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253-255—lent by H. Willett, Esq.) which, for I know, with regard to the last-named picture. old ruins have recently been discovered in the various reasons, deserve to be studied closely. The beautiful portrait of" Sigismondo Mala- desert a day's journey inland. Originally they belonged to the frieze of a testa” (230—lent by W. Drury-Lowe, Esq.) is During my stay at Cairo I explored the rockveiling in the castle of San Martino Gusnago, generally acknowledged as one of the gems of cut tombs in the cliff behind the citadel, and in the district of Asola, between Mantua and the exhibition. It is ascribed to Piero della found them to be of the Roman age, from Brescia, formerly belonging to the Gonzaga Francesca, and this seems to be a unanimous which we may perhaps conclude that the family. This peculiar kind of decorative art, verdict. But I venture to disagree with it, as Egyptian town which preceded Cairo was not not hitherto mentioned in art literature, seems I fail to see, after a close comparison with the older than the time of Augustus. I also spent to have been exclusively in use within the genuine works of this master-for instance, those a day in the quarries of Turra, the Troja of territory of a few towns. There are some in the National Gallery—how this suggestion Strabo, copying Greek graffiti. Another aftersimilar works still to be seen in palaces of can be proved.
noon I devoted to the curious subterranean Cremona, Crema, and Brescia. They appear,
J. PAUL RICHTER. passages and chambers that have been dishowever, far inferior in artistic merit to those
covered under the Greek convent at Old Cairo. before us. I have of late devoted some time to
In one p ace two columns with Corinthian the study of the origin of such decorations, and
LETTER FROM EGYPT.
capitals and a cornice similar to that which have come to the conclusion that it is to be
adorns the ancient gate of the Roman fortress sought for in palaces of Verona and Padua,
Abydos : Dec. 27, 1883.
are built into the wall; while in another we where artists of the very greatest repute were I HAVE just been making a tour in the Fayûm descend a flight of stone stairs of Roman conengaged in such works. The frieze of a large with two companions, but have found it some-struction, made of beautifully cut blocks of hall in the episcopal palace at Padua is adorned what disappointing—at least from an archae- stone. I should advise visitors to Cairo not to with portraits by Bartolommeo Montagna. In ological point of view. The remains of the miss either these old relics of the Egyptian one of the palaces at Verona I had the luck Labyrinth at Howâra certainly do not justify Babylon or the Jewish synagogue, which is not to discover a similar work, probably by the praises bestowed by Herodotos upon the far distant, and which reminded me forcibly of Domenico, if not by Francesco Morone. In building; the broken obelisk at Ebgig is little the well-known "synagogue” at Toledo. both of them the personages were named in more than a curiosity; and the three Roman The Bûlak Museum has undergone quite & inscriptions placed underneath, and I believe temples at Kesr Karûn, destitute as they are of transformation during the last two years. New there can be no doubt that the portraits inscriptions, are not worth the trouble of get- rooms have been added to it, and, what is more, bere exhibited are also historical. No. 250, ting to them, even though one of them is in a filled with objects which the indefatigable apparently a Doge, is believed to be Pasquale remarkably perfect condition. The most in- industry of M. Maspero has brought together Malipierio (ob. 1462). It might also be Orio teresting antiquities in the Fayûm are the vast from all parts of Egypt. His new Catalogue is Malipierio (ob. 1192): see Elogia Poetica in Seren. mounds of Krokodilopolis, with their streets of about to appear; and, as short descriptions will l'ent. (Padua, 1680). The entire series consists ancient brick houses, and the two ruined monu- be attached to the objects named in it, it will of forty-four panels, and Mr. Willett is to be ments which stand side by side at Biahmu. A be a great boon to future visitors to Cairo. congratulated on having secured the whole. corner of one of these stiil exists, proving that Among the newly collected antiquities some When brought to this country, they were the monument must once have been a pyramid early Greek remains are especially interesting, thickly covered with whitewash. The difficult with an angle similar to that of the pyramid as well as three clay cylinders, inscribed with problem of restoration has been most success- of Medûm. The size and character of the Babylonian cuneiform characters, which M. fully overcome by Prof. A. H. Church. The stones, the mode in which they are cut, and the Maspero has exhumed at Tell Defenneh (the question of the authorship of these fine portraits want of cement to join them together also Pelusiac Daphne of the ancients, according to is not easy to decide. The names of Mantegna, reminded me of Medam, and inclined me to Brugsch), a little to the west of Kantâra, on of Beltraffio, of Pollaiuolo, of Piero degli conjecture that, like Medâm, they belong to as the Suez Canal. I found that all three were Franceschi, and others have been suggested, early a period as that of the IİIrd Dynasty. records of Nebuchadnezzar, two of them being but none has yet been accepted. In my The two masses of stones which still stand duplicates; and, as they are very badly written, opinion, the master is to be looked for nowhere within the areas enclosed by the two monu- and relate only to the monarch's building but in the school of Milan, from about 1490 to ments once formed part of their cores. I found operations in Babylon, they must have been 1520. These heads appear to me to have a fragments of black and red granite—belong- intended merely as memorials of his conquests, striking affinity to the later works of Braman- ing, apparently, to broken statues-strewn over to be left in the countries he overran, They tino. However this may be, they are a their sites, as well as pieces of white stone, are, therefore, curious evidences of his inrenarkable illustration of that period in Italian which may have formed their casing. I have vasion of Egypt. One of them begins as at in which it was the chief aim of the only to add that the accounts given of them in follows :painters to seize and depict character, or those both Murray and Baedeker are alike incorrect.
“Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, son of Nabo. attributes of men and things which flow out of After leaving the Fayûm we spent a couple polassar, king of Babylon, am 1. The temple of the inner life.
of days at Siût, and while there rode along the Ziru, the shrine of Nin-ziru, of Anu his god, and The three genuine pictures by Crivelli (189, base of the cliffs southward of the town as far of Merodach, the son of Anu, the shrine of the 237, 243) are not superior to those in the as a village called Dronka. Here we found a supreme daughter of Anu, in Babylon, the city National Gallery. The later school of Giovanni tomb of the XIIIth Dynasty cut in the rocks of my sovereignty, and the temple of Us-us Bellini is represented by an excellent picture of above the village, with pictures of chariot on the eastern river with brick and cement I
* Virgin and Child and St. Joseph” (264, racing and Babylonian rosettes still traceable built.” beat by J. P. Heseltine, Esq.), apparently by on the walls. A little farther to the south the The two other texts are in a similar strain. be same hand as the "Warrior adoring the Coptic monastery of Dronka, with the mud- I am at present occupying the house built by Inéant Christ” (234 in the National Gallery). huts attached to it, is built into a series of Mariette at Abydos, which M. Maspero has viz., Vincenzo Catena. Giambattista Moroni's ancient tombs half-way up the cliff. The only kindly placed at my disposal; and I hope that portrait of a gentleman with two children (159– inscriptions I discovered there were Coptic, but my next letter will contain the results of my lent by the National Gallery of Ireland) is, in not far off is a large double-chambered tomb work during the next ten days, which I intend Ly opinion, by far the finest Venetian picture with square columns, and the same overhanging to spend here.
A. H. SAYСE. this exhibition. Perhaps the light colours cornice of stone supported on a row of stone at the children's dresses are in too strong a beams that we meet with at Beni-Hassan. santrast to the dark garments of the gentleman, Another half-hour brought us to Dêr Rifa, a to is seated behind them; but that is evidently monastery built, like that of Dronka, into the
CORRESPONDENCE. Lt the fault of the artist. In the course of tombs on the face of the cliff. Four of them,
SOME PICTURES AT BURLINGTON HOUSE. taze the dark colours have sunk in, while two of them large and two small, are adorned the light ones have lost their glazings under with long hieroglyphic inscriptions, and in one
London: Jan, 14, 1884. the hand of cleaners. On a piece of paper I noticed the Greek graffito AIAS ANOM. In his notice last week of the Dutch and luced on the table to the left of the gentleman Southward of the village the cliff is honey- Flemish pictures at the Royal Academy Dr. * rad “ Albino,” the name of a small place combed with sepulchres, most of which, how- Richter very justly observes that the picture by etbe Serio Valley, near which the artist was ever, are of the Roman age. But there is one Metsu, “Pleasures of Taste," from Buckingham
large one, belonging to the period of the Palace, comes very near to the manner of TerWe have here two pictures of the early Veronese XIIIth Dynasty, which contains half-obliterated burg. Would it not be better to go a step wol-a crucifixion by Caroto (271–lent by pictures of domestic scenes like those of Beni- farther and frankly attribute this charming
Richmond, Esq.), signed “G. F. Charottus Hassan, beside hieroglyphic texts. As both work to Terburg himself? Great artist and zz.," and a “Virgin and Child with Saints" here and at Dêr Rîfa the town named in the admirable delineator of character as Metsu no Erlent by Ch. Butler, Esq.), a very interest- inscriptions is Shas-hotep, the modern Satb, doubt was, he surely never approached the * picture of that still rarer master, Giovanni the toinbs of Rîfa must have been included in delicacy of handling and refinement of colour Carco, the younger brother of Giov. Francesco. the nome of Hypselis rather than in that of displayed in the present specimen, more espeNo name has hitherto been suggested, so far as | Lykopolis. While at Siût, I heard that some cially in the flesh-tints and the treatment of the
white fur, velvet, and satin which make up NOTES ON ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY.
MUSIC. dress of the seated lady. Metsu's colour, by We understand that a second edition will shortly comparison, has something slightly hot and less be published of Mr. F. G. Stephens's critical Last Saturday afternoon the only concert of
RECENT CONCERTS. exquisitely blended. I would suggest that, in addition to the painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. It comprises a and anecdotic essay on English Children as
importance was the Saturday Popular, so that powerful portrait by Mabuse (288), which, list of the engravings after Reynolds's pictures have been well filled. But Mr. Maas was the
under ordinary circumstances the hall would as already pointed out, appears in this exhibition under the much abused name of annotated Catalogue of the Grosvenor Gallery vocalist, M. de Pachmann the pianist, and the Holbein, there is in the same room yet an- exhibition.
programme contained only well-known and other fine work of the former master under
favourite works—Mendelssohn's Quintett (op. another name; this is Mr. Weld-Blundell's
The forthcoming number of the Magazine of | 87) for the twenty-eighth time, the" Moonlight” “Holy Family” (279), which is catalogued as
Art will contain an illustrated article on the Sonata for the nineteenth, and Beethoven's the Master of Cologne.” The picture new Institute of Painters in Oil,, with engrav- Pianoforte Trio in D for the twenty-first
. evidently belongs to the first thirty years of ings of Mr. Hacker's “ Fatima,” Mr. Brewt- St. James's Hall was, therefore, crowded. Of the sixteenth century, and can have nothing in nall's The Mother," Mr. Morgan's “Meadow the Russian pianist's rendering of the “Mooncommon with the school of Master Stephen of Sweet,” and Mr. Waller's “ A Letter of Intro- light” we have already spoken: the first
moveCologne (circ. 1450), nor has it, indeed, any duction."
ment he plays best, and the reading of it on affinity with the later school of that city (circ. Miss MARGARET THOMAS, the sculptor of Saturday was even more satisfactory than that 1475-1500) under the influence of the Flemings. the Taunton bust of Fielding, has recently at his recital a few weeks back. Perhaps under the above description Barto- completed another bust—that of Gen. Jacob, On Monday evening, January 14, there was lomäus Bruyn (circ. 1523-56), or a painter of Scinde-also for the Taunton Shire Hall. an unusually large audience. Some came as a of his school, is meant. For him, however, BARON ANATOLE VON HÜGEL has been ap; to hear Schumann's beautiful Quartett in A
matter of habit; some, let us hope, specially On the other hand, the colouring, execution, pointed curator of the museum of general and minor (op. 41, No. 1), which was admirably and arrangement strongly suggest Mabuse
played by Mdme. Néruda and Messrs. Ries, in his second manner, to a certain extent under
THERE is now on exhibition at the Edinburgh Hollaender, and Piatti: but many probably Italian influence. This hypothesis would Museum of Science and Art a series of fac- came out of curiosity to hear Miss Maggie account for a certain want of solidity in parts simile reproductions of Rembrandt etchings, Okey, a former pupil of Dr. Wylde, at present as compared with some recognised works of the numbering 320.
studying with M. de Pachmann, and already same master. The type and mode of adjust- The question of opening picture galleries on officially announced as his future partner in life. ment of the Virgin are also quite in the manner Sunday is being strenuously fought out in New Miss Okey was, perhaps, unwise in selecting for of Mabuse. The group of angels to the right York. The artists, for the most part, and also her debut at these Concerts the very pieces with of the picture is the part of the design most the managers, seem to be in favour of opening; which her master has scored some of his most brilsuggestive of Italian influence.
and they have acted up to their opinions in the liant successes. She thus challenged compariFragment of a large picture (284– face of threats of prosecution from a Sunday son, but accomplished her task most creditably
. lent by William Graham, Esq.), ascribed to the Closing League, who (as the New York Herald First came Henselt's formidable Etude “ Dankearly German school, seems to me to be also of puts is) have had to take that back seat which lied nach Sturm,” which enabled her to display Flemish origin, and to suggest the school of nature and an allwise Providence evidently in the excellence of her mechanism ; and, afterLouvain and perhaps the hand of Dierick Bouts tend shall be a permanent one.” On Sunday, wards, her performance of three of Chopin's himself. The head of the centurion to the right December 30, the Pedestal Fund Art Loan Etudes from op. 25—the one in thirds, the one is quite in the manner of that master; and the Exhibition was thrown open, and was attended in sixths, and the last in octaves-showed how group, so far as it can be judged, has consider- by nearly 6,000 persons, mostly respectable bravely she can overcome the greatest difficulties, able analogy with panels by, Bouts in the working-men. Tickets were sold at twenty- and how skilfully she has copied M. de Pachgalleries of Munich, Berlin, and Nuremberg. five cents (1s.), but no catalogues. On the mann's style. The first Chopin Etude was de
Among the early Italian pictures, the ex- same day the exhibition of American paintings servedly redemanded, and at the close she gave quisite Virgin and Child (238—lent by for the benefit of an Academy Prize Fund was for an encore Schumann's." Vogel als Prophet." William Graham, Esq.), ascribed to Masaccio, also open.
The concert concluded with Chopin's graceful
, has not much in common with the few known easel-pictures by him, and still less with Rome a school after the pattern of those of and M. de Pachmann. The programme con
The Austrian Government has founded at two pianofortes, played by Miss Maggie Okey
though somewhat insipid, Rondo (op. 73) for his famous frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel.
The rich and varied colour, the peculiar marked / Germany and France. It will deal especially tained, besides, some interesting vocal duets by outline, and particularly the mystic sentiment with the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
Hollaender and Dvorák, charmingly sung by of the picture, suggest rather Masaccio's A NUMBER of French painters, including Miss Louise Phillips and Mdme. Fassett. follower, Fra Filippo Lippi, (compare the MM, Gérôme, Baudry, Boulanger, Carolus Mr. Willir
gave his second concert last panel of the “Annunciation" by him in the Duran, &c., have presented a petition to the Tuesday evening. Miss Ambler and Mr. Sims National Gallery). The handling is perhaps Senate praying for a reform of the law which Reeves were both unable to appear. Mr. J. rather heavier and the pigments more thickly at present leaves artistic falsifications practically Maas was an acceptable substitute for the laid on than in some of Filippo Lippi's unpunished.
latter; and Miss Mary Beare sang, in addition works. It has already been pointed out M. GUSTAVE SCHLUMBERGER has in the press set down for Miss Ambler.
to a song by Rossini, Mendelssohn's “Infelice, by Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle in their
Miss Beare has a an important work upon the Seals of the History of Painting in Italy that the two Byzantine Empire-a subject which he has sympathetic voice, but not power enough for portraits (261 and 268—lent by W. Drury-Lowe, made peculiarly his own. It will cover the the Mendelssohn scena. The programme was Esq.) are wrongly ascribed to Masaccio, and entire period from the sixth to the fifteenth
curiously arranged. There was a first part belong to the school of Domenico Ghirlandajo. centuries, and will be illustrated with more Gluck, Gounod, Rossini, and Mr. Goring Thomas
including selections from various Operas by Were any further proof required that the panels than a thousand cuts. cannot be by the former master, it would be
Mdme. Patey sang
“ Che faro,” and Mr. Brid afforded by the portrait of the lady (268), in
A DISCOVERY of a very interesting character son a song from “Esmeralda.” The second which appears a Renaissance jewel of a type has been made at Wegbur, near Carnforth, part of the programme included Beethoven which could not have existed when Masaccio Lancashire, in the quarries belonging to the
"Leonore" No. 3 and Purcell's “Come, painted, but belongs to quite the end of the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres. Some men, you dare."
This was followed by Mendels fifteenth or beginning of the sixteenth cen- in blasting the rock, came a small sohn's “Walpurgis Night.” We were please tury. The two roughly painted figures of chamber, in which were implements of stone, to be able to speak favourably of King “Hercules ” (218 and 222–lent by Chas. Butler, bronze, and iron, among them a large per- David ” last concert; but one of Mendelssohn Esq.) must be wrongly attributed to that admir- forated stone hammer, beautifully formed; a best works, if not his masterpiece, was per able draughtsman Antonio Pollaiuolo, but may stone quern for grinding com; a bronze celt or formed in an indifferent manner. There wa possibly be by Andrea del Castagno, with the axe-head of the ordinary type, five inches and some good singing; but if the society expect remains of whose work at the Bargello in three-quarters long and three inches broad at to succeed, there must be more colour in th Florence they have a certain analogy. Surely, the cutting edge ; a fine socketed spear-head, accompaniment, more delicacy in the chora too, the name of Piero della Francesca is used at nine inches long and five inches at the broadest vocal parts; the leads must be properl random in connexion with the interesting and part; a portion of a bronze sword, eight inches taken up; and, in future, if Mendelssohn's temy puzzling “ Head of Christ” (239—lent by Henry and a quarter long and one inch and a quarter to “Come with torches brightly flashing" Roche, Esq.), some portions of which, such as broad; a fine axe-head of iron, six inches and a not strictly adopted, the time must ne the hair and hands, by their treatment even half long and six inches and three-quarters degenerate into funeral-march pace. The sol suggest a German rather than an Italian hand. broad at the cutting edge; and a spinning wheel, vocalists
were Mdme. Patey and Messr CLAUDE PHILLIPS. six inches in diameter.
Levetus and Bridson. J. S. SHEDLOCK.
SATURDAY, JANUARY 26, 1884. not committed to paper until after a con- a truism to say that neither Luther's per
siderable lapse of time) on the part of sonal history nor that of the Reformation No. 612, New Series.
one deeply interested chief actor, that the at large can be satisfactorily understood THE EDITOR cannot undertake to return, or former source of information may some- without a careful study of the political and to correspond with the writers of, rejected clusion must appear still more justifiable if Prof. Köstlin appears not to give adequate
times be the more trustworthy. Such a con- social phenomena of the times. But even slanuscript.
we bear in mind Luther's intense subjectivity. recognition to the fact that the origin of the It is particularly requested that all business Apart from the evidence, it would be perfectly great struggle is to be discerned not merely in
natural to suppose that an imagination which the gross abuse of indulgences, but that the letters regarding the supply of the paper, could so far gain the mastery over its possessor fame was powerfully fanned by the regular de., may be addressed to the PUBLISHER, and as to lead him to believe that he had periodical and systematic extortion practised by the not to the EDITOR.
bodily conflicts with evil spirits would not Roman Curia under the guise of annates, and
fail also to lend a powerful colouring to his the oppression exercised through the Roman LITERATURE.
conception of his own past career, and even to law-courts. He tells us, indeed (p. 231),
"the impost levied by Rome on ecclesiastical The Life of Luther. By Julius Köstlin. tions, we can feel no difficulty in pronouncing benefices and fiefs swallowed up enor
Translated from the German. (Longmans.) the volume before us the best existing treatment mous sums ; while the Empire hardly knew how Luther and other Leaders of the Reformation. of the subject to which the ordinary English to scrape together a miserable subsidy for the By John Tulloch. (Blackwood.)
reader can refer. It is lavishly illustrated with newly organised government and the expenses
admirable reproductions of genuine contem- of justice, and men talked openly of retaining Martin Luther. By John H. Treadwell.
porary documents or works of art. The trans- these Papal tributes, notwithstanding all pro(Ward)
lation also deserves commendation as a pains-tests from Rome, for these purposes. Luther: a Short Biography. By James taking and careful rendering, although it But this important phase of the question is Anthony Froude. (Longmans.)
would have gained in vigour if the pleonastic only just glanced at in passing, although, Martin Luther the Reformer.
a potent factor in bringing about the Köstlin. (Cassells.)
original had been more systematically disre-national impatience of the Papal supremacy,
garded. We cannot but note, too, the omission it was deserving of considerable illustration. Luther and Good Works. By John E. B. of an index as a serious defect.
Without in any way under-estimating the Mayor. (Cambridge: Macmillan & Bowes.)
A condensed outline of the work has been religious convictions of those times, it is easy Die schmalkaldischen Artikel vom Jahre 1537. published by Messrs. Cassell for popular circu- to see that the doctrine of justification by
Hrsg. von Dr. Karl Zangemeister. (Heidel- lation, while Mr. Froude has reprinted from faith must have come home with peculiar berg: Carl Winter.)
the Contemporary Review the two articles for force to an industrious, thrifty people, upon Luther: ein kirchliches Festspiel. Von Hans which the German work supplied the basis. whom the efficacy of "works” was urged as Herrig. (Berlin : Luckhardt.)
Of the other volumes before us, Mr. Tread- a plea for continually and remorselessly deLuther's Table Talk.
well's sketch is a spirited and appreciative priving them of their hard earnings. "The (Religious Tract So- though somewhat imperfect outline; Dr. whole contest,” says Prof. Köstlin, " turned
Tulloch's is a reprint of a volume already ultimately on the question as to who should L’zor. Köstlin's Luthers Leben has already well known to the English public, but with determine disputes about the truth, and where received in Germany an amount of commenda- the portion relating to Luther enlarged, and to seek the highest standard and the purest tion to which it is fairly entitled, and which his many-sided character more fully described source of Christian verity" (p. 104). It is ronders further encomium on this side the and illustrated from the rich material afforded at least possible that, if Leo X. and his emisNang almost superfluous.
It is very in the Tischreden. Prof. Mayor's little tractate saries could have been induced to deal more retul
, well-conceived, well-executed piece represents a sermon preached in the chapel considerately with the pockets of the German at literary work. And if we cannot adopt, of St. John's College, Cambridge. It is full of people, the German conscience would have without some qualification, Mr. Froude's deep and suggestive thought, and bears on been found less tender, and the whole contest serdict in its favour, that "the student who every page the impress of genuine and exten- would never have assumed its “ultimate" nas read these pages attentively will have no sive learning; the burden of the discourse is form. There are other points on which much "[zestions left to ask," we may concede that, if to show how Luther's renouncement and sub- fuller information might advantageously have tze author's standpoint—the standpoint of sequent energetic denunciation of the monastic been given, as, for example, on the relations the Wittenberg-Halle school of theology-vows has been completely justified by later of the Empire to the Papacy and the merits of be accepted as the right one, the general Church history and is corroborated by the Luther's Bible. The former subject is, howmatment will appear unimpeachable. Prof. testimony of oid Catholicism. The edition of ever, so much better understood in Germany Kolde has no easy task before him if his the Smalkaldic Articles, which comes to us than in England that the cursory treatment Iubours are to eclipse those of his brother pro- from Heidelberg, is a photographic reproduc- it here receives in a work not primarily defissor. As a contribution to historical litera- tion, in forty-seven pages, of Luther's auto-signed for English readers is more readily fue it must, however, rank much lower. graph there preserved in the university explained. astwithstanding the apparatus of material library. Dr. Zangemeister, the librarian, has The narrative given of the proceedings of ited or printed in the two volumes of the prefixed to it an interesting ntroduction. the Diet of Worms, and the circumstances vaginal work, the information is manifestly The MS., like its writer, appears to have had under which that memorable assembly was trived too exclusively from one side, and the some narrow escapes. After Tilly had taken convened, can hardly be looked upon as suffi
sequent bias is throughout plainly dis- Heidelberg, in 1622, it was sent by Duke ciently satisfactory to be accepted as a final "mible
. Some of the statements, resting Maximilian of Bavaria to Rome, as a present rendering of that memorable event. Mr. mely on Luther's own authority, clash singu- to the Pope. In 1798 it was carried by Froude, who gladly hails the opportunity it arly with those which we find on official Napoleon from the Vatican to Paris. From affords for picturesque writing, pronounces pord--for example, in the recently published Paris it went back to Rome, and finally, in Luther's appearance before the Diet “perhaps fasciculus of the Monumenta Reformationis 1815, was restored, along with many others, the very finest scene in human history. Istherana.. Most unprejudiced persons will by Pope Pius VII. to its original depository: Many a man,” he goes on to say, probably look upon Luther as a far more Kerr Hans Herrig's Festspiel is a commendbeziest man than Aleander or Caietanus ; but able attempt to dramatise the most striking " has encountered death bravely for a cause 1 is difficult not
where dis- episodes of Luther's career; the caution, how” which he knows to be just, when he is sustained mezancies occur between a record of proceed- ever, with which he has restricted his imagi- by the sympathy of thousands, of whom he is as and events made by official authorities nation to the mere embellishment of recorded
at the moment the champion and the repre
sentative. pecially designed to convey to others an fact is more apparent than the spirit of his another to encounter face to face and single
But it is one thing to suffer, and efect impression of what actually took Pegasus.
handed the array of spiritual and temporal piece) and personal reminiscences (sometimes To most students of history it will appear / authorities which are ruling supreme."
We are not at all sure that, supposing Luther and the one at Worms (“ Joannes de Acie,” Portraits of Places. By Henry James. (Maco have become convinced that he himself was as he termed himself in Latin) was previously
millan.) in error, it would not have required a scarcely known to the Reformer. The mis- A NOVELIST like Mr. Henry James shows to greater effort to have retracted what he had take has been made before, and is by no means
a disadvantage in a book of simple observawritten than to have acted as he did. Even inexcusable in an ordinary reader; but it tion. There is, no doubt, much that may be i mpostors, like Peregrinus, have preferred a comes rather awkwardly from one who, while called simple observation in all novels of t errible death to the admission of humiliating affecting to sit in judgment on the whole modern life; but, when they are as good as f ailure. But, in fact, everything conspired to question and to pat Prof. Köstlin on the head, those which Mr. James has given us, there is nerve and encourage Luther in his heroic shows that he himself has not bestowed on also much more than that, and the novelist defiance. He went to Worms with a safe- the Professor's pages that " attentive” perusal cannot put his power of invention into a book conduct from the Emperor couched in the which he recommends to others.
of travel. The reader, therefore, who should most explicit and reassuring terms, * and his As regards Luther's language and de- expect to be charmed and carried on by the journey thither from Wittenberg was, as Mr. meanour at Worms, all the writers before us author of Portraits of Places as he may have Treadwell truly describes it, "a perpetual concur in ascribing to him language which it been by the novelist is likely to be disovation." Even George von Frundsberg, now seems probable he did not use. The appointed; but the book is interesting in its while he marvelled at the rare courage of the somewhat theatrical but, under the circum- own mild way, and, though extremely slight, man, clapped him on the shoulder and said, stances, grand and striking words "Here I is worth having and keeping, like the slightest
If thou art sure of the justice of thy cause, stand, I cannot do otherwise," have, as Mr. sketches of a good painter. "It is a collection then forward in the name of God, and be of Karl Pearson has already noted, * no place in of papers which first appeared in various good courage-God will not forsake thee." the official report. While the “Gott helff American magazines and journals.” The writer Luther's staunch friend, the Elector Frederio, mir," which has usually been regarded as a fears that the impressions he received during was a member of the tribunal ; von Sickingen, touching expression of Luther's sense of his the early months of a residence in England are the famous warrior, whom Aleander himself defenceless and isolated condition, is really "very superficial.” The record of them was describes as “terror Germaniae," loudly de- nothing more than the “Ita me Deus adjuvet” entirely addressed to an American public; and clared his determination to avenge the (often with the addition “et sancta Dei Evan- Mr. James thinks that they can have but a " solitary monk," as Mr. Froude terms Luther, gelia") which was the ordinary conclusion in limited interest for English readers, familiar, should he meet with foul play. We have those times of every formal declaration in a naturally, to satiety with many of those minor only, indeed, to read the letter by Aleander, court of law.
characteristics to which the author has venprinted in the Monumenta (pp. 152–58), But there is little need to exaggerate tured to call the attention of his less initiated written on April 5, a fortnight before Luther's Luther's merits, or the character of his countrymen.” Well, the interest is certainly appearance at Worms, to see the impression genius, in order to establish his title to the not very intense ; the book is not one to keep produced on his enemies by the forces of the admiration and remembrance of posterity. us up till two in the morning; and, if it opposition. Mr. Froude represents the Em-“ Putting aside," says Prof. Mayor, “his happened to be mislaid, the privation would peror as arriving at the Diet “with a fixed position in the Church, Luther's services to not be insupportable ; still, one is not sorry purpose to support the insulted majesty of the the language, literature, sacred poetry, and to have met with it. Mr. James is a quiet
, spiritual sovereign of Christendom." It is education of Germany are so unique as to rational, and shrewd observer, whose delicate now perfectly clear, from the Monumenta, that entitle him to undying gratitude." "Luther," appreciation notices many things that would thé edict for the destruction of Luther's books says Ranke, “is the patriarch of the severe escape most people. He is also a person of was not issued until Charles had obtained the and devout domestic discipline and manners of very real refinement, so that he sees things vote for the troops to be employed against the family in Northern Germany." As a in a way not possible to a vulgar mind. He France ; but Ranke long ago pointed out theologian, indeed, he recedes more and more tells us that since these papers were written that the feelings of the Emperor towards from our view into the background; and the bis impressions have been modified and enLeo (who had opposed his election) had manner in which the subscription to the larged, and he would not to-day have the been, up to this time, far from friendly. splendid edition of his works—now appearing temerity to write letters about England. Everything, in fact, turned upon the under imperial patronage in Germany Surely it is a wrong arrangement by which question whether the former was to be has fallen fat in this country is a notable those who know little of foreign nations should allowed to have his way at Milan and Venice, sign. It is the Luther of the Table Talk and write books about them, and those who know and Luther had been dexterously used by the Letters who survives; and the patriot, the much should keep silence. Mr. James did him as an instrument for bringing Leo to singer, the husband, and the father lives per- right in publishing his first impressions, terms :-“la verità fu,” says Vettori, "che haps as strongly as ever in the memories of giving them for what they were, and he conoscendo che il papa temeva molto di his countrymen. His grand impulsive nature, would do right still if he published his later questa doctrina di Luthero, lo volle tenere his love of truth, reality, and justice ; his impressions. Many things strike us at first con questo freno." We may be quite wide and generous sympathies, ranging from in a foreign country which are hidden from sure that Charles did not wish to see so the domestic hearth and the grave of child or those who know it so intimately, while serviceable a schismatic disappear altogether friend to the bird on the tree and the hunted intimate knowledge leads to discoveries of from the
Mr. Froude, again, leveret in the forest, visible even in his super- a different kind. We never can get really to recognises in the John Eck who acted stition and his cheery combats with the devil the bottom of things. No man understands as interrogator at the Diet, Luther's “old such are the qualities which, taken in con- a foreign country. Does any man ever underenemy," thereby, it is to be presumed, in- junction with his intellectual power and stand his own ? Distance and difference make tending to identify the Professor of Theology splendid achievements, have won for him the the foreigner blind to many things, or they at Ingolstadt with the civilian, the "artium admiration of thinkers of almost every school, make him attach an exaggerated importance et juris utriusque doctor,” who discharged the from Giordano Bruno to Julius Hare. And the to them ; familiarity and old habits blind duties of official notary in the diocese of writers of the several volumes before us, which the native. Treves. There would, of course, have been a we have endeavoured thus briefly to notice, are It is pleasant to find that Mr. James does peculiar malignity in bringing Luther's old one and all to be thanked for the labour and not consider himself a foreigner in our fellow-student at Wittenberg, who had already the skill (though of varying degrees) which country. He says, at p. 193, speaking of the challenged his theses, and with whom he had they have devoted to bringing these traits of ugliness of London : "If I were a foreigner, that tremendous encounter at Leipzig, from the great Reformer once more home to our it would make me rabid ; being an Anglothe banks of the Danube to the Rhine to in- recollection.
J. Bass MULLINGER.
Saxon, I find in it what Thaekeray found in terrogate him on this critical occasion. But
Baker Street-a delightful proof of English the fact is that there were two John Ecks, * See review of the Monumenta in . ACADEMY of domestic virtue, of the
sanctity of the December 8, 1883.
British home.” This is as it should be; we See the Monumenta Reformationis Lutheranae
do not look upon Americans as foreigners, but (pp. 1209 121), where it is printed at length-a very
as a sort of Englishmen who live upon a different document, as the editor observes, from
great estate of their own at a distance from that gi; en in Luther's Works, vol. ii.
the mother-country. However, though not
a foreigner, Mr. James is not a complete the delightful charm of its architecture. think how stupid is prejudice, and how poetic a English man after all. It is grievous to see Mr. James is not difficult to please. “Por creature'a washerwoman may be.” that he does not find the proper degree of myself," he says,
Mr. James lets us into the secret of his sober satisfaction in English Sundays and
own delicate reflectiveness in a description of “I have never been in a country so umattractive church-going, perhaps because he has been that it did not seem a peculiar felicity to be how he saw a French actress bathe at Etretat. too much on the Continent. About Christmas able to purchase the most considerable house it The lady time he arrived in London and encountered contained. In New England and other portions trots up the spring-board—which projects three British Sundays in a row—“ a spectacle of the United States I have coveted the large over the waves with one end uppermost, like a to strike terror into the stoutest heart. The mansion with Doric columns and a pediment of great see-saw-she balances a moment, and explanation of this extraordinary phenomenon white-painted timber; in Italy I have made then gives a great aerial dive, executing on the is that a Sunday and a Bank-holiday had imaginary proposals for the yellow-walled villa
the most graceful of somersaults. This joined hands with a Christmas Day. Surely with statues on the roof. In England I have performance the star of the Palais Royal à Bank-holiday is not so sad a spectacle as for the best house, but, failing this, I have five minutes, and leaves you, as you lie tossing
rarely gone so far as to fancy myself in treaty repeats during the ensuing hour at intervals of the terrible Dimanche de Londres” that rarely failed to feel that ideal comfort for the little stones into the water, to consider the makes Continentals shudder. There is a time would be to call oneself owner of what is curious and delicate question why a lady may capital bit, too long to quote, about the fine denominated here a 'good' place.”
go so far as to put herself into a single scant, state of social discipline in England which drives all respectable people regularly to He has a keen appreciation of old-fashioned clinging garment and take a straight leap, church on Sunday mornings. A real English English county houses in parks, and the tators, without violation of propriety, and why man would hardly have ventured to write oldest ones delight him most with their impropriety should begin only
when she turns this passage, but he will read it with a quiet description, too long to quote, of an abbey seconds her head is upwards. The logic of the
reminiscences of the past. After a charming over in the air in such a way that for five smile, and afterwards obey the custom as before. The book treats of three countries
which has preserved many of its old features matter is mysterious; white and black are England, France, and Italy. The author is in becoming a private residence, he speaks divided by a hair. But the fact remains that very susceptible of impressions received of the “entertainment of living in a ci-devant virtue is on one side of the hair and vice on the
other.” through the eyes
. He is rather like a painter priory. This entertainment is inexhaustible, in this respect, but not quite, the difference for every step you take in such a house This is excellent, and it is exactly the author's being that he always takes social matters into confronts you in one way or other with way of observing manners. He likes to find consideration, which a painter easily forgets. the remote past. You feast upon the some point of divergence, and take note of it; His feeling about the ugliness of London is a
pictorial, you inhale the historic." It he likes to see what a very fine line—a line case in point. The hideousness of the place does not appear that Mr. James has any thin as a hair-dívides one thing from another. strikes him very forcibly, but his mind re- special knowledge of architecture.
Readers He is pleased with his own clear discernment bounds from this instantaneously to the social who have made architecture a study will soon
of the fact, without pretending to account for consideration of home-loving English ways.
perceive, by his way of writing about certain it: “the logic of the matter is mysterious."
remarkable edifices, that he is not a real Mr. James is accurate in describing the * London is ugly, dusky, dreary, more destitute student, as he offers no remarks of the kind care the French take about food and bedding, than any European city of graceful and decora- which close, intelligent study leads a man to and their easy tolerance of wretched lodging; tive incident. : . . As you walk along the make. I have noticed this particularly with but I notice one or two slight omissions. He you look up at the brown brick house-walls, regard to Chartres, but it is true of all the seems to judge of things too much corroded with soot and fog, pierced with their great édifices known to me which are men- the hotel point of view, and not to be straight, stiff window-slits, and finished, by tioned in the volume. Still, Mr. James very familiar with private life. In hotels way of a cornice, with a little black line re- admires architecture and enjoys it to a certain the déjeuner and dinner are almost equally sembling a slice of curb-stone. There is not degree, as an outsider. As a novelist, his real heavy affairs, and a great many dishes
secessory, not a touch of architectural study is human nature and manners, and here are produced to suit the differing tastes of funcy, not the narrowest concession to beauty.” he is always delicate and worth reading. strangers. In private life, one of the two This is true of the particular kind of London Being in London, he is told at a certain season meals is generally the more important, and street described, and very well put, but Mr. that all the washerwomen are intoxicated, that is often the déjeuner, in which case it James can also see the pictorial side of and that, as it would take them some time to becomes nothing but a very early dinner London.
revive, he is not to count upon a relay " of under another name, and the dinner is a light
fresh things." ** London is pictorial in spite of details--from think of his Parisian blanchisseuse, a reflection by foreigners, that a good many French people
This leads him at once to early supper. It is also a fact, little noticed enes down leaking and filtering from its by which we are the gainers, as Mr. James imposc upon themselves relative abstinence dead-ceiling, and the softness and richness treat us to the following bit of description, at one of the two meals. There are cases of tone which objects put on in such an atmo- wbich is really much better than anything in of steady total abstinence from one of them. ephere as soon as they begin to recede. Nowhere Sterne :
As for ' reiteration” it is true that the dinner is there such a play of light and shade, such a
is too much like the déjeuner, but so many struggle of sun and smoke, such aërial grada- " I shall not forget the impression made upon French people only take two ineals a day that tions and confusions. To eyes addicted to such antemplations this is a constant diversion, and Paris, and it almost sent me spinning back. it is natural for both to be more substantial ret this is only part of it. What completes the One of the incidental agréments of life in the than if they sat down to table four times, às fect of the place is its appeal to the feelings, latter city had been the knock at my door on the middle classes often do in England. Still, made in so many ways, but made, above all, by Saturday evenings of a charming young woman after all deductions, the fact remains that agglomerated immensity. At any given point with a large basket covered with a snowy the French live extremely well, that their Indon looks huge ; even in narrow corners napkin on her arm, and on her head a frilled food is generally varied, well-cooked, and you have a sense of its hugeness, and petty and fluted muslin cap, which was an irresistible
judiciously served in well-ordered meals. 1 places acquire a certain interest from their being
advertisement of her art. To say that my remember hearing an English ladý declare parts of so unighty a whole.”
admirable blanchisseuse was not in liquor is
that the French "lived on air.” That seemed Mr. James confesses, in an amusing way, always grateful to her for her russet cheek, her to me a finc piece of patriotism, the truth that he is always wanting to purchase houses. frank, expressive eye, her talkative smile, for being, as Mr. James says, that they feed very We heartily wish him wealth enough to make the way her charming cap was poised upon her substantially, and show the result in corremany such purchases, and that they may crisp, dense hair, and her well-made dress was sponding corporeal development, especially in turn out satisfactorily. Such is the difference fitted to her well-made waist. I talked with women. 1 tastes, that his present reviewer never she moved about and laid out her linen with a that so light and superficial a tolume would her; I could talk with her; and as she talked
I began this review rather with the idea pept in one instance where affection was
delightful modest ease. aerned) desired to purchase a house in his carried her off again, talking, to the door, and hardly afford material for one, and now I find bat he has often dreamed of building one with a brighter smile and an “Adieu, mono
that there are many more quotable passages to surpass all existing domestic edifices in sieur! she closed it behind her, leaving one to than a reviewer has room for.