Page images


An address which Mr. Bock prints from the Muang Fang, and carry off valuable bronze

princes to the King, and his Majesty's reply, Buddhas, it was equally natural that the No. 613, Noro Sories.

though dashed here and there with some evi- priests should resent such poaching, even on THE EDITOR cannot undertake to return, ordently European or American commonplaces, their unoccupied preserves, and that the to correspond with the writers of, rejected feeling on both sides. Neither does native art spirits

, should attribute various mischances to manuscript.

appear to suffer from European influences. In his proceedings. And the fine of fifteen I is particularly requestod that all business & great palace recently finished, European rupees which the authorities at Lakhon tried

elements combine harmoniously with the to impose on him for having chastised a high letters regarding the supply of tho paper, national style ; and, excepting the silver-work official, and taken up his residence in the gre., may be addressed to the PUBLISHER, and and the bronze statuary (which, however, halls of justice because the rest-house was out not to the EDITOR.

seems nearly extinct), there is not, by the of repair, does not seem exorbitant—to say

author's account, much native art that is nothing of the spiritual damage done. The LITERATURE,

worth preserving. The people, he says, show King, to whom he afterwards recounted his

a great aptitude for European music. Their troubles, was inclined to attribute them to Temples and Elephants : the Narrative of a silver-work is handsome, following traditional the inefficiency of his interpreter; at all

Journey of Exploration through. Upper patterns and ideas only, as apparently do the events, his readers will not greatly regret Siam and Lao. By Carl Bock. (Sampson painters. Their figure-drawing, animal and delays to which they owe much amusing Low.)

human, is full of life and vigour; but when description of native life, habits, traits of The narrative before us, as compared with the author asked a native artist why they character, and curious customs—not the least the writer's work on Borneo, labours under “always made caricatures instead of exact re- quaint among these being a proposed

corotwo disadvantages he was unacquainted presentations of their subjects, and particularly mony of reconciliation between the traveller with the language of the country; and, in of the elephant, of which they had plenty of and the offended authorities

and no one will return for the facilities extended to him by examples to copy from, he replied that they complain that his account of the executions the King, he undertook, he tells us, ** to were not allowed to make a true picture of the he witnessed, or of the disposal of the bodies refrain from any political allusions." To this elephant that was left to the farang to do."

of the dead, is not sufficiently realistic. We rule the writer adheres with some rigidity. It would be curious to compare the feeling do not know whether a traveller is to be Thus we should have liked to hear what he expressed in this "not allowed” with that excused when, in the cause of anthropological learned as to the relations to each other, and which dictated the conventionalism of ancient science, he investigates the private domestic to Siam and Burmah, of the tribes on the Egyptian and mediaeval European art. Euro- details of life through chinks of the lattice. northern frontier. Again, he has no doubt pean costume has hardly begun to supple- Another successful, and perhaps more serious, felt himself precluded from speaking freely ment the national, which Mr. Bock describes traud was the production of zoedone on various on questions of internal administration; but as very becoming. That of the lacons (actresses, occasions when his native friends had called we can read something between the lines, and or dancing girls), however, is mysterious: they for champagne ! for the rest we may reflect that but for the are "all dressed alike, in complete Scotch Mr. Bock writes fuently on some of the assistance afforded him the book might not dress, the head covering being a crown in the more abstruse points of Buddhist doctrine ; have been written at all. He is mistaken in form of a pradchedeo."

but, whatever we may think of his consupposing that no European has traversed How far the mass of the people has as yet clusions, his account of the various religious any portion of the same ground." Since Gen. benefited by the enlightened principles held ceremonies and observances he witnessed — McLeod's journey in 1837, not to mention at head-quarters the writer tells us little as and he saw a good deal-are full of interest Mr. Cushing, Mr. Colquhoun went as far as regards Šiam proper. In the Lao country, and value. Everywhere, but especially Zimmé in 1879, though his promised account which is still practically under the native among the Laos, side by side with Budof the journey has not yet appeared. Still, chiefs, a good deal of oppression prevails. One dhism, and apparently without clashing, we the author no doubt saw much that was new; energetic official there, a Cingalese by birth, see the older

the older nature-worship, and not and though hampered, as he complains, at had brought a buggy and pair of horses up only prayer, but thanksgiving, addressed to the every turn, especially among the Laos, by the into the jungle, and even talked of establish- spirits of the rocks, streams, and such like. jealousy and reticence of both officials and ing a cab-stand; but the people generally are, He describes, too, a state of possession, called people, and also, we may suspect, by inef- the writer says, utterly idle and spiritless, phee-ka, akin to the evil eye; persons so fieient interpreters, his record is full of gambling is universal, and drunkenness very affected, though not considered to be responinterest.

He suggests that their energies sible, are banished, sometimes en masse, from Between the indiscriminate adoption of might be stimulated by the promotion of the community, and obliged to form a settleeverything foreign, arguing a lack of origin- trade; and he considers that a railway might ment elsewhere. A superstition, common ality, if not of self-respect, in Japan, and the easily be made from Bangkok up the fertile among widely different races-viz., the dislike almost equally indiscriminate exclusiveness of valley of the Menam to Raheng (300 miles), to pronouncing a name is perhaps traceable China—though China may be found to have the country presenting no physical difficulties, here in the custom of giving an infant an taken notes more extensively than is com- and Chinese labour being always available. unattractive name, such as pig-dung or goosemonly supposed—Siam appears to have chosen This plan has some bearing on the question, dung, in order “ that the spirits may not take a juste milieu. Mr. Bock describes the King recently under discussion, of a trade route a fancy to it.” Later on, this name is disus attached, like his father before him, to through Burmah and the Shan country to carded for another. European society and culture, having been Yunnan; for, notwithstanding the disadvan- Towards the northern frontier, although the sdncated by an American lady, but as by no tages of Bangkok as a port, the railway would people seemed very prosperous, Mr. Bock means under European dictation. Thus, at once attract a good deal of the traffic which observed many ruined towns, the result of while establishing post-offices and telegraphs, the other route proposes to accommodate, and wars recent and remote, the remains indicagradually abolishing slavery, and instituting which, so far as it came within his notice, ting a style of art higher than that which some sanitary legislation, he is a sincere Mr. Bock represents as very considerable. It prevailed farther south. We gather (but, as though enlightened Buddhist, his creed occu- is to be regretted that his attention had not before observed, he is reticent on the subject) pying, as is usual with its votaries, a large been directed to this scheme, as he could have that constant fighting goes on between the space in his life. He is thirty years of age, described, with special reference to a railway, Ngious or Shans, backed by Burmah, and the and has forty-two children. Mr. Bock says the difficult country north of Zimmé (which Laos, dependents of Siam. That the Shan sothing about palace intrigues or succession place, by-the-way, he spells variously Cheng-customs should approximate to the Burmese disputes. Possibly the safety is in numbers, mai or Xieng Mai). Although the hindrances is not surprising, but Mr. Bock finds that in for be mentions two other princes with families placed in his way by the Chows and Phyas physique also their resemblance to the Burmese Tspectively of 106 and 95 children ; but the of Upper Lao were very annoying, they were is much closer than to the nearly allied Laos. number of sons capable of succeeding to hardly, from the native point of view, with- Most Englishmen will sympathise with his the throne is, from want of sufficient rank out excuse. If it was natural that he should wish that Siam should be strong and proson the mother's side, relatively small. desire to excavate the ruined temples of perous. And in any rectification of frontiers that may take place in these parts it should new Landor." Lord Lyttleton, in the by point Lord Campbell's Life of him has be remembered that, as Mr. Colquhoun has Preface to his Dialogues of the Dead, speaks ruined the interest of the present work. pointed out, the western frontier of Anam of this form of writing as “perhaps one of Nor can it be said that the whitewashing is does not extend beyond longitude 102° 30', the most agreeable methods that can be successful. It is true that Lord Campbell has for any rapprochement of the frontiers of employed of conveying to the mind any been convicted of inaccuracies in quoting Lord Anam and Burmah is now more than ever critical, moral, or political observations." Lyndhurst's speeches, of insufficient knowundesirable.


COUTTS TROTTER. Now this sentence might stand as a very exact ledge of his domestic, and sometimes of his

description of Mr. Traill's dialogues. They political, life. There is no doubt that CampThe New Lucian: being a Series of Dialogues which

fall into these three classes ; and they against Lyndhurst which were not true, and

are full of observations, and observations bell did set down a good many things in malice of the Dead. By H. D. Traill. (Chapman are the observations of an acute and practised extenuated a good many things in his favour. & Hall.)

mind, and they are expressed for the most But to convict Campbell of unfairness is not MR. TRAILL, although he may plead modern part not only agreeably, but with great force to find a verdict of acquittal in Lyndhurst's fashion, and such fellow-culprits as Mr. and brilliance. Of quotable good things in favour. The charge against him is that he Mallock and Mr. R. L. Stevenson, must yet be the ways of epigram and parody there are changed his political creed to suit his interests considered very bold in the title he has chosen scores, and many deserve the still higher or his convenience, and was a self-seeker prefor his book of dialogues. In the first place, praise of being still better in their context. pared to sacrifice his party to himself. he is too ruthlessly ruffling the feelings of the I have noticed," says Lord Westbury," that In either proving or refuting this charge

, new criticism, which likes to regard each the definitions of Churchmen are often as we are met by the initial difficulty that he thing as a thing by itself, and denies the old animated as lay invectives." “Amnesty, himself “upon principle destroyed almost platitude about the repetitions of history; after all," says Lord Beaconsfield, “is only every letter or paper of a confidential nature and then he compels a comparison between the Greek for forgetfulness;" and so on. which could have thrown light upon his the classicised dead and a living modern, in The most interesting and best sustained of official life or his relations with the leaders in which he is as sure to get the worst of it as, the dialogues is that which occupies the place society or politics." We are also informed no doubt, he will get the best when some of honour in the volume-Lord Westbury and that, unlike most men of that day, he never future writer of dialogues or recapturer of Bishop Wilberforce. Of the rest, the political wrote a letter if he could help it. But he rhymes comes forward with “the new Traill." are better than the literary. The points made knew, or had a strong suspicion, that Campbell For Lucian, as Mr. Traill would be the first in the latter are so small or so well worn that was writing his Life, and that it would be a to allow, is not one of those forgotten worthies they scarcely seem worth the pains they have stinging indictment. What is our opinion of whose name may be lightly taken in vain, as evidently cost. This remark does not apply a person who, knowing that charges are though it stood picturesquely for dead dia- to “Plato and Landor,” which is a satire on hanging over his head, or are likely to be logues, as Priscian stands for dead grammar, the neo-Hellenism of the day, which Mr. brought against him, sets to work to destroy or Galen for dead physic. His volumes lie Traill—that is, Landor-puts on a level with his papers ? Surely, that he had something conveniently near the easy-chair, with Aris- an equally popular if more barbarian cult. to conceal. But when he exercises a selection tophanes and Molière and the little edition

Lan. You seem to have often conversed in so doing, and preserves some (but a very of Rabelais," and they are even better with new comers from my country. Have you few) which are, so to speak, evidences to thumbed. To wish, thorefore, to replace ever heard any of them let fall the name of character, and destroys others, the inference them, or even to stand on the same shelf, is Jumbo ?

is that those destroyed were

in some no mean ambition, and one not easily to be " Pla. I do not remember to have done so. way damaging. However, whatever the ingratified; for what criticism is, in its way, so The word is unfamiliar to me. Yet stay; I ference to be drawn, the fact remains that searching and beyond appeal 'as that of the seem to recall it.

Is it not the name of a bar- there are scarcely any papers to help us. dressing-gown and slippers ? And in the

barian god ? case of a new Lucian, whatever ideas he may itself it is the name only of an idol ;” &c.

Lan. Associated with Mumbo it is. By

We have, then, to fall back upon other

evidence. be supposed to have gained during his seven

There are three chief episodes in Lyndteen hundred years' converse with the Shades, This dialogue contains some very choice abuse

hurst's career which Jaid him open to unless there is the old penetrating humour, of the young poets (if such there be), whom the charges specified. The first is when he the old full-throated laughter at gods and Punch symbolised by the name of Mawdle, first got into Parliament by the aid of the men, the old ease and charm and vivacity of and side by side with this a most flattering Tory Government. It is admitted that the style, the verdict must be “ that 'tisn't the testimonial to the author of the Strayed Reveller. Of the political dialogues the best of Watson when indicted for high treason in

cause of his so doing was his successful defence genuine thing." Now it may at once be said that these are

written is “De Morny_Gambetta—Blanqui.” 1817. Now it is singular, to say the least of not the qualities which claim recognition in

Mr. Traill by his title has appealed to it, that Copley, as he then was, should have Mr. Traill's writing. At bottom, Mr. Traill Caesar; and, at that highest tribunal, it is been selected in such a case if he was not is not a humourist; he is far too much of the not constitutional politics, it is not merely known as a Liberal. În those days, as, inmoral and political philosopher for that; his “ a high degree of truth and seriousness," it is deed, in these, no one thought of selecting dialogue is too “ bearded,” as Lucian would not even a faculty for epigram, which can for his counsel in a political, or quasisay; he is earnest, didactic, satirical, witty, but he is not a humourist. And then again, say this , and this only. There remains to political, case a man who was not supposed

or less of the same political Mr. Traill's dialogue wants ease and fluidity praise the extraordinary cleverness of a great colour.

The Hunts

defended by There is too much of the stoccado and passado deal of Mr. Traill's book, and its very con- Brougham and Brandreth by Denman, beand standing on distance, not enough sweet siderable range of interest.


the leading Whigs touches and quick venews of wit, snip-snap,


and advocates of the day. It is true quick and home. The conversation has all

that Copley's leader in Watson's case was the finish of a carefully played game of chess,

Wetherell, that most bigoted of Tories. But and produces the same effect on the bystanders. The Life of Lord Lyndhurst. By Sir Theodore why? Because Wetherell was then breathing In other words, there is hardly a soul among

Martin. (John Murray.)

vengeance on the Government for having all the speakers who can talk. And once WHITEWASHING never has been, and probably passed over his claims to the Solicitor-General

—and this is the most fatal objection to never will be, a very successful process from ship. Nor was this Copley's first appearance Mr. Traill's claim on Lucian's mantle-he the literary point of view. When the white- as a defender of Radicals. He had gained his can be dull. Let anyone read, if he can, the washing of one character has to be done at name by a successful defence of a Luddite on dialogue between Burke and Mr. Horsman, the expense of blackening another, it is still circuit. But, before he would have been emand say if its dulness does not provoke a less likely to be successful. Controversial ployed to defend the Luddite, he must have yawning too deep for tears.

writing is generally dull. Even Milton could been known or reputed as a holder of advanced No; if Mr. Traill wishes for the justifica- not produce a readable work when he answered opinions. The evidence that he was so does țion of a prototype, a better title would an opponent point by point. The attempt to not rest on Campbell alone. Scarlett charged have been the new Lyttleton” or “the whitewash Lord Lyndhurst by refuting point him with it in the House of Commons; there






is a well-known story of Denman calling him reform which the Government proposed. He the author's plan. This is certainly matter a villain when he heard Lyndhurst denying a had promised a Bill for Chancery Reform, but for regret. The author has written largely on similar charge in the House of Lords, where he took good care to throw out that brought folk-lore in general at various times, but his Denman himself subsequently repeated it. in by his opponents. In Opposition he stifled knowledge is derived almost entirely from It is quite true that Lord Lyndhurst always their Charitable Trusts Bill, but himself books, and he seems seldom to think of condenied the charge. But if he had never held carried a similar measure through the Lords firming what others have written by reference himself out as a holder of such opinions, why as Chancellor, though it was dropped in to personal investigation into the modern had he a general reputation among his own the Commons. He took good care to be survivals of customs once popular. contemporaries at the bar for holding them, converted on the subject of the Corn Laws, so The book before us is divided into twentyand why was he employed to defend Radicals as to retain his office; and after the loss of three chapters, in which we have a clear in political cases? A man does not get a office made violent attempts to gain it again summary of the lore pertaining to fairies, character of that kind for nothing. Even if by coalescing with the Protectionists. These witches, animals, insects, birds, fishes, plants, he did not really hold such views, it was are the chief, but not all, the instances which &c. Not only are all the principal passages natural that, as the son of an eminent could be produced of Lyndhurst's political in the Globe edition of Shakspere's works, American painter, they should be imputed to tergiversation. It is true that they may all bearing on these topics, quoted, but in the him; and he must have stood by and not denied be attributed to honest changes of conviction; foot-notes we have concise references to those the impeachment, as he certainly profited by it. but, if so, he is to be congratulated on their authors whose writings illustrate the same. It is difficult, otherwise, to account for the singular seasonableness.

The arrangement of the matter in the chapters ironical cheers which indisputably, from the As to the charge of fighting for his own which treat of animals, plants, birds, and inevidence even of Hansard, accompanied his hand, it may be that he was perfectly guiltless. sects is alphabetical, and for purposes of refermaiden speech in the House on the Alien Bill, But it is singular that, on three several ence the plan must be commended. The Index, when he represented to the House that occasions, he was reasonably suspected of it: too, is fairly full, so that the student as well " they were about to harbour in this country a

in the case already referred to, when the as the general reader will be able to profit by set of persons from the Continent who were Reform Bill was thrown out by the Lords; in it. I have not had much occasion to use the educated in, and who had supported, all the his opposition to the English Municipal Reform Index yet, but have noted one or two errors. horrors of the French Revolution per- Bill on many points in which Peel had sup- “ Beef, 456 " should be 465; “George's Day, sons who did not possess either morality or ported it, and, it was believed, carrying on an 282" should be 286. Such important items principle, and who could not be expected to intrigue with the King to become himself as Bezoar, Bird-fowling (instead of Birdrespect those qualities, in this country: (“Hear' Prime Minister; and, lastly, on the occasion batting), Clap-dish (p.. 284), Ebenon or froin the Opposition)."

when he was attacked by Lord George Hebenon (p. 235), and Striking hands (p. 324) Now, if that “hear” does not represent Bentinck in 1846. He no doubt always might have been profitably inserted. It ironical cheers, it is difficult to know what it denied the imputation of having done so, but seems somewhat unnatural to separate the does mean. Indeed, Sir Theodore Martin again we may ask whether such imputations chapter on Fishes entirely from those on other himself admits that "there were doubtless are ever made without some cause. No one natural history subjects, and place it between some among the Opposition who had been ever accused Lord Althorpe, or Lord. Grey, or those on the Human Body and Sundry Superaccusing him of political apostasy.” Nor is Lord Melbourne of playing for themselves stitions; while that on the Human Body such a charge refuted by a simple contra- and not for their party. If the accusation contains so much medical-lore that it would diction, or by such a statement as “I never was made against both Brougham and Copley, have “ rhymed”. much better with the belonged to any political party till I came we may be quite sure there was something in chapter on Folk-Medicine. Without being into Parliament. 'I never belonged to any their characters and actions to give colour hypercritical, it may be suggested that it is political society," nor by the inability of his to it.

much more in accordance with English tastes opponents, twenty years afterwards, to bring The truth about Lyndhurst seems to be that to have the fish along with the fowl than forward definite facts or utterances in support he was a man with no very strong political having it mixed with the plum-pudding and of their charge. It is a charge which would convictions at all, and therefore, so far as he dessert. never have been made if there had not been a went, a Tory, but that he had not the smallest While we take it for granted that there general opinion in support of it, and such an objection to becoming a Reformer when it may be an ever-widening circle of readers to opinion does not arise without reason.

suited his purpose. Socially, he was a man whom a volume like this will be welcome, it Moreover, the reputation of a turncoat had of great attractiveness, intellectually of great is to be feared that the specialist will be ample ground for support in Lyndhurst's power and ability, personally of great stateli- disappointed if he opens it in the hope of behaviour after he was in Parliament. Heness and dignity. He liked to be, and was, finding the clue to the interpretation of a made several speeches in both Houses against well with all the world. But he was a most disputed passage, or in the expectation that Catholic Emancipation. Though he suc- mischievous politician, both in practice and the obscurity of some particular word or corded Eldon as Chancellor because Eldon principle. He, more than anyone else, con- phrase will be illuminated by fresh flashes of would not sit in a Cabinet in which that was tributed to hinder necessary changes, and he light. Some of the latest writers on the open question, yet as late as 1828 he made did more than any other politician of the day various branches of Shaksperiatı or general s strong speech against it. But the very next to make politics dishonest by the example folk-lore are left entirely unnoticed. It is year he supported it, and his only defence for of his factious opposition and opportune con- disappointing, for example, to find that the his change of front was that he had "since versions.

ARTHUR F. LEACH. chapter on Folk-Medicine contains not one been prosecuting his studies." Again, he was

reference to Mr. Black's interesting and useful prepared, as Chancellor, to propose a Reform

volume on this subject, published by the FolkMl, though when Lord Grey's Bill came

Lore Society early in 1883, and reviewed in belore the Lords he was one of its bitterest Folk-lore of Shakespeare... By Rev. T. F. the ACADEMY last August. Possibly in this opponents. After having thrown that Bill Thistleton Dyer. (Griffith & Farran.)

case Mr. Dyer had finished his work before out, he was quite prepared to come into Ir is somewhat difficult to estimate the real Mr. Black's volume appeared, as I find his stice again to pass one of the same kind, value of a work like this. Mr. Dyer's volume brief Preface is dated « August 1883." But, and would have done so, in all probability, is essentially a compilation, and in its produc- in the chapter on plants, while the Rev. H. N. hsuld not Peel refused to be a party to tion he has had recourse to most of the leading Ellacombe's work on The Plant Lore of roche proceeding. He was the person authorities on Shaksperian lore. As a com- Shakespeare is the great authority, and Dr. plected for the carrying out of that pilation it will undoubtedly find favour with Prior's Popular Names of British Plants is more Esgraceful transaction—the Deceased Wife's many who are not able to avail themselves of than once referred to, we hear nothing of Kister Marriage Bill. Finding that the the works of specialists. On the other hand, the valuable work on plant-names by Messrs. Welbourne Ministry were inclined to drop though I have read every word between the Britten and Holland, nor is Mr. Leo H. the Prisoner's Counsel Bill he took it in "lids” of this book, I have failed to find one Grindon's Shakspere Flora named. These band and got it passed, though he had new suggestion or one original thought. In works would have helped the author over opposed such a Bill as Attorney-General, and fact, such a thing as originality in the hand- more than one difficulty had they been conTehemently criticised all the measures of legal ling of crucial passages seems to be foreign to sulted. So, again, in the chapters on animals,

6. Ben

240 ;

birds, insects, and fishes, one could have the fact, though he names no county in Our space is exhausted ; and, as it is imwished that Miss Phipson's admirable work on which the word lives. Respecting Shrove- possible to take up all the points of interest The Animal-Lore of Shakspeare's Time had tide football matches (p. 383), it is interest- in a work like this, we may assure the reader been at hand. If, however, Mr. Dyer's volume ing to note that a game was played in the who wants a general compendium of Shakhas been as slow in its progress through the streets of Nuneaton only last year, when the sperian folk-lore that he will be safe if he press as some other volumes of a similar shops were closed and subscriptions collected procures Mr. Dyer's book. nature, he may justly plead that his work from the townsfolk to repair any damage

HILDERIC FRIEND. was finished before these appeared. One that might be done to property. Fairies other general remark before passing to notice of old wore green dresses (p. 16), which The Secret Service of the Confederate States a few particular cases. The reader is fre- may account for the fact, referred to in

in Europe. By James D. Bulloch. In quently very much confused, in turning to the recent numbers of Notes and Queries, that

2 vols. (Bentley.) foot-notes, on finding that many of the figures green was not formerly regarded as a fashionhave fallen out or been misplaced. This is able or popular colour for articles of dress. Tim enough has elapsed for the waves of especially noticeable in the early chapters, Prof. Skeat does not share our author's doubts political strife, which raged so fiercely round which seem, in various ways, to betoken lack (p. 39) respecting the well-known word the greatest civil war that our century has of careful revision. Such a phrase as "aroint,” but tells us we must put it down yet witnessed, to have subsided; yet we must Jonson ... describes to come (p. 5), is cer- to the credit of our Scandinavian neighbours. still wait on for an impartial history of the tainly awkward ; and it is curious to read that Mr. Dyer would have done well to have struggle. Meanwhile, the deeds of the rival "according to one theory, the old tree (Herne's followed the recognised authorities in matters fleets and armies, and the actions which they Oak] was blown down, August 21, 1863." of etymology in preference to quoting the fought, are being chronicled, and the past So we could wish for a more grammatical words of authorities on Shakspere's works year has brought a goodly addition to what structure than that displayed in the following alone. Dyce, Steevens, and others have their we may term the literature militant of the sentence (p. 227): "The canker rose referred own special field as interpreters and com- period. The series of handy little duodecimos to by Shakespeare is the wild dog-rose, a name mentators, but they are often weak in other published by Messrs. Scribner detail the chief occasionally applied to the common red poppy.” matters.

events of the war, naval and military, as Typographical errors are far too frequent: “ According to an erroneous notion formerly two goodly sized volumes now under notice

viewed from the Northern side, while the The word "remarks” is lost on p. 41; current, it was supposed that the air, and not form a contribution from the Southern point a whole line bas disappeared from p. the earth, drizzled dew—a notion referred to in on p. 126 we read of Browne's Romeo and Juliet' (üi. 5):

of view. "British Pastorals ;” sometimes we have

This book is written, the author tells us,

When the sun sets, the air doth drizzle dew;' “Lucrece,” at other times " Lucreece,” and and in 'King John'(ü. 1):

from a sense of duty, to furnish a truthful Spenser” is sometimes called “ Spencer"

account of the circumstances under which

* Before the dew of evening fall!" (p. 86). (e.g., p. 224). Prof. Skeat will not probably

the fleet of "commerce-destroyers" were

"And so, too, in the Rape of Lucreece': assent to " barley being merely the beer

built and equipped for the Confederate States. · But as the earth doth weep, the sun being set'" plant” (p. 200), nor can I admit that Love-in

The main narrative is drawn up from original

(p. 60). Idleness is more accurately written Love-in-Idle

papers in the author's possession and from when standing for one of the many nick- Is it quite fair to say that Shakspere and his intimate personal knowledge; and internames of the pansy or heart's-ease a term others were labouring under a delusion? In woven with it are brief descriptions of the said to be still used in Warwickshire” (p. 215). the Bible we read of the dew falling, and it is cruises of the various vessels and their tragic I have heard Love-in-idlesse, and Love-in- a fact that in the East "the heavy dews of or ill-starred ends, which are chiefly taken idleness, but not Love-in-idle-one of Dr. summer, which modify the climate so remark- from works already published. A summary Prior's'" idle” fancies. On p. 143 we have ably, differ from ordinary dew in the manner of the celebrated controversy which arose out the curious misprint

of their deposition, being in great part precipi- of the recognition of the “insurgents” “The flower that like's thy face, pale primrose.”: being deposited on the earth” (“Observations closes the work, with such frequent references

tated in the air in the form of mist before ligerents and ended with the Geneva Award Let us now glance for a moment at a few of on the Climate of Jerusalem " in the Quarterly and quotations from the Blue-Books and like the questions discussed in Mr. Dyer's volume. Report of the Palestine Exploration Fund for documents that we may be perdoned for sug. The later chapters do not call for special January 1883). This will in_great measure gesting that the author, as a naval officer

, notice, although it may be remarked that it is account for the language of Holy Writ, and has forgotten our sailor-hero Blake's advice hardly sufficient to say of the curfew bell for the not exactly " erroneous" idea so long not to meddle with politics. The losses in: (p. 489) that it “is still rung in some of our maintained. We are told (p. 158) that at flicted by these cruisers on the United States old country_villageswhen such towns and Chetwode, near Buckingham, an old custom merchant navy are full of warning to 15 cities as "Exeter, Buckingham, Towcester, of levying a tax on the cattle found on the showing the case with which a few swift Newton Abbot, Bicester, Hastings, and many estate during certain days is still kept up. vessels can command the highways of com. others still keep its tongue going; and in some This is scarcely correct. The estate has now merce at will by stationing themselves “ it instances, as at Bicester, for example, there are passed out of the hands of the Chetwodes, and the forks of the road." peculiarly interesting customs connected there- the “Rhyne Toll" is, in consequence, a thing Capt. Bulloch (whose name appears so ofter with. I recently heard the proverb (p. 443) of the past. On the other hand, our author in official and other accounts as Bullock) a “While the grass grows the steed starves often uses the past tense, in speaking of folk- the outbreak of war was a retired officer o very aptly employed by a Devonian. “He lore, where the present would be equally the United States Navy, and in privat laid out his money in such a way that it will correct. Thus in Sussex they still burn or employ. He was immediately sent to Europ for years bring in no return. Why not put it steep senna leaves and inhale the smoke or by the Confederate statesmen as their chie out for immediate profits, and not“ starve the vapour in order to kill the worm which is naval representative, to organise a naval fore horse while the grass is growing'?” said my there said to cause toothache ; in Devonshire for the South, where resources for shipbuild friend. In connexion with the chapter on you are still supposed to lose a drop of blood ing and the manufacture of war materie punishments, we may mention that a little every time a sigh is given ; while in South were wholly wanting. He superintended the book on Punishments in the Olden Time, by Wales a friend of mine frequently makes up building of cruisers in England and Frane Mr. Andrews, might have been consulted and sells “love philtres to a maiden" (p. during the war, and twice ran the blockade and referred to. In Sussex, our farming folk 248). In Kent a peascod with nine peas is on the first occasion the following drol still employ the term “ bilboes” (p. 408) laid, not on the lintel (p. 223), but on the incident occurred, though at the time it mig! -a kind of stock or fetters—when speaking door itself, and he who enters without swing. have proved hazardous. When lying-to in

wooden pole fixed to a frame for ing it down is the favoured suitor. I strongly dense fog off Warsaw Sound, 'to catch securing the heads of cattle to be milked, suspect this was the old custom, but that glimpse of land, they heard or of sheep that are to be confined. Parish writers mistook the meaning of the words "a shrill

, prolonged, quavering shriek : does not notice this in his Sussex Glossary, "over the door.” For what could be divined None of us could conceive what it was, but but I find that Halliwell has a reference to by the peascod merely lying on the lintel? thought it as loud and as piercing as a steam

as bel



whistle, and that it must have been heard by the art of detecting fallacies requires a pre- unsupported by, what is solid. Mill, while any blockader within five miles of us. In a paratory analysis which is not without with creative ardour he added storey to moment the sound was repeated, but we were theoretical interest.

storey, may seem to have bestowed too rare a prepared, and it was this time accompanied by

In Formal Logic it would be too much to glance upon the “dark foundations deep.” A a flapping and rustling noise from a hencoop expect any theorem both new and important. just general view, combining speculative doubt in the gangway. It's the cock that came on Our author's remarks have as much freshness with scientific method, is presented by Mr. board at Bermuda,' said someone."

as the exhausted subject allows. On the Sidgwick. He employs the inductive methods An unhappy fowl at once paid the penalty, vexed question, what is the import of a pro- as guides and guards, though he is aware that but it was the wrong one, and another crow position, he accepts none of the standard "none of these is, except in an ideal sense, set the whole roost cackling.

views which Mr. Venn distinguishes at the completely satisfactory." At last the offending bird was caught.

He outset of his Symbolic Logio. Mr. Sidgwick's “Between mere guesses, hypotheses, theories, died game, and made a fierce struggle for life; view is rather one which Mr. Venn has placed empirical laws, and laws of nature, there are but Freemantle managed to catch him with a among the attempts to interpret terms in- only continuous differences of degree in cerfirm grip by the neck, and, fetching a full arm- tensively instead of extensively; that (in Mr. tainty according to the nature and number of swing, as it heaving a twelve-pound lead, the Venn's words) “we are to 'attach' (or

some- the tests they have stood, and the duration of and we were again favoured with a profound thing equivalent to this]” the group of their past invulnerability stillness."

attributes connoted by the predicate to the blance in uncertainty between a fanciful guess Mr. Jefferson Davis, in his recent Rise and group connoted by the subject, without, the difference in degree of certainty ; but the Fall of the Confederate Government, has paid however, in general regarding

the former as fact cannot safely be hidden that the resemCapt. Bulloch a worthy meed of praise.

He any part of the essence or intension of the blance exists. The distinction often made be

latter. Mr. Venn does not "attach” any tween valid inductions and 'merely empirical speaks of him as

meaning to this doctrine. It seems, however, laws' is then, strictly speaking, not absolute, * an officer of the old navy, of high ability as a seaman, and of an integrity that stood the substantially identical with Mill's account of though roughly useful; the line between them test under which a less stern character might the assertion made by a proposition—that “the will not bear close inspection.” have given way;

In his office he disbursed latter set of attributes (those of the predicate] The theoretical portion of the book is millions ; and, when there was no one to whom constantly accompany the former set" (those subordinated to the practical object, the he could be required to render an account, paid of the subject); ...“that one phenomenon detection of fallacies. One of the most sucout the last shilling in his hands, and confronted always accompanies another phenomenon "cessful modes of procedure, which might have poverty without prospect of other reward than (Mill's Logie, i., chap. v., sect. iv.). Mr. been employed more largely with advantage, that which he might find in a clear conscience.” Šidgwick employs an appropriate symbol to is the discussion of real examples. Mr. SidgA perusal of these volumes will fully bear denote this relation between the two terms wick attaches great weight to the process out this splendid testimony, and will doubt that the former never is presented without, termed "reduction to absurdity," or pushing less, to most readers, add a feeling of true or, in the writer's happy phrase, “indioates "' the argument home. In his classification of admiration for the brave and energetic officer, the latter.

fallacies, and, indeed, generally in his employwhose straightforward simplicity in conduct- There is something very fascinating in the ment of logical terms, he seems to depart ing matters of the most confidential and chaste simplicity of Mr. Sidgwick's symbol somewhat needlessly from established use. delicate nature is admirable, and whose reti- ism. It has not the florid exuberance of the The difficulty of referring a given fallacy to CENCE as to his own personal part in the systems which affect a mathematical character. a definite class is well compared by him to the events narrated is as much a matter of wonder But it may have in greater perfection than interpretation of motives. His candid ad. as his freedom from narrow partisan bitterness those systems an essential feature of applied mission of the weakness of logic recommends of feeling. His circumspectness, too, in all mathematics, a certain sympathetic likeness his modest appreciation of her power. negotiations is striking. between the sign and the thing signified.

“There is an artificial rigidity about all definiWe find much keen and careful criticism The symbol of indication is contrasted with tion, a false simplicity about analysis, a standof the parts played by the Governments of the symbol of " exceptive denial,” importing ing failure in all attempts to cram the universe the United States and Great Britain, and of that the subject is sometimes presented with into labelled nut-shells. those of the other European States concerned out the predicate. Both symbols equally obey "No book in logic can be used as a vade in the vexed questions of belligerent rights the beautiful law of counter indication, mecum--carried in the pocket and consulted and the duties of neutrals; but the sym- which our author has copied from Mr. Maccoll. when in doubt whether to take a cab or not

. pathetic handling of the points at issue can The operation comprises contraposition in the practice, is to help us to know the dangers of cause offence to none even of those whose limited sense of that term, together with a uncriticised belief. positions made them prominent actors on the cognate unnamed process which the editor of “The power of seeing finer shades of differFederal side. There is a delightful absence Mind has well explained. The operation ence is, on the whole, the best and most lasting of American mannerisms, and the narrative might be illustrated (as Mr. Maccoll suggests) result of logical training, and affords most help has an easy flow, carrying the reader's interest by the transposition of the members of an in the rapid detection of fallacy." with it. The work undoubtedly contains equation ; or, better perhaps-as the relation It is probable that this good and lasting much that will ever be of great value alike between the terms of a proposition is not of result will be produced by the practical logic to the politician and the historian, to the the nature of an equation, not convertible- of Mr. Sidgwick. He offers an antidote, not international lawyer and the naval officer, the by an inequation. For example, if x is greater too compressed and quintessential for the ale matter of regret being the absence of an than y, then minus y is greater than minus x. vulgar palate, against popular errors, and in index, which is an indispensable adjunct to It will be observed that the power of the two particular against the sophistry which so a book such as this, replete with facts and symbols is greatly increased by the use of easily besets reasonings in social science. The unes of historical mark, and demanding negative terms, such as not—S, which some students of Mr. Sidgwick will not be much careful attention and study.

might prefer to designate by a minus sign pre- affected by Mr. George. GEORGE F. HOOPER. fixed or superposed. In view of this exten

F. Y. EDGEWORTH. sion it may be doubted whether there is any Pollacies : a View of Logic from the Practical between the terms.

need of a third symbol to express“ difference" Side. By Alfred Sidgwick. " Inter- The prettiness of Formal Logic has not The Canon's Ward. By James Payn. (Chatto national Scientific Series." (Kegan Paul, seduced Mr. Sidgwick from the logic of reality & Windus.) Trench, & Co.)

. A. Stogwick addresses the general reader tion of inductive philosophy as founded by Susan Drummond. By Mrs. J. H. Riddell.

(Bentley.) rather than the trained logician. His mission Hume and built up by Mill. Hume hardly a not to the intellectually whole, but to them extended his view beyond the foundation, con-Only Yesterday. By William Marshall. that are in need of a physician. He is a templating that marvellous substructure which

(Hurst & Blackett.) practitioner whose speciality is diagnosis. The has been compared to the piles upon which the The Touch of Fate. By Mrs. George Posnett. fractitioner cannot dispense with anatomy; city of Amsterdam rests-supporting, though (J. & R. Maxwell.),


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