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At a book sale at Glasgow last week the printing, by arrangement with the English

ORIGINAL VERSE. following prices were obtained :-Burns's MS. proprietors, American editions of the Fortof Holy Willie's Prayer,” £40; Ruskin's nightly, Nineteenth Century, and Contemporary Ir light should strike through every darkened place,

LIGHT AND LOVE. Modern Painters, £20 10s. ; Hamerton's Etching to appear simultaneously with their issue in and Etchers, £19 5s.; Beckford's Vathek, £11; England. The price for a single number will How many a deed of darkness and of shame Douglas's Baronage, £11 5s.; the first edition be forty cents (1s. 8d.), and the annual sub- | Would cease, arrested by its gentle grace, of Shelley's Queen Mab, £16 16s.; of Milton's scription for all three will be only twelve

And striving virtue rise, unscathed by blame! Paradise Lost, £11; of Lamb's Tales from dollars (£2 8s.). The corresponding price in the miner catch the metal's lurking trace,

The prisoner in his cell new hopes would frame, Shakespeare, £11; of Byron's Hours of Idleness, England is £4 10s.

The sage would grasp the ills that harm our race, £10 10s.; of Dickens's Sketches by Boz, #7 12s.6d.; of Tennyson's Poems (1830), business is at Boston, are the publishers of a

MESSRS. OSGOOD, whose principal place of And unknown heroes leap to sudden fame.

If love but one short hour had perfect sway, 15 10s.; of Campbell's Pleasures of Hope, sort of official account of the State of New How many a rankling sore its touch would heal, £3 25. 6d. ; Don Quixote with Smirke's illustra- York, which is to be brought out with unusual How many a misconception pass away; tions, £9; a perfect copy of The Day, 65; sumptuousness. The work will consist of three What sympathies would wake, what feuds

decay, the first Edinburgh edition of Burns, £4; volumes quarto, illustrated with 487 full-page If perfect sove might reign but one short day! twenty of Collier's Tracts, £10 ; Bewick’s Birds, plates, and bound in morocco, with satin lining, £4 175, 6d. &c. The edition will be limited to 500 copies,

WALTER W. SKEAT. At the annual meeting of the Faculty of at the price of 400 dollars each (£80). A Advocates held last week, the Report of the sketch of the history of the State will be given

MAGAZINES AND REVIEJVS. Keeper of the library was submitted. The total from the beginning of the colonial period to the number of separate pieces received during 1883 present time; also a geological survey. But THE current number of Mind contains one or was 21,269, being an increase of 2,558 on the the main object of the work is to give an ex- two articles of exceptional interest. Perhaps previous year. The grand total was thus haustive description of the various public and the most original one is that entitled “On classified : -volumes, through London agent seini-public institutions—the legislature, judi- Some Omissions of Introspective Psychology,' 4,800, direct from publishers 460, by purchase cial bench, canals, railroads, banks, schools, by Prof. W. James. The writer charges or presentation 159; pamphlets, 2,453 ; parts agriculture, &c. The illustrations will be partly psychologists generally with looking at mind of periodicals, 10,703 ; pieces of music, 2,236 ; of buildings and scenery (as to which we may as though it were made up of a series of maps, 306. The number of volumes issued to call to mind that New York includes not only rounded-off, discontinuous “states,” ideas, &c., readers was 85,621 ; of MSS., 558. The ex- the Adirondacks, but also one side of Niagara), whereas in reality it is a continuous stream, penditure on binding was £242. The chief partly portraits. The full title of the work is in which, besides those “substantive parts work undertaken during the year was the The Public Service of the State of New York. which arrest special attention, are numerous testing of the books on the shelves by the Catalogue, and the completion of a duplicate

THE New York Critic says:

“transitive parts." These last are important as

determining the peculiar colourings of feeling copy of the MS. slip catalogue of accessions. "The past year has not been marked by the attaching to the substantive parts. The same

publication of many important new books . Among the additions to the Philadelphia while the list of new editions of old books has its fugitive psychical antecedents and accompani

thought is a different mental state according to public library during the past six months we been larger than usual. The books that have notice a complete set of the Rolls series; the sold the best in the shops have been the very is a different

impression in different tunes. The

ments, just as one and the same musical note publications of the Early-English Text and the cheap and the very dear.” New Shakspere Societies ; the Catalogue of the We fancy that the experience of the trade in writer seeks to give a philosophical turn to this

psychological conception by extending Mr. Bodleian Library; and a copy of the first edition England is to the same effect.

Spencer's idea of “feelings of relation.” “It is of Sir W. Stirling Maxwell's Don John of dustria.

EVANGELINUS APOSTOLIDES SOPHOCLES, Pro- a peculiarity of the stream [of consciousness]

fessor of Greek at Harvard, who died on that its several parts are susceptible of becoming The Nation records an amusing incident at December 17, was in many respects a remark- objects for each other.” This truth, according a book sale at New York. The owner of the able man. Born in Thessaly, at a village on

to the author, does away with the need of supcollection gave 5,000 dollars (£1,000), to ten the slope of Mount Pelion, in about the year posing, as the late Prof. Green supposed, that several public libraries to be spent at the sale, 1807, he was educated in the monastery on an active mental principle, outside the feelings The natural result was that the libraries bid Mount Sinai; he migrated to America in 1829, themselves, somehow brings them together-3 against one another, and many of the books and was connected with Harvard as tutor and supposition which is beset with difficulties. The were run up to nearly double their market price. professor since 1842. His chief published works

same truth is also ingeniously applied to the The chief benefit, therefore, would seem to have

are a Greek Grammar (1838), a Grammar of vexed question of Nominalism and Consccrued to the auctioneer.

Romaic (1842), and a Greek" Lexicon of the ceptualism. What a general name calls up in THE Bibliothèque nationale has recently made Roman and Byzantine periods (1870). The the mind, says Prof. James, is an image (ina statistical inventory of its contents. Of printed simple nature of the man, and the eccentricity dividual or generic) which is felt to be representabooks it contains 2,500,000; of MSS., 92,000; of his habits, are well described in an article in tive of many others. The article is written in a

telling and even a brilliant style, and cannot of medals and coins, 144,000; of prints, &c., the Nation of January 3.

fail to attract the notice of all concerned in more than two millions, kept in 14,500 volumes A Boston paper publishes an account of the

psychology Another able article is and 4,000 portfolios; in the “ Galerie de la first draft of Longfellow's “Excelsior,” which Reserve” are preserved 80,000 of the most is preserved in the library of Harvard College. A. J. Balfour. The essayist begins by ob

Green's Metaphysics of Knowledge," by Mr. precious volumes; the total number of readers Among the rejected lines we note.“ A youth serving that Prof. Green is the first of that in 1883 was 70,000, as compared with only who bore a pearl of price ” and “ A tear was in band of English writers which he somewhat 24,000 fifteen years earlier. his pale blue eye.”

confusingly calls the Neo-Kantians who has At the end of December a meeting was held left the exposition and criticism of other

at Columbia College of professors of modern thinkers' ideas and undertaken a systematic AMERICAN JOTTINGS.

languages with the view of founding a national presentment of his own. The argunent of the The subject of international copyright is again association of modern philology (including article, which illustrates the author's wellbeing taken up in America, from which country English) in American colleges and universities. known ability in seizing central or fundamental the initiative must, of course, come.

Mr. Dors- | A resolution was passed that the “primary | ideas and dealing directly with them, aims at heimer, of New York, has introduced a Bill aims of instruction in the modern languages showing that the new attempt to eliminate into the House of Representatives providing should be literary culture, philological scholar- Kant's Things-in-themselves," and to resolve that, when any foreign Government shall accord ship, and linguistic discipline, but that oral the whole of experience into the work of the to American authors the same rights that native practice is desirable as an auxiliary.”

mind, is so far a failure, and is considerably authors enjoy, the Executive of the United A NEW YORK printer boasts to have turned sistencies. Perhaps the most successful part of

discredited by a number of fundamental inconStates may, by proclamation, extend to the out a translation of Sarah Barnum within forty: what is throughout a forcible argument is the authors of that foreign Government the benefit eight hours after a single copy of the French refutation of Green's theory that knowledge (in of the American law, restricted, however, to a original was received in America. An American the individual consciousness) is out of time. term of twenty-five (instead of forty-two) years. edition of the Letters of Mrs. Carlyle was pro- The critic seems perfectly right in finding in Nothing is said about the publishers' point of duced last year by the same firm ready for sale | Green a deep vein of mysticism, and his closing view-i.l., domestic manufacture; but the within four days. Nation suggests that that may well be left to

remarks on the affinity of Green's thought to the operation of the ordinary tariff.

THE Boston Literary World for December 29 Berkeley's are particularly happy. What may

contains a “General Survey of the World's be called the Kantian tendency in philosophy is The English Publishing Company has been Literature in 1883,” extending to eighteen severely dealt with in this number. In addition incorporated at New York for the purpose of ! closely printed pages.

to the two articles just referred to, Mr. Shad

on

- The

worth H. Hodgson's address before the Edin- Pormer en te bestudeerdere certes blancos attiques a spare to give to the work of another. They burgh University Philosophical Society on“ The STENGEL, K. v. Die Organisation der preussischen

were entrusted to the Royal Society for safe Metaphysical Method in Philosophy" handles Verwaltung nach den neuen Reformgesetzen. keeping. the method of Kant and his followers some

Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot. 12 M.
TEN BRINK, J. Litterarische schetsen en kritieken,

Now, for some years past a strange and not what roughly. The writer pleads this time with Deel 5. Leiden: Sijthoff. 1 fl. 50 c.

very clearly expressed MS. has been travelling unexpected force and vivacity of manner for Tissot, V. L'Allemagne amoureuse. Paris : Dentu. about England from hand to hand. It relates the plan of setting out in philosophic enquiry ZAMBELIOZ. Les Mariages crétois. [Texte en grec

to the connexion between the laws of mental with an analytical inspection of experience from moderne.] Paris : Maisonneuve. 12 fr.

La Joie de Vivre.

development and those of vegetable growth, and within, instead of trying to get outside of it and Zola, E.

Paris: Charpentier. is the work of a gentleman named Benjamin

3 fr. 50 c. deduce it from certain assumptions. A note

Betts, who holds some post in the Government

THEOLOGY. worthy exception to the general anti-Kantian

Survey Office, Auckland. Mr. Betts emigrated strain of this number of Mindis to be found in a DE KOE, S. S. De conjecturaal-critiek en het naar

Johannes. Kemink & Zoon. 3 f. 75 c.

so young and has lived so much alone that he is careful essay by Mr. J. S. Haldane on “Life and

unable to make himself intelligible or to see Mechanism,” which seeks to demonstrate the

HISTORY.

why others cannot understand him; but I know inadequacy of the category of causation in the BONVALOT, E. Le Tiers Etat d'après la Charte de of no one who has read much of the MS. without region of organic phenomena, and the necessity DE LA GRAVIERE, Surien. Les Campagnes d'Alexandre. becoming convinced that he has something of of calling in that of “ reciprocity.” The reader La Conquête de l'Inde et le Voyage de Néarque. value to teach, nor can anyone examine his will note with pleasure the addition of a section

Paris : Plon. 4 fr.

FLAMMERMONT, J. Le Chancelier Maupeon et les Par- diagrams without perceiving that he has caught devoted to Research along with Discussion. lements. Paris : Picard. 12 fr.

some true secret of growth-laws. I am not Two excellent contributions to psychological FRIESCHE stadrechten. Uitg. d. A. Telting. The sufficiently versed in the higher mathematics

Hague: Nijhoff. 98. investigation are supplied in the present number LOEWENFELD, R. Lukasz Gornicki. Sein Leben u.

either to give Mr. Betts the help which he needs --one on “Bilateral Asymmetry of Function,” by seine Werke. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte d. Hu- in bringing his philosophy into harmony with two workers in the Psycho-physical Laboratory in Lucmanismus in Histoire des Institutions monarchiques accepted methods of study, or to read my husthe Johns Hopkins University, and one on de la France sous les premiers Capétiens (987-1180). band's later Mss. But I know enough of the Stages of Hypnotism,” by Mr. E. Gurney. The

nature of my husband's investigations to venture juxtaposition of the work of an organised band MIDDELEEUWSCHE, rechtsbronnen der stad Utrecht.

to predict that a comparison of the two sets of of investigators in America and of an isolated MOLLERUP, W. Dänemark's Beziehungen zu Livland MS. would throw light on both. individual in England naturally suggests the

vom Verkauf Estland's bis zur Auflösung d.

Ordensstaats (1346-1561). Berlin: Siemenroth. 3 M. 60 Pf.

My object in making this communication is question, Why cannot we have a psycho-physi- URKUNDENBUCH der evangelischen Landeskirche A. B. not only to call attention to a lonely thinker cal laboratory in this country? Nothing would in Siebenbürgen. 2. Thl. Hermannstadt: Michaelis. struggling against difficulties, of the nature and tend so much to raise the position of psychology

4 M. 80 Pf.

extent of which he himself is hardly aware, in the world of science, and, we may add, to

PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY.

and to tell my husband's followers of a clue by improve the value of such a record of scientific BRETFELD: H. v. Das Versuchswesen auf dem Gebiete which they may find their way to the meaning progress as Mind aims at becoming. Perhaps

der Pflanzenphysiologie m. Bezug auf die Land of his MSŠ. I wish also to protest beforeland the University of Cambridge may soon see its DARWIN, Charles, u seine Lehre. Aphorismen. gesam- against any possible annoyance 'to Mr. Betts way, in addition to its other recent improve

melt aus Darwin's eigenen Schriften u. Werken seiner

or the non-mathematical students of his pluil

Vorgänger u. Zeitgenossen. Leipzig: Thomas. ments, to the establishment of such a scientific

3 M. 60 Pf.

osophy, should they happen inadvertently to workshop, under, let us say, the able conduct of DETMER, W. Pflanzenphysiologische Untersuchungen bring forward as original any fragment of Mr. James Ward.

üb. Fermentbildung 4., fermentative Processe. truth which is already expressed in matheLe Livre for January contains but two articles FROMMANN, C. Untersuchungen üh; Struktur, Lebens- matical language in my husband's published

erscheinungen u. Reaktionen thierischer u. pflanz- works. Mr. Betts is not a mathematician ; he in its first part. Both are good; and it would licher Zellen. Jena : Fischer. 9 M. probably always be wise for M. Uzanne, con

LIEBMANN, 0. Die Klimax der Theorieen. Strass- sees nature as no mathematician can (for “ on a

burg: Trübner. 2 M. 50 Pf. sidering the increasing pressure of his "con- LUDWIG FERDINAND PRINZ V. BAYERN, zur Anatomie

les défauts de ses qualités”). The two thinkers temporary” matter, to make few and good the der Zunge. Eine vergleichend anatomische Studie.

are rather necessary complements to each other rule of his retrospective papers. The first SPINOZA, Bened. de. Opera. Recogn. J. v. Vloten et generous, so disinterested, so devoted to the

than possible rivals; and, between two men 80 (signed " Antoine Fureteur,” which may or may J. P. N. Land. Vol. II. The Hague: Nijhoff. £1. not be a pseudonym) is a really capital cento of STAUDINGER, F. Noumena. Die transcendentalen" cause of Truth, no rivalry is conceivable.

Grundgedanken u Widerlegung d. Idealextracts from old étrennes books, with an

MARY BOOLE. ismus Darmstadt: Brill. 4M. agreeable frontispiece. The second is an article VOECHTING, H. Veh. Orzanbildung im Pflanzenreich. on Lamennais, by M. E. Forgues, dealing WEISMANN, A.

2. Thl. Bonn: Strauss. 8 M.

Ueb. Leben u. Tod. Eine biolog. A SIXTEENTH-CENTURY PLAN OF CARTAGENA. chiefly with its subject's taste in books, his Untersuchg. Jena: Fischer. 2 M. range of reading, and so forth. This has some WOELFLER, A. Ueb. die Entwickelung u. den Bau d.

Admiralty, Whitehall: Jan. 14, 1881. Kropfes. Berlin: Hirschwald. 22 M. letters of interest and a full-page portrait after

A very interesting plan of Cartagena at the Ary Scheffer, which is very characteristic. It

PHILOLOGY, ETC.

time of its capture by Sir Francis Drake in 1586 would have been curious to contrast it—its date FATH, F., Did Lieder d. Castellans v. Coucy nach has been found here among a collection of MS.

sämn is 1848—with a representation of the great Abbé

Handschriften kritisch bearb. [eidelberg: Weiss. 1 M. 80 Pf.

plans and maps of the West Indies dating, in his tonsured condition,

FRITZE, L. Pantschatantra. Aus dem Sanskrit neu with this exception, from the eighteenth

übers. Leipzig: Schulze. GM. GOLDZIHER, J. Die Zahiriten, ihr Lehrsystem u. ihre century; I do not think it can have been de

Geschichte. Beitrag zur Geschichte der muham- scribed before; and, in order to ascertain whether SELECTED FOREIGN BOOKS.

medan. Theologie. Leipzig : Schulze. 12 M. this is correct, the following brief description is

LUFBKE, H. Observationes criticae in historiam veteris
GENERAL LITERATURE.
Graecorum comoediae. Berlin : Mayer & Müller.

subjoined: BARDT, F. Der Bracteatenfund v. Gross-Briesen. 1 M. 20 Pr.

The plan is painted on vellum which originBerlin : Weyl. 2 M. 50 Pf.

MINHÂDJ AT-TÀLIBÎN. Le Guide des zelés croyants. ally must have been quite thirty-six inches BAZIRE, E. Manet. Paris : Quantin. 10 fr.

P.P. L. M. C. van den Berg. T. II. The Hague: by twenty-five inches, but the right side has BLOWITZ, M. de. Une Course à Constantinople. Paris: Nijhoff. 168. Plon. 3 fr. 50 c.

STEPHANS, Meister, Schachbuch. Ein mittelnieder- been cut and rounded somewhat, though not BOISGOBEY, F. du. Margot la Balafrée. Paris : Plon. deutsches Gedicht d. 14. Jahrh. Dorpat. 3 M.

in any way spoiling the plan itself. At the 6 fr. DU BOIS-REYMOND, E. Friedrich II in englischen

top is a blue scroll containing the word Urtheilen. Darwin u Kopernicus. Die Humboldt

CORRESPONDENCE. Denkmäler vor der Berliner Universität. 3 Reden.

Cartagena” in gold letters, while at the Leipzig: Veit. 2 M.

bottom are two cartouches, that on the left EUDEL, P. L'Hôtel Dronot et la Curiosité en 1893. THE LATE PROF. BOOLE AND MR. BENJAMIN green, with gilt scroll-work-

Paris : Charpentier. 3 fr. 50 c.
FERRAND, J. Les Pays libres : leur Organisation et

“ This Towne of Cartagena was taken the iith of leur Education d'après la Législation comparée.

103 Seymour Place. Bryanston Square :

februarie 1586 by the nomber of 900 men under Paris : Cotillon. 3 fr. 60 c. FLAUBERT, G., Lettres de, à George Sand. Paris : Will you allow me to make in the ACADEMY the rest of the principale officers, in the wTowne

the Conduction of Capten Christopher Carleill and Charpentier. 3 fr. 50 c. FRAGMENTE aus deutschen Lustspielen gesammelt u. a statement which may be of interest to some

we gott some 80 peeces of Brasse Ordinnaunce." mit Erläuterungen versi-hen v. G. D. Deelman. students of philosophy ?

Amsterdam: Sikken. 1 fl. 50 e
HOFFMANN, P. Studien zu Leon Battista Albertis zehn

My husband, the late Prof. Boole, often told These words are in gold letters. The cartouche Büchern. De re aedificatoria. Leipzig: Hinrichs. me that the perception of a connexion between on the right is coloured pink, and has in ink, LAMBERT, A. Madonna di San Biagio près Montepul- logic and mathematics had come, as it were, “Johannes Baptista me fecit ano 1586.” Be

ciano. Bâtie par A. di San Gallo de 1618 à 1623. accidentally to him while he was gathering tween these, but not in the middle line of the Stuttgart: Wittwer. 9 M.

materials for a work on the Philosophy of plan, are the points of the compass, coloured ; LECQUR, J. Esquisses du Boccage normand. Paris : Intuition. At his death all his unpublished and in a vacant space on the left, formed by the MAUPAS, M. de: Mémoires sur le second Empire. MSS. were shown to several mathematicians of trending of the coast, is a coat of arms, unMEYER, A. Die

Münzen der Stadt Dortmund. Berlin: note, who pronounced that to decipher them finished as regards the colouring, with E. B. in Stargardt. 9M

would require more time than anyone could gilt underneath the shield.

die «

BETTS.

Jan. 10, 1884.

1 M.

The main body of the fleet is represented, will

, I fear, be unable to use the strongest case insertion of a hyphen between “ daughter” and with sails set and flags flying, at sea, off Carta- that I know of in favour of his theory. This welcome,” which he rejects. Surely there is gena, sailing westward. A number of empty is the Mintira star myth (Tylor, Prim. Cult., no need to explain “no less” as a mere blunder boats, with three larger vessels, are at anchor off i. 321), in which, the Sun and Moon having for “ no higher.". A comma after “ daughter”

the Cienaga” of Hakluyt, and a body of mutually agreed to devour their children, the (and even so much is not essential) yields the armed men are approaching the city by the Stars, the Sun pursues and mutilates the Moon natural sense : "O my dear niece : . . nay, sandy spit, on which is an evident representa- in revenge for her hiding away her own Star my daughter, welcome, in no less (or lower) tion of the barricado described by Cates. The children, instead of swallowing them, according degree than that of daughter, not in the more two Spanish gallies also mentioned by him are to the compact. It is plain that this is not the distant relation of niece." depicted in the inner bay. The harbour en- Cronus myth; but it so far resembles it that it

RICHARD F. LITTLEDALE. trance has the chain across it shown, with three might possibly have suggested to an enquirer pinnaces and a large vessel making an attempt the solution of the Cronus myth which Mr. on the fort there. Lang has refused to accept. At the outside,

CAESAR DOTH BEAR ME HARD.” The sandy spits are coloured dark brown, this is all that Mr. Lang's method can hope to

5 Willow Road, Hampstead: Jan. 16, 1884. while the coast lines, wooded and marshy effect.

Isaac TAYLOR. The line which Prof. Hales quotes from ground, and hill country are coloured green.

Chaucer is not to the point. “To bear a thing The town itself is clearly shown, but the sails

heavily, sorely, &c.," is a very different ex

KRONOS AND HEAVENLY STONES. and flags of the ships have a rough, blurred

pression from “ to bear a person hard.". Is look. Dirt and dust have alone disfigured the

Edinburgh: Jan. 21, 1884. Prof. Hales' interpretation supported by classiplan.

As Dr. Isaac Taylor lays some stress upon cal usage ? “Graviter ferre aliquid” is ordinary The interest of this Drake relic may, perhaps, the heavenly origin of the sacred stones of Latin ; but I should be very much surprised to lead to its history being solved through the Delphi and Troy, and the images of Ephesus meet " graviter ferre aliquem.medium of the ACADEMY. and Tauris, &c., in his reply to Mr. Lang in

A. H. BULLEN. GEORGE F. HOOPER. the ACADEMY of January 12 (which I have only seen to-day), it seems advisable to state that

Cambridge : Jan, 13, 1881. this idea of the sacred objects falling from An old "equestrian " rhyme which used to THE MABINOGI OF TALIESIN.

heaven is quite a European misapprehension of be (and doubtless still is) current in the North Llanwrin Rectory, Machynlleth : Jan. 11, 1884.

the pious fiction of Eastern worshippers. An of Ireland might perhaps furnish Prof. Hales Mr. Skene, in his Introduction to the Four Indian or Eastern public are of course told that with an illustration of Shakspere's use of the Ancient Books of Wales, broadly hints that the their sacred Linga and Yoni emblems—“Palla- word “bear.” The verses, if my memory serves Mabinogi of Taliesin, printed in the first diums ”—are heaven-born, or fell from heaven me right, run thus :volume of the Myvyrian Archaiology, and in and stuck fast without human intervention an extended form by Lady Charlotte Guest in when they fell, or were bestowed on some very

Equus loq. Up the hill spare me,

Down the hill bear me, the third volume of the Mabinogion, is the special occasion by a god on a man of rare

On the level spare me not." forgery of Iolo Morganwg, and that it is no- holiness, &c., &c.; but no initiated or educated Is not the phrase "bearing-rein” a further where to be found except in his handwriting: person is supposed to believe this, although testimony to this use ? I am in a position to state that such is not every pious man must repeat it, and take no

W. T. LENDRUM. the case. In the collection of Welsh MSS. at notice of a little out-of-the-way shop or cell Llanover, near Abergavenny, is a MS. volume where the images or Lares and Penates are

APPOINTMENTS FOR NEXT WEEK. belonging to the latter part of the sixteenth or manufactured. If a stone or tree stump can the early part of the seventeenth century con- be found like the natural object, and"

on
MONDAY, Jan. 28,5 p.m. London Institution ; “Results

obtained by the Society for Psychical Research,” taining this very tale. It agrees, with some which no tool has been raised," so much the

by Prof. H. Sidgwick. verbal differences, with the copy in the Myvyrian better ; but, failing this, the image or symbol 7 p.m. Actuaries: "A Method for Determining

the Extra Premiums to be charged in Respect of Archaidogy; bụt the variants prove that the is secretly prepared, and a legend and miracle Two-Life Assurances," by Mr. Gerald H. Ryan. printed copy could not have been taken from got up to account for the eity or his emblem.

Society of Arts : Cantor Lecture, that Ms. By comparing this MS., of which After the miraculous events and a pompous

Recent Improyements in Photo-Mechanical Print

ing Methods, I., by Mr. Thomas Bolas. this Mabinogi forms but a small portion, with consecration, the image or stone-whether the 8.30 p.m. Geographical : "Three Months' Exanother in the same collection, which is stated great Jovine column, which orthodoxly stood

ploration in the Tenimber Islands, Timor Laut," by

Mr. H. 0. Forbes; Ascent of the Crater of Amto be in the handwriting of Llywelyn Sion, the in front of the Parvatian Cave of Delphi, or the

brym Island, New Hebrides," by Lieut. Beresford Glamorgan poet, one can hardly help concluding small Linga in the Trojan ark—is universally and Mr. Luther. that both proceeded from the pen. esteemed a genuine gift from heaven, but TUESDAY: san 2); 3. p.m; Royal Institution: "Scenery

of the British Isles," I., by Dr. A. Goikie. Llywelyn Sion died in 1616, and this MS. can

never then an aerolite or anything natural. 8 p.m. Society of Arts : “ Canada as it will not be materially later than that date. To I have examined some thousands, and even

appear to the British Association in 1984,” by Mr.

Joseph G. Colmer. those conversant with the Welsh language managed stealthily to scratch the surface (at

Civil Engineers : “The Aloption of internal evidence alone is quite sufficient to great personal risk) of some very famous ones,

Standard Forms of Test-Pleces for Bars and prove that this Mabinogi cannot be the pro- and always found them of very ordinary durable WEDNESDAY, Jan. 30, 8 p.m. Society of Arts : “ Coul

Plates,” by Mr. Hackney. duction of a person who died in the third stone. It does not, therefore, seem“ irrational” Gas as a Labour-saving Agent in Mechanical decade of the nineteenth century. to see in this early Kronos, his worship and rites, THURSDAY, Jan. 31, 3 p.m. Royal Institution : “Musio

Trades," liy Mr. Thomas Fletcher.
D. SILVAN EVANS. a survival from savagery,” which gradually for the Pianoforte," 111., by Prof. Pauer.

developed a more advanced mythology and 7 p.m. London Institution : “ The Greatest of
pure solar faith, with all its complicated phe-

the Old English Poets," by the Rev. 8. A. Brooke.

8 p.m. Society for the Encouragement of the GREEK MYTHS.

nomenal forms and ideas. In this way, as I have Fine Arts: “Ancient and_Modern Music," with Settrington : Jan. 21, 1884. elsewhere endeavoured to show, have all faiths

Selections illustrating the Progress of Music from

the Fifteenth to the Nineteenth Century, by Mr. The value of Mr. Lang's Novum Organum as grown.

J. G. R. FORLONG. Brindley Richards. an instrument of scientific research can readily

8 p.m. Telegraph Engineerg: “A System of

Electric Fire Alarms,” illustrated with Diagrams be tested. He has only to name some half

and Apparatus, by Mr. Edward Bright, dozen Greek myths which the orthodox or his

SHAKSPERE IN THE EAST OF LONDON.

FRIDAY, Feb. 1, 7 p.m. Civil Engineers : “Some Eletoric method (that of Bréal and Kuhn) has

London: Jan. 19, 1884. mentary Electrical Notes," by Mr. Edgar Smart.

8. p.m. Philological: “The Dialects of Norfailed to explain, but of which recognised The experiment of “introducing Shakspere

way," by Mr. Henry Sweet. solutions have been supplied, in the first in to the East of London " is not novel. Pour 9. p.m. Royal Institution : "Rajah Râmmohun

Roy," by Prof. Max Müller. stance, by what, for want of a better name, courses of lectures have been given-on (1) The

and Literature under Charles I.," III., by Prof. may be provisionally designated as the Hot- Plays of Shakspere, (2) The Comedies of Shak- SATURDAY: Feb. 2, 8 p.m. Royal Institution : "Life

Henry Morley.
tentotic heresy. If this cannot be done, Mr. spere, (3) The Falstaff Comedies, (4) Macbeth-
Brown may fairly continue to contend that Mr. at the Hall of Science, Old Street, St. Luke's,
Lang's explanations explain nothing; if it can, within the last two years, by

SCIENCE.
Sir George Cox will doubtless be ready to

EDWARD B. AVELING. admit that Mr. Lang's method can no longer

A Concise Dictionary, English-Persian. Tobe described as “no method at all.” But in any

gether with a Simplified Grammar of the

“NO LESS.” Case Mr. Bradley's sober dictum must stand

Persian Language. By E. H. Palmer.

London: Jan. 19, 1894. asmely, that “the evidence yielded by historic

(Trübner.) ally known mythologies cannot reasonably be

I think Prof. Dowden's criticism on the lines set aside in favour of presumptions based on in “As You Like It”

WITHIN recent years some advance has been a miscellaneous study of savage myths.".

O my dear piece, welcome thou art to me! made in Persian lexicography; and, though Mr. Lang, having somewhat scornfully re

Even daughter welcome, in no less degree". the science is still in its youth, we have now jeeted my explanation of the Cronus myth, is even farther from the mark than the proposed a few guides on which some dependence can

8 p.m.

same

8 p.m.

be placed for practical purposes. The latest Persian lexicography than Prof. Palmer, both combined in the same way as our own.” efforts do not, indeed, assume the imposing from his accurate and critical knowledge of In connexion with this article, however, it proportions of some of their stately prede- Arabic and his deep study of, and constant may suggest itself that in the fact of the cessors; but they are at least conducted with practice in, Persian.

Sanskrit character reading from left to right a little regard to preciseness and accuracy, and The work left incomplete has been supple- there is perhaps an explanation of the not on the plan of pouring in under each mented by the editor from his own reading strange anomaly, which, in point of fact, does heading a deluge of words more or less and other sources, including Wollaston's exist, in the use in Persian of the so-called synonymous, in the hope that the seeker, by English-Persian Dictionary, to which, on this Arabic numerals.

C. E. Wilson. some rare combination of good fortune and occasion, I have much pleasure in offering a a miraculous faculty of discrimination yet un- high meed of praise. In testing the diction

SOME BOOKS ON ROMAN HISTORY. explained, may, in the choice so liberally ary under notice one is agreeably surprised at offered, wade through to something to suit his neeting with some words which could scarcely Etude sur le De Moribus Germanorum. Par particular requirements. Persian scholars have been expected in a work of its compass, Ferd. Brunot. (Paris : Picard.) Prof. Brunot's have begun to see the value and importance notably “ironclad” (zireh push), “parlia- theory on the Germany of Tacitus is, at all of original research, and the literature of ment" (dár ush-shurá), "insulation " (of a events, not like other theories of its origin lexicography has recently been enriched with wire) (khárij[k.]), “insulator(gargari), &c., and nature, subtilius quam verius excogitatae, to certain works which do great credit to their &c. These equivalents afford convincing proof use Ritter's expression. It is very simple. It compilers in the accurate and idiomatic ren- of the exceptional faculty of Persian to meet saying, This is not a work; it is a part of one : it derings which they offer.

the requirements of modern scientific termin- is a fragment of the Histories, the introduction Bergé's little dictionary, which appeared in ology; and regret must be felt that modern to Tacitus' account of the campaign of Domiti1868, and other practical works by French Persian writers have in so many cases seen fit anus on the Danube. In support of this view, scholars who had actually resided in Persia to transfer bodily to the language, with a slight already held by Riese and Ritter, there is not have, I think, done much to further this modification of the pronunciation, such words much positive evidence to be adduced. It is tendency and to draw attention more particu- as “ telegraph” (talagráf), "mun-o'-war” | known that Tacitus did treat in detail the larly to the Persian of Persia itself. In 1876 (manvar)," protest” (partast-namah), “par- that he introduced digressions to vary the

events of the period in question. It is observed appeared Prof. Palmer's Concise Dictionary, liament" (parlamant), "congress” (kúngarah), monotony of an unbroken narrative, especially Persian-English, which, as the Preface says, &c., &c., instead of availing themselves of the in the Histories, as about Paphos (u. 2.3), was chiefly intended for the use of travellers power which Persian so pre-eminently gives Serapis (H. 4.83), or Judaea : and the plan or and others in Persia. The companion volume, them of forming native expressions for any arrangement is found to be identical in each of English-Persian, now under review, is some- new terms of science or civilisation.

the three descriptions of Rome's enemies which, what smaller, but contains about 10,000 head- Allusion having been made to the practical if the view be adopted, would admit of comings derived in great part from the preceding value of the work of French Orientalists parison-the account of Judaea, the Agricola, portion. The work is admirably calculated for who had made some stay in Persia, it will and the Germany. The name De Moribus Gerthe use of travellers, the number of words being be as well to state under what conditions chap. 27, and not to be of the author's own amply sufficient for their every-day require such residence may result in advantage to choice. But this view rests, perhaps, most on ments, and the choice most carefully and lexicographical work. Of course it is not the failure of other views. The treatise cannot judiciously made. Of course it must happen meant that there is any particular charm be an ideal sketch, a satire on Rome, because that in some cases the word sought for will in actually residing in the country, nor the author admits such drawbacks into his not be found, but a synonym may generally that the work in question would be much picture. Nor is it, as Passow thought, the be thought of to aid in supplying the want. furthered by desultory conversation with the Cassandra-warning of an alarmed patriot; for A notable feature of the work, resulting in people, learned or ignorant. The true method fall of Rome: and even what he might have

no one in Tacitus' time did, or could, foresee the the economy of space and expense and the of gaining just and idiomatic equivalents is foreseen he overlooked" la révolution religiavoidance of much useless repetition, is the to have, in the first place, an accurate and use." Nor, again, was it written to recomomission of the English verb where it can be critical knowledge of one's own language; in mend a policy of conquest against Germany; supplied from a corresponding substantive or the next, to find a native with an equally for, though Tacitus would have approved such participle given, and the indication by initials good knowledge of his language, as well as a policy, indications of his approval are in the of the Persian auxiliary required to make up intelligence in grasping the meaning of a Annals and Histories, not in the Germany. the equivalent Persian compound verb. word explained to him, and ready facility in That composition is simply an instructive

Some examples will make this clear :- producing not a mere translation of the word, digression. Tacitus did not mean it to edify or Impulse, tahrik (ed.)—i.e., the substantive im- but, an expression which would be actually pas un livro do morale, mais un livre moral.” pulse is to be translated by tahrik ; the corre

used by his own countrymen in analogous It will be seen that the theory suffers from a sponding verb by tahrik dådan. Impoverished, circumstances. Of

all this pre- not uncommon want, a want of proof. Plausible mufkar (sh.); muhtáj (8.)-.e., impoverished is supposes in the lexicographer such knowledge it is, and ingenious. It enables us to coto be rendered by mufkar or muhtáj; to become of Persian as may obviate all chance of ordinate various utterances of Tacitus, and to impoverished, by muf kar shudan; to make im- misunderstanding with his native auxiliary have the pleasure of reading some of them from poverished, to impoverish, by muhtáj sákhtan.

knowledge which, though not so perfect as a new point of view. But it must not be taken In one respect, perhaps, there is a slight to suggest to himself in all cases the true MS. of the Histories, or a new Ms. of the

for certain. Hardly anything but a complete want of consistency in the plan of the work, and exact equivalent of a word, phrase, or Germany containing the statement that it was which, though entitled a dictionary, partakes idiom, may be still sufficient to enable him extracted (as Prof. Brunot believes) from the full in some degree of the character of a vocabulary, infallibly to procure such equivalent in the work by a German monk, could prove it for an ambiguous English word being sometimes way described. A Persian scholar with the us. Prof. Brunot has an acute and so far as we rendered without an explanation of the sense qualifications named, ample perseverance, and know) novel reading for Germ. chap. 33. The in which it is taken. This remark applies also the means to devote himself entirely to the word 'urguentibus has always been found hard to those verbs which are not discriminated as work, either in this country or preferably,

to translate, and the MSS. differ a little about transitive or intransitive.

Such instances, perhaps, for reasons not necessary to enumerate, it. He urges from their forms that the archehowever, are not numerous, and they detract in Persia, might creato quite a revolution type must have had regentibus, standing just a but little from the value of a work the want in the science.

line after duretve gentibus. It is, therefore, at of which has been greatly felt by travellers in

least possible that it is a mere repetition, and

To the Dictionary is prefixed Prof. Palmer's the passage will read well without it: quando Persia and others desirous of gaining some Simplified Persian Grammar, which contains imperii fatis nihil praestare majus fortuna potest practical knowledge of the language. The, in a small compass all the most necessary quam hostium discordiam. principal regret of Persian scholars will be rules of the language, explained in a style so that Prof. Palmer was not able to spare more characteristically clear and plain as to facili- J. E. Kuntze. (Williams & Norgate.) Not

Prolegomena zur Geschichte Rom's. Von Dr. time from his other avocations to cultivate a tate admirably their acquisition. Under the an introduction to a larger work, but an field which his pre-eminent acquirements heading of numerals, however, 1881 is an independent treatise, Dr. Kuntze's Prolegomena would have rendered so fertile. No one, in unhappy example of the figures "being will be found an interesting and vigorous piece fact, was better qualified for the work of written from left to right as with us, and of writing. Whether its philology and its

course

on

method of treating the fundamental ideas of in good health, and at present engaged in re- with English.” Prof. Postgate is also lecturing Oraculum, Auspicium, Templum, Regnum, be editing the sixth edition of his smaller Latin this term at Cambridge on “ Latin Grammar always sound is not so certain. It is impossible dictionary. Prof. Paucker's last works, pub- and on “Greek Grammar." to avoid sou4 uneasiness when one reads lished by us—the Supplementum lexicorum Latin

AMONG the other lectures this term at Camdisquisitions on the part played by the number orum and the Vorarbeiten zur lateinischen Sprach- bridge, we may mention those of Prof. Cowell Two or Three, or by the figure of a Square, in forschungare not interrupted by his death ;

Delbrück's Selected Hymns from the Roman affairs. Madvig, in his recent work on a new part of the Supplementum is just out, and Rigveda, on Sayana's Introduction to the Roman antiquities, has complained of Dr. the Vorarbeiten will be finished shortly with the Rigveda, the Lalitavistara, the Pali Jatakas, Mommsen for starting, in his Staatsrecht, from aid of Dr. W. Rönsch. S. CALVARY & Co.

the Shah-namah, and the Tarikh-i Badauni; abstract potions and theories of which the

those of Prof. Wright on Arabic Grammar, Romans themselves were not conscious. But at

Arabic Poetry, and Syriac; and those of Prof. all events his principles, if abstract, had nothing

SCIENCE NOTES.

Robertson Smith on the Kor'ân. mystic about them; while Dr. Kuntze seems to MR. FRANK E. BEDDARD has been selected treat his numbers and figures in a distinctly out of thirteen candidates for the post of pro- des Langues orientales vivantes the Académie

For the two vacant chairs in the Ecole spéciale mystical way. So, too, he finds a mysterious sector to the Zoological Society of London, in des Inscriptions has nominated M. Houdas in analogy between the last four kings of Rome and succession to the late W. A. Forbes. Mr. the four founders of the Empire Sulla, Caesar, Beddard was a pupil of the late Prof. Rolleston,

Arabic and M. Carrière in Armenian. Augustus, Tiberius. It does indeed open the and for the past year has been employed on

New editions of Prof. Tiele's Outlines of the door to speculation if we once begin to notice editorial and other work connected with the History of Religion and of Dr. Edkins's Religion that, if Tarquinius Superbus died in exile, issue of the official reports on the scientific in China will be issued immediately in Messrs. Tiberius died in self-inflicted banishment from results of the Challenger expedition.

He has Trübner's “Oriental Series." Rome; and that both lives came to an end not also been entrusted with the examination and DR. NORREEN, of Upsala, has written a short far from Lake Averous. There is a very clear description of the Isopoda collected by the Grammar of Old Norse for the German series of map of Latium in the volume, giving the old expedition.

Germanic Grammars, one of which is Sievers' and the new names of places in type of two colours.

DR. ARCHIBALD GEIKIE will give the first of Anglo-Saxon Grammar.

a course of five lectures at the Royal Institu- PROF. ARTHUR LUDWICH, of Königsberg, Moderne Quellen forscher und antike Geschicht- tion on “The Origin of the Scenery of the purposes to publish with Teubner, of Leipzig, an schreiber. Von Dr. L. O. Bröcker. (Innsbruck.) British Isles on Tuesday next, January 29. elaborate work upon Aristarchus's recension of Dr. Brocker's pamphlet, without being always convincing, cannot fail to be useful in his own

UNDER the title of The Sagacity and Morality the text of Homer as preserved in the Fragcountry in recalling the speculative investigators of Plants : a Sketch of the Life and Conduct of ments of Didymos. of the sources" of ancient historians to a sense

the Vegetable Kingdom, Dr. J. E. Taylor has THE last number of Trübner's Oriental Record of caution, and, in short, in preventing them written a work, to be published shortly by contains an interesting account of “The Oldest from getting on too fast. He opens what he Messrs. Chatto & Windus, which approaches Bookselling Firm in Europe”-that of Brill, of has to say with a smart little attack on Nissen, the study of botany from quite a new side. Leyden, which has descended to the present pointing out that, while Nissen laid down as the Hitherto we have regarded plants as mere auto- partners (van Oordt and de Stopelaar) in unfundamental rule (Grundgesetz) of the classical mata, little removed from inorganic objects. broken succession from Louis Elzivier; and also

a severe criticism of Dr. Wells Williams's The compilers the practice of simply transcribing The aim of Dr. Taylor is to show that all the their authorities, be very seriously modified this various, qualities and attributes which dis- Middle Kingdom, by Mr. Herbert A. Giles. statement afterwards in the direction of ad- tinguish animals are also to be found in the mitting on the one hand a working-up, and on vegetable kingdom, and that in both instances the other hand a verifying, of these authorities they have been evolved in the struggle for MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. to have been practised by those who used them. existence, and the numerous physical and bio

ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE.-(Tuesday, Jan. 8.) Dr. Broeker makes it bis business to show

the logical changes which have taken place since untenableness of Nissen's dogma, at least in the plants first appeared upon the globe in the Prof. Flower, President, in the Chair.—Mr. H.

H. Johnston read a paper on “The Races of the first form; and he has for a second object the earliest geological times.

Congo and the Portuguese Colonies in Western task of proving modern criticism in such matters THE annual volumes of " mineral statistics,” Africa.” The author stated that Western Tropical to be less sharp-sighted and more fallible than it which for

so many years were published
under Africa, between Senegambia to the north and

the supposes itself. This he tries to do in certain the able superintendence of Mr. Robert Hunt, river Cunene to the south, offered a vast studying definite cases; and he will find, in England at have just taken a new shape, and will hence - ground to the anthropologist, wherein types of least, a friendly audience when he reminds us of forth be issued by the Home Office in folio nearly every well-marked African race might be the uncertainty of the conclusions of many a form. The volume for 1882, which has recently races, he proceeded to describe the Bushmen north

After detailing many of the various contemporary “Quellenforschung." been published, is the first of the new series.

of Cunene, whom he characterised as about the Its Ueber die Heimat der Prätorianer. Von Dr. of the many changes attending the transference

appearance has been delayed in consequence lowest type of men; but of the five or six speci

mens who came Oscar Bohn. This seems a careful little piece of the Mining Record Office from the Museum notice, he remarked that their mental ability was

more particularly under his of work, though it leaves us in some doubt of Practical Geology to the Home Office. The strangely at variance with their low physical us to what the author wishes to prove. Dr. work of collating the returns furnished by the characteristics. The Hottentots were much finer Bohn tries to trace out the national origin inspectors and others has been most efficiently men than the Bushmen as regarded height and

se many members as possible of the prae- carried out by Mr. R. Meade and Mr. J. B. build, but they exceeded the latter in baboon-like etiao guard of Rome. As he remarks, the Jordan, who had long experience in similar licentiousness. The western slopes of the Shella este Problem,” the extent to which the several statistics that in the year 1882 there were in the Andonito, a sturdy race of carriers, who extended provinces were Romanised, although this par- United Kingdom 3,759 collieries, producing river to the Mobindir river were found the best ticolar kind of probable evidence is, so far 156,499,977 tons of coal, worth at the pit's typical African races. Referring to the natives of

te remember, passed over by Budinszky in mouth £44,118,409. big Ausbreitung der lateinischen Sprache.

the Lower Congo, Mr. Johnston observed that they Dr. Bohn's pamphlet is one more example of

depended almost entirely upon vegetable diet,

while they were remarkable for their initiation the curious and unexpected information which

PHILOLOGY NOTES.

ceremonies. Traces of Phallic worship were may be dug out of the Corpus of Inscriptions.

noticed, especially in the interior, and more He thinks that his collection of nationalities, so At the centenary meeting of the Asiatic Society particularly in the neighbourhood of Stanley far as it goes, does not bear out-or, at least, of Bengal, which was held last week, the pool. A Congo market was exceedingly interest does not illustrate the growing depopulation following were elected honorary members :- ing, and was held for about four or eight days. of Italy , for the per-centage of provincials in M. E. Senart, Prof. Monier Williams,

Prof. The natives

would often go 100 miles to attend one the guard does not greatly increase with time. A. H. Sayce, Prof. E. Haeckel, and Mr. of these markets, the women generally being the

F. T. RICHARDS.

Charles Meldrum. The Asiatic Society of keenest traders. Between Stanley Pool and the
Bengal, which was founded by Sir William coast there is only, one great leading tongue

Jones in 1784, within a year after his landing spoken, though this has several dialects. This is CORRESPONDENCE.

at Calcutta, the parent of our own Royal the Congo language-one known to, and studied by, LATIN LEXICOGRAPHY.

Asiatic Society, as well as of the sister societies Europeans probably before any other Bantu tongue. Berlin, W., Unter d. Linden, 17 : Jan. 16, 1884. at Madras and Bombay.

It bears many signs of Portuguese influence. The remark of Mr. J. S. Reid in the ACADEMY On February 6 Prof. Postgate will begin a SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY.-(Tuesday, January 12 " that Georges has passed away" course of lectures at University College, London,

Jan. 8.) atitles

us to inform your readers that our old on “The Syntax of the Greek and Latin Dr. S. Birch, President, in the Chair.—This being bread Prof. K. E. Georges, of Gotha, is still Languages as compared with one another and the anniversary meeting, the Report of the secretary

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