the first part of the Corpus glossary) have drawn partly that u already had the sound of v.

are both founded on uafer; the latter shows instead of, as at present, about forty-five degrees. from the same sources.

The My hypothesis is that here lay the reason for ** The Epinal and First Erfurt copies are in- former is due to confusion of “long 8" with Spica being made the first star, and that it was dependent copies of probably the same MS., f, yet it is a little surprising to find that the called " heavens' gate” because it lay in a line the latter by a German scribe. This MS. was scribe writes uaser with the “twisted 8;" with Benetnasch and the pole. compiled partly from non-alphabetical glos- this is just one of those points where tion of Spica as the first star in the zodiac by

M. Terrien de La Couperie explains the selecsaries, partly from ab-order ones, the former the facsimile so greatly helps us. All these, being thrown into ab-order, the two groups and many more such, are errors of the scribe, in a Babylonian tablet recently decipbered by

a shifting in the geographical horizon recorded being kept apart under each letter.

so that the interpretation demands much care Mr. T. G. Pinches (ACADEMY, September ** The second part of the Corpus glossary is and patience. We have not observed any mis- 1, 1883). Prof. Schlegel, of Leyden, supposes from the original of the Epinal and Erfurt prints in the transliteration, except that the that Spica was, when selected to lead the MSS., partly from a group of other alphabeti-i in bridils (5 f 37) and the r in receptator shining train of the twenty-eight constellations,

actually near the vernal equinox, and he believes cal

, literary, and class-glossaries, including the (22 e 27) have dropped out at press, leaving a the Third Erfurt glossary; That this Corpus powerless to prevent. Mr. Sweet has greatly think, simpler than either. An argument in originals of the Second Erfurt and probably of blank space—things which editorial care is that the Chinese astronomy is about 16,000

My hypothesis is, I venture to glossary was not compiled directly from the increased the value of the MS. to the English its favour is found in that peculiarity of the original of Epinal and Erfurt, is proved by its student by marking the English words with Chinese zodiac which respects its fourfold often having the correct reading against both tze Epinal and the First Erfurt glossary.”

an asterisk ; in this matter, we think, there allocations among the cardinal points and the

are just three accidental oversights. Inter- seasons. Virgo, Libra, and Scorpio are called The last sections of the Introduction con positi (11 f 26) is marked as English, but we the blue dragon of the east ; Sagittarius, cen the palaeography, the orthography, and should call it Latin ; while loca (9 f'28) and Capricornus, and Aquarius are th:language. From a consideration of these gabutan (18 f 25), which are not so marked, Taurus are the white tiger of the west ; Gemini,

warriors of the north ; Pisces, Aries, and Mr. Sweet concludes that their combined are given in Anglo-Saxon dictionaries. There Cancer, and Leo are the red bird of the south, evidence points most decidedly to at least the is yet one more gloss (21 a 1.1) which is the order is spring, winter, autunın, and veginning of the eighth century.". In this worth considering in relation to this question- summer. result we thoroughly agree with him, not- viz., panibus : sol. It is not easy to see how have to do with the annual movement from withstanding some opinions to the contrary. panibus can be explained by sol if sol

means west to east when we group the zodiac in The archaic spellings of the MS. are above the sun. If phonetic laws will admit of it, twenty-eight divisions. But when we have suspicion, and could never have been imitated for no conceivable reason) by a ninth-century and, if so, a variant of Anglo-Saxon sufl, into four groups, we take them in the contrary

our thoughts directed to the diurnal revolution we would suggest that sol may be English ;

from east to west, and part the zodiacal stars scribe; on the contrary, the forms which Icelandic sufi, Danish suul, which actually direction. occur in it mark it as older than the famous

Let us suppose ourselves to be means a kind of food. The Northern-English looking at the stars on March 23 after sunset. Corpus Glossary, which is usually considered word is still sool, and is duly discussed in the We see Aries, Taurus, and Gemini stretching *s undoubtedly belonging to the eighth notes to “Piers Plowman" (Early-English from west to south, and then Cancer, Leo, and century.

Text Society), p. 374. The Glossary abounds Virgo. Spica is in the east. The transliteration faithfully adheres to the with forms of much interest and of great im- early ob

The Chinese rvers consi

here it would be valy method of any value, in that it exactly portance for the etymology, not of English best to begin their zodiac. They decided on the produces all the errors of the scribe. To only, but of the Romance' languages also. east, because of the position of the Bear, which bare touched up the spellings would have we hope to give some examples of this in a southern groups were before them in the been a worse error than even a touching-up future notice. WALTER W. SKEAT. heavens. The eastern group was coming up as of the photo-lithograph, of which we were, in

the western went down, and would be followed the first instance, in some danger. Few

by the northern after another six hours. A things are more instructive than a knowledge THE CHINESE CYCLES OF TEN, line drawn from the old pole through Beta of of the nature and range of scribal errors, yet TWELVE, AND TWENTY-EIGHT. Ursa Major would, speaking roughly, pass any editors endeavour to withhold such

Peking. near Cor Hydrae, the meridian star, the “bird kwwledge from us with a persistency which THESE cycles are all more or less remotely of the time of Yau. It is unfortunate that this sight be better employed. But here there has connected with the West, and they belong to group of seven is much too wide. With the en no such tampering with the original, and the earliest period when it begins to be safe to pole where it is at present, the south group te facsimile is, fortunately, at hand to prove eight is the most ancient of the Chinese zodiacs. it should do; and this compels us to a certain

trust the Chinese records. The cycle of twenty- covers nearly 120 degrees, instead of 90, as - Certainly some of the mistakes are curious The stars of this zodiac were all observed with indefiniteness in any hypothesis on the subject. ezagh. On p. 1 (col. c) we find abilina: a bronze astrolabe about A.D. 100, and their posi- But, looking at the position of the stars in a krata The word meant is hnutu, “nut," as tions in degrees recorded. Two or three centu- rough way, the Bear nearly covered the “bird appears from other glosses; and this example ries wfterwards they were again tuken, and the of the south palace,” then seen in the south ;

ALBERT MOORE'S PICTURE, "COMPANIONS." A Photo-englar

“An exquisite picture."-Times.

better."-Morning Post.
“A new and exquisite picture."-Standard.

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to an attractive exhibition." - Daily News

Particulars on application to the Publishers, Messrs. DOWDESWELL
DOWDESWELLS, 133, New Bond-street.

GEO. REES, 116, Strand, near Waterloo-bridge.

and Yau's astronomers marked out “bird” (Cor been found with five flint flakes and some frag- PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY.—(Friday, Feb. 1.) Hydrae) as on the meridian on that evening, ments of charcoal and of the bones of some rumi: Dr. J. A. H. MURRAY, President, in the Chair.and naturally enough looked on the group to nant, in the summer of 1882, a little to the west of Mr. H. Sweet read a paper on some of the

hard which it belonged as the constellation of the Upper Hare Park. With the vase were exhibited a

words in the Epinal MS. Some, like “cearruca, south and of summer. They would not begin middle brass of Maximianus rev. GENIO POPVLI" parison with the Corpus and other Glossaries, first brass of Hadrian rev. ABUNDANTIA, and a

senon," he could not yet explain; others, by comthe zodiac with the first point of Aries, because ROMANI exergue TR(everis), and a terra cotta frag: Wright's Vocabularies, &c., had yielded up a mean. it was hidden in the sun's rays, and, being in ment of a handle, all found during the levelling of Jing; "aedilra (of the noble ones), gregariorum" the west at the time, it seemed unsuitable. some mounds on Newmarket Heath in 1883.-Mr. (of 'the common herd), was shown by another

The cycles of ten and of twelve have in old Bowes read an interesting communication upon | Glossary to have lost its • un-,” making it mean Chinese foreign-looking names. But I fear“ Cambridge Printers from the Earliest, John that they are not yet found in the Accadian Siberch, 1521-22, down to the End of the Last sparrow) was in another Glossary rightly “ smerwi,"

“ignoble ; "

“unamaelti sperwi” (an unmelted language. As Mr. Pinches gives the Accadian Century.” — Mr. Bradshaw remarked upon the

tallow; cocunung, quadripertitum," was shown, numerals, the sounds do not agree. The Chinese importance of carrying through two wholly by comparison with aceocung, ruminatio

, " to be symbols of the cycle of ten should, I think, be distinct processes of research-(1) examining the read kap, (t)it, pam, tam, gu, ki(t), kam, tin, nim, books, and (2), searching through all registers ruminant which has four stomachs. In “anbin.

" anbinliciendi" was ku(k). These sounds are required by the laws i which relate to their printers. Either, if carried

liciendo, tyctaend, inlex," on alone, often gave an erroneous idea to the have attempted to prove in my Introduction to worker. "He suggested that all the parish regis. quentia," was a miswriting for “woo8;”." An

(inlex) ab inliciendo; boot, facundia uel els the Study of the Chinese Characters.

ters and such books might be searched, and copies stigan' uel faestin [a fastness] termofilas" was The pronunciation of the constituent mem- made of everything that concerns the Cambridge Thermopylae, a one-path place, in which men could bers of the cycle of twelve I should expect to printers, as had been done at Bruges by Mr. march only one by one, a defile; "dros, auriculum," find, if they had been written alphabetically, Weale ; and that a systematic collection of Cam.

was ear-wax. The "lud” of “ludgaet, scudo tik, tok, in, mo, din, zi, go, mi, shin, (d)uk, tit, bridge printed books should be made, as was being

terum (pseudo- false), must mean twiggeu or gak. The periods when we may suppose Baby- done to some extent at the Free Library, and as Ionian influence to have reached China are had been done for Oxford so thoroughly by Mr. F. "leod” people, meaning to grow.

wicker (and not King Lud's), from the root of

Other ex2350 B.C., the age of Yau; 1100 B.C., the com

Madan, of the Bodleian Library: -Mr. Mullinger amples were cited from the Erfurt and Corpus mencement of the Chow dynasty; 1000. B.C.; volume (small quarto) from the library of St. brought under the attention of the meeting a

Glossaries of corruptions of Greek, Latin, and the age of the Emperor Mu wang, who is said John's College Gg. 6. 41), without date or either

Anglo-Saxon words.
to have travelled in the West ; 550 B.C., the age printer's or author's name, which he submitted
of Cyrus when Bactria was conquered by the
was probably a production of the Cambridge Press

FINE ART.
Persians, and the time when Li lau tan is said during Thomas's time, but anterior to any of the
to have gone to the West; 140 B.C., the age of 1584 volumes bearing his imprint. The title of In progress. Same size as original-164 by 84.
Chang Mien, who visited the Dahae and the the book was, “An Abstract of certaine Acts of

"Mr. Moore exhibits one picture-than which he never psinado Greek kingdom of Bactria. All through the parliament: of certaine her Maiesties Iniunctions; time of the Persian empire, from 550 B.C. of certaine Canons, Constitutions, and Synodalles

“Remarkable for its refinement of line and delicate harmony of colon" downwards, the silk trade, which then existed, prouinciall; established and in' force, for the

“Mr. Moore's graceful 'Companions' forms an excellent bonne bench would render the communication of Babylonian peaceable gouernment of the Church, within her

It was

"The gem of this varied and delightfal exhibition." - Academy. knowledge possible in China, as the Greek attributed by Baker, in a MS. note, to Robert settlements in Bactria afterwards rendered it Beale, a diplomatist and author of the Elizapossible for the Chinese to become acquainted bethan period, who, in the opinion of Cooper with the astronomical period of Callippus, as (Athenae, ii. 311), was probably educated at Cam.

GREAT SALE of PICTURES, at reduced prices (Engravings, Chrome

and Oleographs), handsomely framed. Everyone about to purchase pietari we know from their early historical works, which bridge. The supposition that the volume was a

should pay a visit. Very suitable for wedding and Christmas presents." contain this cycle.

JOSEPH EDKINS. production of the Cambridge Press was founded

on the apparent identity (which had been pointed

out by Mr. Sinker, the librarian of Trinity) of Claude Lorrain, sa Vie et ses Euvres, d'après SCIENCE NOTES.

several of the embellishments with those of
volumes bearing Thomas's imprint-e.9., the

des Documents inédits. Par Mdme. Marl THE Nation reports “on good authority ornament at the head of the title-page with that

Pattison. (Paris : Librairie de "L'Art.") that Sir William Thomson has accepted "an in Rouspeau's Two Treatises on the Lord's Supper I CONFESS I rather resent upon a title-pag invitation to deliver a course of some twenty (second leaf), printed by Thomas in 1584; that of

d'après des documents inédits.” Justifier lectures at the Johns Hopkins University; the ornament on p. 3 with that on the first page of Baltimore, beginning on October 1. This woulå signature a of James Pilkington's Exposition of no doubt, in the present case by the studen fit in with the visit of the British Association to Nehemiah, printed by Thomas in 1585, and also of like attitude and the substantial discoveries Baltimore this year.

an initial T with another in the same volume; and, Mrs. Pattison, the phrase yet general

again, the very characteristic tail ornament at end implies either the undue parade of that virti Prof. C. H. F. PETERS, the astronomer in of Préface with one in Whitaker's book against of research the possession of which shoul charge of the well-known observatory at Stapylton. (Thomas, 1585), Hamilton College, New York, who is on a apparent identity in the type used with some of be taken for granted, or, what is worse, t! visit to Europe with the aim of preparing an the type in Thomas's volumes.

actual belief that some successful burrowi accurate edition of the star catalogue of

among forgotten archives is an achievement Ptolemy, has been fortunate enough to find, - Society of ANTIQUARIES.—(Thursday, Jan. 31.) invaluable that it makes literature unnect both at Venice and Florence, several MSS. J. Evans, Esq., V.-P., in the Chair. ---Mr. Maskell sary and original thought of nothing wort (Greek, Arabic, and Latin) of the Almagest exhibited a sixteenth-century picture of "Job and The difference between the true writer a which have never been properly collated. He his Family," with an inscription containing two the mere scholarly burrower is often shown is at present working in the Vatican Library. verses of the Book of Job in English, differing from the store that is set upon a document inét

A GEOLOGICAL survey of Russia was organised has not much to recommend it.Mr. Perceval and The true writer finds it, uses it, says in 1882, and the first budget of its Reports has Mr. Franks gave an account of some matrices of little about it; it is wrought into the body recently arrived in this country. Field-work seals exhibited by the Duke of Buccleuch. These his work, whose general execution owes is being actively prosecuted, and a detailed were principally Italian of the fifteenth century, much, and whose conception owes nothing geological map of the empire will eventually the most remarkable objects being two brass seal be prepared. Meanwhile, a number of descrip- boxes, one of which bears the arms of Sforza and all, to the fortunate discovery of an ind tive Reports and memoirs will be published Visconti quartered. --Admiral Sprat gave an ac- trious afternoon. The mere scholarly b periodically under the direction of the commit- count of his exploration in 1860 of the peninsula rower, on the other hand, has got in tee entrusted with the development of the work. the peninsula he found a gulf running into the his fame. He sets forth his discovery,

On the southern side of document inédit that wherewith to estab! Russian, but French or German abstracts of the and at the narrowest part of the peninsula "ne with stylc—for style would be only *** more important papers will be duly issued.

discovered traces of the attempt of the Cnidians to writing to the person who did not underst: cut through the isthmus and make their territory it—but crabbedly, with involvement,

an island, till they were warned by an oracle to MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. desist. The rock is a hard dark-green serpentine. literature counted for

deep self-satisfaction. In the days CAMBRIDGE ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY.-(Monday, At the head of the Dorian Gulf, at a place known

more than it Jan. 28.)

as Bazzarlik, the Admiral discovered the remains of to-day, and science counted for less. J. W. Clark, Esq., President, in the Chair.—Mr. wall, and grown over with dense brushwood. A coterie—even a reading public possessed

the temple of Latona, surrounded by a cyclopean could do it only in the privacy of A. G. Wright, of Newmarket, exhibited a rough marble statue of the goddess lay on the ground, learning without taste would have thou gray British terra-cotta vase, six inches high, and headless. The columns were also of marble. little of the performance—but now the five inches and a-half wide at the top, which had Below, on the side of the hill, was a theatre.

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