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worse.

The Fellah has been much the same from the warlike” Fellah's fighting qualities; and, when Asia as well as Africa. The old doddering remotest ages; you see his face in the Sphinx. Arábi Pasha speaks of his compatriots' timidity, men-o'-war which rot in Alexandria and Suez Read Brugsch Bey's report how the Fellah he talks ad captandum.

harbours, melancholy remnants of past power, women ran dishevelled along the Nile banks, Compared with our Nilotes, the “finest may be broken up and carted away as soon as “keening” the death cry, when they heard that pisantry” are a weak and violent race which possible. With respect to the harbour on the the mummies of their olden Pharaohs were never produces, like the Fellahin, typical and Red Sea proposed for cession to the "King of being boated down stream by the abominable remarkable men. Take only two specimens of Kings, Johannes," I may say that the measure Frank.

the latter. One is Ismail Sádik (El-Mufattish), is theoretically good and practically evil. The The “poor down-trodden Fellah," senti- a son of the soil who could hold his own against port would serve only for the importation of mentally contrasted with his oppressors, the the ablest financiers of Europe. The other is arms and ammunition, and would make the Pashas and Beys, a bit of cant begun for a Arábi, who has graved his name upon the troublesome “Highlanders of Ethiopia " more political purpose during the Napoleonic days, memorial tablets of his native valley, and who, dangerous than at any period of their turbid was perpetuated by Lane and Gardner Wilkin- unless we are wise, will go down to posterity as history. As it is, the Egyptians cannot fight in son, and is repeated by the latest writers, a patriot-hero and a martyr to his faith. the mountains, and the Abyssinians fear the Malortié and Dicey. Ask Europeans who have We would willingly have seen something plains, a consideration which tends to keeping lived in the villages, and they will confirm my more about the Suez Canal than is given us in the peace. But the breech-loader and the statement that there is nowhere a more dogged pp. 306, 509 et seq. The author rightly terms magazine-gun, when provided with cartridges, and determined, turbulent and refractory, M. de Lesseps a “projector,” not, after the would change every condition. It is to be furiously fanatical, and, when excited, cruel fashion of our scribes, the “ great engineer,” a hoped that the Egyptian army of the future and bloodthirsty race than these clowns of retired consul ignorant of all engineering but will be built on the lines of the old East India Kemi, the Black Land. The home Press, which the amateur's. It was not his eloquence that company's force, a return to which is one of has read about the theoretical or ideal Fellah, prevailed with Said Pasha : it was the strong the crying wants of India. A correspondent asked with wonder, when commenting upon the support of the Tuileries. Had he been an informs me that all officers have been ordered bloodshed and arson of June 11, 82, how Englishman he would have been ignored by to study “classical Arabic," and that, when such “lambs had suddenly turned wolves.” his own Government, opposed by his fellow- they try it on the Fellahs, the latter are cursed Lambs, indeed! why, no fighting ram is more countrymen, and left to fight single-handed for not “knowing Arabic,” and make tracks, persistent and pugnacious, or less open to pity against a foreign host, and to fail. However, wondering the while what new. manner of and mercy, than an Egyptian peasant. And, if during the “sixty days' war” he unconsciously language has been got up for their benefit by the men are brutal, the women are, if possible, and right unwillingly did us the best of good the English. Our authorities ought to have

As Mr. Lane and “The Thousand turns. His emphatic patronising of Arábi, his heard of the late Spitta Bey's admirable GramNights and One Night” show, their morals are phrasing, his posing, and his promises of immu- mar of Egyptian; but I am not aware that of the vilest, and their modes of murdering are nity from attack kept the Canal open, although any Englishman who knows the language or unutterably horrible. At Tantah the poor arrangements had been made for closing it. the people is officially employed by England in Fellah” and his meck wife tied the limbs of This is not to be done by shovelling in earth and Egypt. slaughtered Franks to dogs' tails, poured petro- sand, which can be shovelled out almost as fast : Mr. Mackenzie (p. 417) lays down as follows leum upon the unfortunate brutes, and set it the true way is to lash together two or three the main factors of the great problem-how to on fire.

At Alexandria these bestial beings ships or dredges and to scuttle them; the reform Egypt:promenaded the streets with the remnants of obstruction would require dynamite, and this 1. To create a military and police force of slaughtered Europeans borne like flags on long wastes valuable time. The real want is a such a kind as to ensure public tranquillity; staves.

second water-way, and Mr. Wallace is right in 2. To introduce certain urgently required Per contra, the Fellah is remarkable for his in-objecting to an Alexandria-Suez line. The reforms, judicial and administrative; dependence (sui generis), his persistence, his affair has been complicated by a preposterous 3. To ameliorate the economic position of the bravery, and his talents—a fact which will not request for eight millions sterling at three and a peasantry; and be found in Mr. Wallace's pages. The villagers quarter per cent. interest, and by a pompous 4. To endow the Egyptian people with act as their own police and ministers of high claim to the monopoly of the Isthmus, while the certain political institutions-not immediately justice,” trying and punishing all criminal cases clarion note of the Gallic chanticleer has been wanted. within their mud walls. If man or woman followed by a loud gobbling from the bubbly- And now let us see what the last twelve break the law, especially of Rasm or immemorial jock of Stamboul. All we have to do is to months odd have done towards the desirable custom, the offence is carefully kept from the possess our souls in patience. M. de Lesseps work of giving Egypt a new and a "fair start.” “guardians” of society-magistrates and police has so mismanaged matters during his last Englishmen who have experience in such men. If certain "

“Commandments are violated, progress” that already some twenty thousand matters deprecated England occupying Egypt, he, she, or it is incontinently tied and trussed shares, sold at a depreciated figure, have been and would have preferred to see strong garrisons up, gagged, and cast into the River of Egypt. added to the 176,602 before held by England; at Port Said and Suez, leaving the Nile Valley Father Nilus could tell marvellous tales.

the bear is fated to beat the bull; and a “ finan- " to stew in its own broth.” The individual The persistence of the Fellah is as excep- cial-political operation” will presently transfer John Bull is masterful and overbearing tional. A drive to the Pyramids will show you all the stock to perfide Albion. Have patience, enough, but his Governments cringe rather troops of half-naked urchins running a mile in and be deaf to la blague!

than command; and, while the French rule a the forlorn hope of a copper; and in this point A second water-way is the more required as trifle too much, the English rule far too little. the boy is the father of the man. The adult will the days of the Euphrates Valley Railway are You cannot manage Moslems unless you take be bastinado'd within an inch of his life before he either done or have not yet dawned. With the the master tone. pays his lawful rent, and his wife will praise Russian at Kars, ready to march 10,000 men Then the circumstances of our occupation, him as she dresses his wounds. Under Sesostris, down south, we should be building a road for the Joint Control, Egyptian and English, placed the Fellah-soldier, who invented the Phalanx, the especial benefit of the invader. Ten years us in a false, or rather in an impossible, position. overran the nearer East. Under Mohammed ago it would have served to check his progress; It was the story of the two stools. For inAli and Ibrahim, he beat the Arabs at Bissel now it would only facilitate his attack. Not stance, when the cholera broke out at Damietta and the Turks at Nezib. Even a Moltke could that we have any fear in the final struggle, we should have isolated the town as we did the not save the Ottoman; and the late Gen. whatever the Russophobe may say. Chinese last plague village in Gujarát; we left the duty Jochmus told me that, when commanding the armies led by British officers will occupy to native authorities, and the results were some Tartar cavalry, he escaped defeat only by Moscow before the Muscovite reaches Calcutta. 29,000 deaths. And then we offendel the systematically declining battle.

The dogged Chap. xii., describing the army reform, common-sense of Europe by decrying quaranpluck of the gunners at the Alexandrian forts will interest military readers. Egypt no longer tine: because England in the high Temperates and at Tel-el-Kebir proves that the stock has wants the large forces and fleets with which she does not require such measures, ergo the subnot degenerated. The easy final defeat is once conquered her neighbours. But she must tropical Mediterranean must find them useless. readily explained. There was treachery in the have a considerable body of regulars; and I Hence our unfriends declared that with us air : foreigners say the Cavallerie de Saint- would rather see 15,000 than 5,650 men : all of the shop is now all-powerful, and that the George (gold sovereign) was battling for Eng- them will be required to defend her against lives of men are light weight compared with land; and the best and bravest will not stand Abyssinian raids and to protect the Equatorial £ s. d. firm when they suspect that their nearest neigh- provinces, even after peace shall have been re- The "economic condition " of the peasants is bours have been bought to leave them in the established. The Egyptian fleet is a mere show, worse than ever; they have a debt of some lurch. Had the “Rebs” been disciplined, and an article of luxury-costly, moreover, as it is twelve millions sterling; and the “ deficiency led by English or French officers, there would useless. The country wants only a few heavily of receipts” now figures, they say, at have been a very different tale. As a rule, the armed gun-boats to guard the African shores, £2,800,000. It will be years before the Fellah sight of blood does not terrify an Egyptian to put down the slave export, and to prevent learns the value of, and is able to effect, deepsoldier; it makes him only an “uglier customer.” Arab piracy. Subsidised lines of steamers, the ploughing—the only remedy for a surface-soil Mr. Wallace has not done justice to the “un- more the better, suffice to connect her with exhausted by cane and cotton. Manuring has

10 fr.

bei

im
1 M. 80 Pf.

12 M.

MYSTICS AND THE SACRAMENT.

been on the tapis for years, but nothing has

HISTORY

love, and reverence, who was one of the most been done. The villagers become more and GESCHICHTSQUELLEN der Prov. Sachsen u. angrenzender vertuousse and religiousse ladies that lived in more turbulent, and only martial law can gain MONUMENTA Germaniae historica. Auctorum antiquis- her time.” The mother and the daughter met us, or rather re-gain us, respect. “Egypt for simorum tomi VI pars prior. G. A. Symmachi quae

supersunt. the Egyptians” as much as you please; but at

Ed. O. Stark. 15*2Poetarum lati 1616; and there the daughter erected a pillar

norum medii aevi tomi II pars prior. 12 M. Berlin: present Egyptians must be trained for Egypt.

Weidmann.

to commemorate the event, and provided a Meanwhile, the supervision of imperial ques

PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY.

liberal dole for distribution to the poor on the tions, matters of finance, transactions involving

same day, and at the same place, every year, income and outcome, the magistracy and the NERING, An Fossile Pferde aus deutschen Diluvial

Ablagerungen u. ihre Beziehungen zu den lebenden for ever. The memory of her mother was the police, cannot but remain under English sur- Pferden. Berlin: Parey. 4M.

one sentiment in the daughter's life. Throughveillance; and the village Hampdens

RICHET, Ch. L'Homme et l'intelligence. Paris: Alcan. out her diary, which was kept with unfailing a race quickened by Arábi—here find a griev- VOLKELT, J.. Veb. die Möglichkeit der Metaphysik. regularity to a great old age, she counts time ance, and ventilate it.

Hamburg : Voss. 1M.
WEISSENBORN, H.

by incidents in her mother's life, in many of

Die irrationalen Quadratwurzeln We are evidently between the horns of a

Archimedes u. Heron. Berlin: Calvary.

which they had a common interest, which the dilemma, evacuation or annexation; and we 3 M. 60 Pf.

child whom she had served so well never must apply the usual British panacea—a

PHILOLOGY.

ceased to remember. compromise. Nothing can be worse than BIBLIOTHEK, assyriologische, hrsg. v. F. Delitzsch u. P. This Lady Margaret Countess of Cumberthose " extra-Parliamentary utterances,” those

Haupt. 3. Bd. 1. Abth. Leipzig: Hinrichs. 20 M. land died in 1616, and was interred beneath a

DELITZSCH, F. Die Sprache der Kossäer. Linguistischperiodical pledges of withdrawal volunteered

histor. Funde u. Fragen. Leipzig: Hinrichs. 10 M. stately altar-tomb, which still remains, on the by high authorities. They have kept the Nile FRANZ, W. Die lateinisch-romanischen Elemente south side of the altar in St. Lawrence church,

Althochdeutschen. Valley in a chronic excitement; they have

Strassburg: Trübner.

Appleby, rich with all the heraldry of the paralysed commerce and industry; and they IBN Ját's Commentar zu Zamachsari's Mufassal. Hrsg. Cliffords, and invested, as most persons will

v. G. Jahn. cannot fail, if_persisted in, to ruin the country,

2. Bd. 1. Hft. Leipzig : Brockhaus. admit, with the very strongest associations and and to make English mis-rule or no-rule a by- STUDIEN, romanische. 20. Hft. Verzeichniss der räto-claims. word among the nations. The only com- roman. Litteratur v. E. Boehmer. Bonn: Weber. Will it be believed that the vicar and church

3 M. 50 Pf. proinise is a bona fide protectorate established

wardens of Appleby are applying at this very for a term of years.

time for a faculty to remove this tomb to a For the benefit of those who propose evacua

CORRESPONDENCE.

different position in the church; and, not tion I am tempted to repeat the words which I

content with this, have actually opened the wrote after a last visit to Egypt in 1882:

vault before the faculty has been granted, and

Lansdowne, Edgbaston: Jan. 13, 1884. have suffered numbers of people to inspect it? “Many will consider the following statement

Will you permit me to point out, with re- Is all sentiment, all gratitude, extinct at Applesensational and exaggerated, whereas it is plain and ference to Mr. Webster's very interesting article by; and is the leaden shroud which conceals notorious fact. There is no second opinion upon on Valdés and Molinos (ACADEMY, January the remains of the great lady to be made, as the last English soldier leaves Alexandria the last 12, 1884), that the accusation brought against it has been, the subject of newspaper paraEnropean had better embark with him. The final the followers of the latter of neglecting graphs, idle gossip, and worse ? I trust, for exodus of our redcoats and our bluejackets will be Mass can only refer to the perfunctory attend the credit of Appleby, that the application for followed by a human hurricane such as the lively ance at High Mass? It was a grave accusa- the faculty will be withdrawn ; or, if it be annals of the Nile Valley have not yet witnessed. tion against them, as is proved by a letter unhappily persevered with, that the accordant As we are here, so here we must perforce rest. It from Cardinal Caraccioli,

printed in full in voice of the English public will approve of the is our second conquest of the goodly land which, the Appendix to Mr. Bigelow's admirable action of a few of the descendants of the all know-was offered in gift to England some years monograph, that they frequented the Holy illustrious Countess, who before its final fall. We honestly declined it then, Communion daily," which appears to have Chancellor of Carlisle to say that the faculty

are asking the but now the tyranny of Circumstance forces, nay, shocked the Cardinal very much, when they shall not issue. If the tomb needs strengthenhas forced, it upon us.

happened to be married people. It was said ing, then let it be strengthened; but by all Mr. Mackenzie, like Mr. Broadley, is seldom that they took the Sacrament “as though it means let it stay where it is. It is a fortunate found tripping; yet there are passages which were a cake,” but this meant no more than that thing for the people of Appleby that the Lady we would see changed. He must not talk of they took it without confession. It was part Anne cannot come back among them. the "unexplored region between the Dead Sea of the judgment upon Molinos that he should

J. RAINE. and the Gulf of Akaba” (p. 51): every inch of make sacramental confession only four times a ground is well known. In his note on Kurbash year, and receive the Sacrament. p. 39), he might have told readers that it Through the whole course of history few originated the French “ cravache.” Evkai figures seem to me more calm, gracious, and

London: Jan. 14, 1931. p. 71) misrepresents Aukáf-mortmain prop- beneficent than that of this Spanish priest. His

Mr. Taylor says that I think it "scientific erty bequeathed to mosques, &c. Dura)" temperament was wrought to such fine issues and necessary to go to Australian savages durrah = holcus, millet) should not be ren- that it appealed instinctively to the lofty and

“ for the interpretation of the poetical literadered “native maize.” The legitimacy of the the pure; he went about doing good; he ture of Periclean Greece." It Mr. Taylor slave-girl's son is at the bottom of the antique vanishes from our sight into his living tomb, regards the myth of Cronus-old in Hesiod's quarrel between the descendants of Isaac and without striving and without cry, and his voice time (Grote, ed. 1869, i. 15)—as a production Ishmael (p. 301). To old Mohammed Pasha is is no longer heard in the streets. So, always, of Periclean Greece, it seems needless to argue due the cultivation of cotton in Egypt, not to is it with the finest natures : apparent failure is further on the question. Mr. Taylor calls the Said Pasha in 1854 (p. 269). And will Mr. the unalterable seal of their mission, and the method which seeks to explain certain anomalies Wallace bear with us if we object to his phrase inmortal influence they exert comes invariably found among civilised people as survivals from *all were so jealous of each other” (p. 107)? from beyond the grave.

savagery “a nostrum which “has hitherto "Love each other!” is by no means equivalent

J. HENRY SHORTHOUSE.

proved to be no method at all.” The method to “ love one another!” And this disregard of

is that of Mr. Tylor and of Darwin. Whether the delicacies of our English threatens it with

it has been fruitless of results readers of Tylor, conversion to Ay-mericanism.

THE TOMB OF MARGARET COUNTESS OF Darwin, Lubbock, and McLennan may judge RICHARD F. BURTON.

CUMBERLAND.

for themselves.

York: Jan. 15, 1884. In his explanation of the myth of Cronus

Anyone knows that the chief person to whom Mr. Taylor says nothing of what may be called SELECTED FOREIGN BOOKS.

Appleby, in Westmoreland, ought to look back the Maori"variant,” though, indeed, the story

with pride and gratitude is Anne Countess of of Papa and Rangi varies very little from that GENERAL LITERATURE.

Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery. Through- of Gaea and Uranus. Now, why are savage BEERIER, T., et H. JOUIN. Histoire et Description de out the course of the chequered and somewhat myths to be left out, especially when the theory DEHX, P. Deutschland u. Orient in ihren wirthschafts

melancholy life of that great and religious lady, which explains the Greek myths explains the politischen Beziehungen. 1. Thl. Nach dem Orient. there was one person, above all others, to whom savage myths as well ? Mr. 'i'aylor's own exMünchen: Franz. 6M.

her thoughts reverted and her affections clung; planation is the sixth or seventh given on what FETTILET, O. La Veuve. Paris : Calmann Lévy. and that was her mother, Margaret Russell, a he calls “ the old orthodox lines.” It is very

3 fr.50 c. KAUPASSANT, Guy de. Au Soleil. Paris : Havard. daughter of the Bedfords, widow of George ingenious, and exactly as convincing, “easy, POWTICH, H. de. Administration de la Ville

de Paris et

Earl of Cumberland, the great sea-captain and and “ reasonable (especially easy) as the du Département de la Seine. Paris : Guillaumin. courtier. In the Lady Anne's will she ex- others which Mr. Taylor calls unsatis

If the myths be transparent,” Tento. Correspondance de Madame Gourdan, presses her deep gratitude

to her mother, and factory. äite La petite Comtesse. Paris : Marpon & Flam” says, as I doe myselfe, som I desire my why do so many learned critics see wholly marion.fr,

succeeding posteritye to have her in memory, different meanings in each of them? I

THE MYTH OF CRONUS.

48

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“ Life

» but we

also ventured to explain the myth of the

APPOINTMENTS FOR NEXT WEEK. The principal feature, accordingly, wherein mutilation of Cronus as a “nature myth”-a MONDAY, Jan. 21, 4 p.m. Asiatic: “The Origin of the the present work differs from Euclid's first myth setting forth how Heaven and Earth were Indian Alphabet," by Mr. R. N. Cust.

two books, to which it corresponds, is the

5 p.m. London Institution : “Ornament," by originally_thrust apart, as in China, and by

Mr. H. H. Statham.

arrangement of the propositions. It must not, Indra in India. To support this theory, I 8p.m. Royal Academy: - Art as influenced by however, be understood either that all of advanced the unmistakably transparent Maori

the Men," V., Michel Angelo, by Mr.J. E. Hodgson.

Aristotelian : * Hume's Treatise of Euclid's propositions are given or that his version of the same event; nor can I see, even

Human Nature,” I., by Mr. H. W. Carr. after reading Mr. Taylor's letter, why this 8 p.m. Victoria Institute : * Design in Crea- methods of proof are retained. As a matter comparison should not be made. The most TUESDAY, Jan. 2. Per Royal Postitution : “Coins additions, the former being less numerous

of fact, there are some omissions and some scholarly mythologists do not disdain to go to the Hottentots when they can show that a 8p.m. Anthropological: Annual Meeting, Presi.

than the latter. Some idea of the contents of

dential Address, by Prof. Flower. dead chief named “Lame Knee" is really the 8 p.m. Colonial Institute : "The Education of the work may be gained from the statement Dawn, and the Dawn really the Infinite.

the South African Tribes," by Mr. W. Gresswell: that book i., entitled “The Straight Line," I do not know, or have forgotten, who is the

Association for the Improvement of
Geometrical Teaching: Annual Meeting.

is divided into five sections—(1) Angles at a authority for Mr. Taylor's statement that the

Civil Engineers: “The Adoption of Delphian fetich stone fell from heaven. His

Standard Forms of Test-Pieces for Bars and Plates," Point, (2) Triangles, (3) Parallels and Paral

by Mr. W. Hackney. theory of the connexion of sidus and oíonpos is

lelograms, (4) Problems, (5) Loci ; book ii., WEDNESDAY, Jan. 23,8 p.m. Society of Arts: "Science far from being generally accepted. His notion Teaching in Elementary Schools,” by Mr. W. L. entitled “Equality of Areas,' is divided into

Carpenter. that a crescent-shaped aërolite, or the crescent

two sections—(1) Theorems, (2) Problems.

8p.m. Geological: “The Serpentine and Assomoon (or both ?), gave rise to the sickle of ciated Rocks of Porthalla Cove" by Mr. J. H. The whole is prefaced by a Logical IntroducCronus in the story is almost too ingenious.

Collins; ". Outline Geology of Arabia," by Mr.Sov tion, and a Syllabus of Geometrical ConstrucOne explanation would be enough; but the Years' Work," by Mr. T. Mellard Reade.

tions which it is recommended that beginners double suggestion of a crescent-shaped aërolite THURSDAY, Jan. 24 pm. Ropel Institutioner Music should be exercised in prior to, or concurrently or a crescent moon “ mutilating the centre of qp.m. London Institution: Mozart's Operatic with, the study of theoretical geometry. the sky," when added to Schwartz's sickle, Works," by Mr. W. A Barrett.

8 p.m. Royal Academy: which is the rainbow, and to Preller's sickle

" Art as influenced by

As regards the methods of proof, they are,

the Men," VI., Raphael, by Mr. J. E. Hodgson. as the natural weapon of the Harvest-god,

in general, simple and clear. Exception

8 p.m. Society of Arts : "The Manufacture of demonstrates that theories of this sort are

Gas from Limed Coal,” by Prof. Wanklyn.

must be made of the demonstration of the really too numerous and easy. FRIDAY, Jan. 25, 7 p.m. Civil Engineers : "Tbe Expen

very

first theorem in book i., which is need. diture of Power in Steamship Propulsion," by Mr. A. LANG, J. J. Bourne.

lessly difficult. The same objection may be 8 p.m. Browning : “ Paracelsus," by Miss Arthur.

alleged in a less degree respecting the second 8 p.m. Quekett.

theorem. It would be too much to say that

9 p.m. Royal Institution : " Kilima-njaro, the ENGLISH PUBLISHERS AND AMERICAN BOOKS. Snow-clad Mountain of Equatorial Africa,” by Mr. perfect consistency has been attained (it may

H. H. Johnston.
London: Jan. 15, 1884. SATURDAY, Jan. 26, 3 p.m. Royal Institution :

be that perfect consistency is undesirable in a We regret that Messrs. Field & Tuer should

and Literature under Charles I.,” II., by Prof. text-book for beginners) in the treatment of

Henry Morley. have brought our names into their letter which

3 p.m.

Physical: “Direct_Reading Electric general and special cases of theorems. In appears in the ACADEMY of Saturday last with

Measuring Instruments.” by Prof. Ayrton and illustration of what is meant, reference may

Prot. J. Perry, The Electromotive Force set up be made to book ii., theorems 1, 2, 11, to reference to Don't, because it compels us to during Interdefusion," by Dr. C. R. Alder Wright correct their statement so far as it concerns us.

and Mr. C. Thompson.

which one, two, three figures respectively are We did not say we would send "& share of

given. Would it not be preferable to give profits to the American publishers ;

SCIENCE.

two figures to each of these theorems, and to did send a cheque to Messrs. D. Appleton & Co.

omit the special case when two particular in recognition of our having used the book, and The Elements of Plane Geometry. Part I. the following extract from a letter received Prepared by a Committee of the Associa: points of the figure coincide ?

Mr. C. L. Dodgson in the Introduction to from them will speak for itself :

tion for the Improvement of Geometrical

his recent edition of the first two books of We have just received yours of the 6th ulto.,

Teaching. (Sonnenschein.)

Euclid) recalls attention to the principle that are much gratified to find the cheque It would perhaps be out of place to give here when a theorem has been proved for one case which you were kind enough to enclose. ** Don't has had quite a phenomenal success here, the association on whose authority the present and he modifies accordingly the concluding

a full statement of the objects aimed at by it may be taken as proved for all similar cases, and we trust it may do well with you."

work is issued; one of them, however, may be part of the sixteenth proposition. But the We based our edition—which was the first briefly mentioned-namely, the substitution, in principle applies to many more propositions announced in England, as a reference to the the place of Euclid, of a manual of elementary than the one signalised by Mr. Dodgson ; in and we paid an editor to prepare it for English geometry more in harmony with the present the present work one may specify pp. 19, 22, readers. It is therefore copyright.

state of mathematical science. The defects of 23, 31, 32, 35, 53, where it would be advisable GRIFFITH & FARRAN.

Euclid's Elements as a text-book for beginners to change the phrase “Similarly it may be have long been known to be numerous, and in shown” into “ Hence also it has been

the various editions which have been published shown." Yo Leadenhalle Presse, E.C.: Jan. 12, 1884.

since 1482 many attempts have been made Both sets of Problems and the examples Your foot-note to our letter in to-day's either to remove thom or at least to point of Loci have been judiciously chosen and ACADEMY may be misunderstood, as, in the them out. The most serious defect, since it arranged ; and it is therefore with some hesiinstance referred to, the American author is is the one least capable of remedy, is the im- tation that one suggests, in view of book ii., a book from an author outright, and thereby perfect classification of the propositions. Mr. the insertion of the problem “ To construct a becomes sole owner of the copyright. He then Todhunter (see his Conflict of Studies, p. 187) square on a given straight line,” the alteraoffers it at a certain price to us, at the same thinks that it is to the influence of the classi- tion (a very slight one) of the order of the time mailing advance sheets. We approve the ficatory sciences that we owe the notion that problems in book ü. to 1, 2, 5, 3, 4, 6, and book, accept the terms, and publish simulta- it is desirable to have all the properties of the addition to book ii. of a section on Loci, neously with him, or perhaps a day or two triangles thrown together, then all the proper- which might consist of two problems-To earlier, which certainly, according to the best ties of rectangles, and all the properties of find the locus of a point the sum, and the legal opinion we can get, secures the copy-circles; and he quotes a statement from De difference, of the squares of whose distances right here.

FIELD & TUER.

Morgan that “Euclid, fortunately for us, from two fixed points is constant. If two [That residence on British territory (in addi- never dreamed of a geometry of triangles as further suggestions may be tolerated, I should tion to prior publication) is necessary in order distinguished from a geometry of circles, but propose a verbal change—and one not even to obtain copyright in the United Kingdom is made one help out the other as he best could.” verbal, for it concerns only a letter. The a proposition usually laid down in the books, Surely it is a sufficient answer to this to say first is to omit the word " though it has never yet been so decided. Pub- that Euclid has to a considerable extent given definition of a trapezium; the second, to spell

only" in the call their books "copyright," and then sit us a geometry of triangles as distinguished the word "shown" always in the same way. quiet under what would be a manifest infringe- from a geometry of circles, and that classifica- It is a matter of some importance, though ment, in preference to incurring the cost and tion is one of the main objects of every it is one which is easily overlooked, that in risk of legal proceedings.-ED. ACADEMY.] science.

the description of identically equal figures

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"Mr. Moore exhibits one picture-than which he never paluted . better."-Morning Post, "A new and exquisite picture."

--Stanlard. "Rernarkablo for its refinement of line and delicate harmony of colour."

Globe,

to an attractive exhibition,"Daily News

Particulars on application to the Publishers, Messrs. DOWDESWELL &
DOWDESWELLS, 133, Now Bond-street.

the letters which denote corr sponding points out his intention. Prof. H. Ethé is, we under- Mothe, the French ambassador, left England only should be written in the corresponding order. stand, now engaged on an edition of Yusuf in 1583; Alençon sued for Elizabeth's hand in In few manuals of elementary geometry is and Zalikha to appear in the Aryan series of the 1581. In 1589-92 no less than fifty separate pub“ Anecdota Oxoniensia.”

lications on French affairs were registered at this the case, but it is so here. I have not

Stationers' Hall. Sir T. Coningsby's diary of been so solicitous to indicate the merits of WITHIN the last few years, fragments of Essex's 4,000 volunteers in 1591 at the siege of this text-book (for it has great and

substan- several papyri and

MSS. have been discovered Rouen, &c., shows how the English were entertial merits) as to point out one or two trifling in Egypt, and have found their way to Berlin, tained by Longaville, Biron, Henry, and the particulars where improvement seemed pos- of a parchment codex of the fourth or fifth cen- girls. Biron, in some points of his character

Paris, Vienna, &c. Among them are fragments French ladies, and how Biron praised English sible. Anyone who has attempted to write tury, comprising the Responsa of Papinianus, historical, is well described by Rosaline. He said an elementary mathematical text-book will the most renowned of the classical Roman he should die in an hospital: hence, perhaps, appreciate the difficulty of the task imposed lawyers, with notes of his disciples Ulpianus ville's character is historical too. King Henry and on the committee, and will welcome with and Paullus. The fragments at Berlin have gratitude this result of their labours. been edited by Krüger, those at Paris by mission in 1586 ; and she brought a bevy of beauties

a princess of France actually met on a diplomatic J. S. MACKAY. Dareste. It is quite within the range of with her, who were called "V'escadron volante.”

probability that similar fragments have been As to the Russians, the revival of intercourse with

purchased as curiosities by English tourists in Russia in Elizabeth's reign is well known. About SCIENCE NOTES.

Egypt. Should this be so, the possessors of 1582 the Czar proposed to marry a kinswoman of

such are invited, in the interests of scholarship, Queen Elizabeth named Lady Mary Hastings, and The Zoological Society of London has ap- to communicate their addresses to Messrs. the Russian ambassador had an elaborate interpointed a committee, consisting of Prof. Flower, Trübner & Co., Ludgate Hill.

view with her in 1583, in which his interpreter Prof. Jeffrey Bell, Mr. H. H. Johnston, Mr.

behaved with ridiculously extravagant adoration.

THE new volume in Messrs. Trübner's series Lady Mary ultimately refused the Czar, but she Mivart, and Mr. Sclater, to prepare a memorial volume of the scientific papers of the late of "Simplified Grammars is Danish, by was known as the “ Empress of Muscovia." William Alexander Forbes, prosector of the Miss E. Otté, who will also undertake Swedish. Lastly, Shakspere drew Armado from a real mansociety. It is purposed to publish these papers Among the future announcements are Assyrian, Fantastico Monarco, on whom Churchyard

wrote in a form similar to that which was adopted in by Prof. Sayce; Burmese, by Dr. E. Forch- a poem. Thus the historical element in “Love's the memorial volume of Forbes's predecessor,

ammer ; Egyptian, by Dr. S. Birch; Lettish Labour's Lost” was strong. On all grounds the Garrod. Mr. Sclater will edit the volume, Mr. and Lithuanian, by Dr. M. I. A. Völkel; and play deserved the most careful attention.- A long

discussion, by a full meeting, followed the paper, Johnston will prepare a biographical notice, Turkish, by Mr. J. W. Redhouse.

which was highly praised by all the speakers. with portrait, and Prof. Bell will act as secretary and treasurer. MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES.

FINE ART. THE last part of the Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society opens with an New SHAKSPERE SOCIETY -(Friday, Jan. 11.) ALBERT MOORE'S PICTURE, "COMPANIONS." A Photo-engraving.

In progress. Same size as original-164 by 84. interesting paper by Mr. Ralph Richardson, F. J. FURNIVALL, Esq., Director, in the Chair.- An exquisito picture."

-Times. on " Agassiz and Glacial Geology,” being the After the adoption of the treasurer's audited cash anniversary address delivered before the society account for 1883, Mr. Sidney L. Lee read a paper at the beginning of last session. In this discourse, on “Love's Labour's Lost." He pleaded against

"Mr. Moore's graceful Companions' forms an excellent donne douche which displays great appreciation of Agassiz's the condemnation of the play by the older school work, Mr. Richardson gives a faithful sketch of critics. Coleridge put it in its right place as "The gem of this variod and delightful exhibition."-Academy. of the history of opinion on glacial questions Shakspere's earliest genuine play; then its faults during the last half-century. The same number become easily excusable, and its method of extreme contains, among other communications, some Stratford, and gave us the measure of his educa- The Ornamental Arts of Japan. By G. A.

interest. (1) It set before us Shakspere fresh from original suggestions on petrological nomencla- tion there. It had six village characters-Shakture, by Mr. Kinahan, of the Geological Survey spere's

schoolmaster, Thomas Hunt, as Holofernes ; Audsley. Part I. (Sampson Low.) of Ireland.

the curate, Sir Nathaniel ; the constable, Dull; the The dissolution of the literary partnership of clown, Costard; the dairymaid, Jaquenetta ; and Messrs. Audsley and Bowes can scarcely be

the forester. It gave us the country-boys' games : PHILOLOGY NOTES.

“more sacks to the mill," "hide and seek," regretted when it results in the production of The Philological Society's annual “ Dic-whip-top,” and “push-pin;” the masque too. such valuable and beautiful books as Mr. tonary meeting” is held on the evening of it had the school-boy's

recollections of Ovid, Bowes' Japanese Marks and Seals and the magJanuary 18, the day on which this number of Its jests on legal terms,

Mantuanus, and scraps of French and Italian. nificent undertaking of which the first part the ACADEMY appears in London. Copies of showed Shakspere's early knowledge of law, and his has just been published. It was always to be the first part of the society's new English following Sidney's Apology advice his regard for hoped, if not to be expected, that a work of Dictionary, edited by its president, Dr. J. A. H. that writer. (2) Its good-humoureri satire brought the same importance as The Keramic Art of Murray, will then be laid on the table. We the fashionable follies of the London of Shakspere's Japan should be devoted to those other decorasongratulate the society on the fact that this day before us, the wits.?? and their extravagances tive arts in which the Japanese excel rather first part of its twenty-four years' work is thus of speech and eccentricities of act. Five faults at length in type, to witness what the history in language condemned by Puttenham were ridi- more than less as compared with pottery and of our language' really is, and to justify the culed in the play; and, however tedious to us porcelain. In lacquer work especially, and society in having given up the first partial now, the satire on these follies at the time struck in the decorative use of metals, they are scheme of a mere Supplement to Johnson and home. (3) The plot divided into two-the men's Richardson suggested by Archbishop Trench, ladies. (a) Academies were much talked of then ;

and their wooing of the French beyond all nations; and scarcely less praise

can be given to their embroidery and paintand having adopted the plan of a complete both Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Nicholas Bacon ing of tissues and paper, their enamel and Dictionary of English as contrasted with wrote schemes for academies for the Queen's wards. drawings of animals. This expectation is Anglo-Saxon-proposed by_its earlier editors, Young men lived loosely, and at universities and Herbert Coleridge and Mr. F. J. Furnivall, and the Inns of Court did not work, but haunted

now in a fair way of being realised, if we developed by its present editor and president, taverns and gambled, as Harrison and

Abbot com- may judge, as we safely may, of the work as Dr. Murray. The University of Oxford, too, plained. Ascham pleaded for discipline, and the a whole by this very promising instalment. deserves our gratitude for supplying the money French ladies set the dandies the right task-to It would nevertheless be premature to that brings the work out.

study souls in agony, to see the realities of sad criticise it as a complete work. So fragFredauss's second epic, Ydsuf and Zalikha, sentatives of looseness and gallantry. Thin 1303 mentary a method of publication is more in s poem of about six thousand verses, which he Robert of Brunne noted this as their special sin favour in France than in England. We have composed after the completion of his Shahnama, But in 1591 (or 1589) Shakspere naturally put the all things begun and nothing ended : a bit of and the value of which is enhanced by the fact leading Frenchmen of the day into his play, for, the Preface; so many pages of letterpress belongthat it is the earliest poetical version of the Armada having set Spain aside, Henry of Navarre ing to one section, so many belonging to anBiblical story of Joseph, has never yet been-ef. Macaulay's “Ivry”—and his nobles were the published. The Bodleian possesses two MSS. cynosure of English eyes, the hope of the Pro- other; anå of the illustrations a miscellaneous of this important work; and there is also one

testant cause in France. English volunteers served assortment which promises some trouble of in the British Museum, one in India, and a

with Henry, and Shakspere must have known some arrangement to the binder when all is done. fragment in the library of the Royal Asiatic of them. Lord Biron was their best friend in We are not sure that such a tantalising method Society. The late distinguished Persian scholar, wrote two plays on him; Lord Longaville was one

France, and so well known here that Chapman of issue does not stimulate curiosity and :. H. Morley, long cherished the idea of of Henry's most prominent leaders ; Dumaine, the ensure a greater amount of attention than if publishing it, but was prevented from carrying Duc de Maine, was popular in England; de la it were quite straightforward. Especially is

this likely to be so with regard to the letter truculent aspect. It is no use to attempt The Virgin and Child” (272—lent by A. press, for, in volumes of the portentous size prevarication or falsehood, for there on a Casella, Esq. ) is one of those which, from this of these folios, looking at the pictures is apt to stand are two headsone pale, female, and point of view, call for special notice. The suffice, and some twenty or more of the gigantic pitying (the head of Hearing), the other, authorship is, we believe, disputed. Some have pages to be read consecutively appears a task male, pitiless, and scarlet (the head of Seeing)Pollaiuolo, others to Filippo Lippi. Here it is more formidable than it really is. If we From the mouth of the latter jets a fearful exhibited under the modest title of “Florenmistake not, the articles on each of the sub- torrent of red flame or light upon the sinner. tine school.” The Virgin is seated in front, jects dealt with will extend to something like in the background another wretch is being with the Infant Christ in her lap; on her this length; and they will be too short, rather shown in a mirror the act of incendiarism for right are two angels standing. Perhaps few than too long, for the student, who, unless he which he is condemned. There he sees him- pictures by Old Masters have come down to us possess the fine volume on Japan by M. Gonze, self plainly as he applied the torch to a house. so free from obliteration as the present one. recently published in France, will be glad to The rest show various terrible modes of We have thus little difficulty in " analysing" study a work upon which evident care has | punishment—by red and green demons and in which the forms of the figures in different

the style of this most impressive composition, been taken to make the information given as snakes, by fire and whirlwind; some are being aspects stand out very clearly. The peculiar exhaustive and aecurate as possible.

pounded in a mortar, some stuck with needles, oval shape of the angels' heads, with the hair Of the services which photography is able some crushed between stones, and all is fire falling down in quiet lines, the articulation in to render to art the illustrations to this sump- and blood. It is gratifying to know that the the fingers, and the shape of the ear are so many tuous publication are even a more striking Japanese no longer regard such pictures with characteristic features to be met with in all the instance than those to The Keramic Art of favour, but we are glad that some of them genuine works of Raffaelino del Garbo, a master Japan, and do great credit to Messrs. Lecher- have been preserved. Cosmo MONKHOUSE.

by whom there are numerous drawings in the

British Museum. tier, the chromo-lithographers. We doubt

In taking a more general whether in truth of colour they are all quite

view, we may say that the figures remind one equal to some of Mr. William Griggs's per- THE ITALIAN PICTURES AT BURLING- Raffaellino owed his artistic education. The formances—for instance, his plates to Mr.

TON HOUSE.

Child, who is laughing or smiling, has a someVincent Robinson's book on Oriental Carpets- Among the numerous Italian pictures, especially what strange look. Apparently the artist did and we think that in some cases the texture of the fifteenth century, there are a few to which not succeed well in overcoming the difficulties of the ground (crape, silk, paper, &c.) might art-historians will attach a special interest. The of expressing gaiety, nor, may we add, did have been indicated more clearly'; but there first picture we meet on entering Room IV. is a Pontormo in some of his pictures at Florence, is far more to praise than to blame in triptych. (216—lent by Charles Butler, Esq.) nor perhaps Raphael in one of his pictures these exquisite and elaborate facsimiles. So which is assigned in the Catalogue to the at Panshanger, exhibited some time ago at far as can be judged at present, the examples - school of Filippo Lippi." I do not want to Burlington House (a work not entirely by are well chosen.

That ineffable smile to which Of the well-known skill examination of this picture, may feel that a Leonardo da Vinci gave expression in the

. of the Japanese in drawing birds none could painting displaying such apparent deficiencies, “Mona Lisa," painted at the same time, was be much better than the swimming duck on as, for instance, in the proportions of the figures, not attained by either of the younger artists ; crape-silk, the embroidered geese, and the cannot well be by a great master. Still, I have but it is interesting to trace the influence crane painted on silk. This last, though we myself not the slightest doubt that it is Fra on contemporary art of the expression in understand from the accompanying descrip- Filippo's own work, and not a pupil's. As a Leonardo's unique portrait. The two portraits tion that it is not by an artist of the very by good artists, as well as careful pictures by and (268) a lady (lent by W. Drury.Lowo

matter of course, there may exist inferior works representing (261) a young man in a red cap highest reputation, is singularly characteristic inferior hands. Hence the confusion in the Esq.) may have been ascribed to Masaccio of the quaint gestures of the bird, and forms, minds of those who profess to be able to settle at the time when even in public galleries with the cleverly treated jungle of tall seeded such questions on the principle of their own all sorts of Florentine portraits of the end grass in which it stalks, a design of a very “natural artistic perception, or what painters of the fifteenth century were given to this ingenious and attractive kind. As facsimiles technically term insight.' The reasons why I artist. It is not very long since the date of none, perhaps, of the plates are better than the accept this picture as a genuine one are—firstly, Masaccio's death, formerly put down at 1443, fine specimens of incrusted work, with the the tone and harmony of the pale colours, which has been corrected to 1428, and that his share in natural colours of trees and flowers, birds and are the same as we meet in every one of the the fresco cycle of the Brancacci Chapel has insects, imitated in ivory, mother-o'-pearl, and master's authentic works, but never in the been distinctly recognised. The two portraits various stones and metals

. By the side of the mode of rendering certain details—for in- Ghirlandajo. A replica of the female head is in

numerous productions of his school. Secondly, here ascribed to Masaccio are by Domenico such delicate fictions the “hardstone” incrus- stance, the folds, the hands, the shape of the the Berlin Museum (83). The three predella tations of the Italians seem clumsy and vul- ear-matters which, though in themselves pictures of another Tuscan artist, Domenico gar. Among the more beautiful decorated apparently trifling, have yet something to Beccafumi, of Siena (270, 274, and 276—lent by fabrics may be mentioned one of the curious do with the artist's style-so much so, indeed, W. Graham, Esq.), representing scenes of the tissues of silk and gilt paper, and a beautiful that in cases like the present one they Virgin's life, are very spirited in their execution. brown and buff butterfly design in silk and are the true test of original production. Lord Wemyss possesses a beautiful Madonna velvet. Fra Filippo's hasty temperament is not seldom by the same artist. No other works of his have

The portrait It is to be regretted that the author has reflected

in his productions. When in 1451 I been able to find in England. It is to be regretted that the author has Antonio del Branca, of Perugia, commissioned of a youth (192—lent by Lord Lansdowne) been unable to unravel the historical or Fra Filippo to paint a picture worth seventy displays, in its smooth flesh-tints and deepmythological mysteries involved in a series florins, he produced a work so unsatisfactory to toned colour, the style of Puligo, an imitator of delicately executed miniatures (sect. i., his employer that the latter sued the painter for of Andrea del Sarto, to which latter the picture plate xi.), but it is not often that Mr. Audsley having produced an inferior work. Another is here ascribed. Although the contours of is at a loss. Of a series of pictures of the time, when Carlo Marsuppini engaged Fra his figures," remarks Vasari, in a passage upon Japanese Inferno he gives a very clear and Filippo to paint an altar-piece for a church at the style of this master, full account. These pictures, due to the Arezzo, he exhorted the artist—so Vasari says “are

so slightly defined that they are, in a imagination of a Japanese Dante or Sweden

—“to give particular attention to the hands, manner, obliterated, thereby concealing many deborg, have more than an artistic interest, of.” There may have come down to us a greater on the ground of the picture, yet, his colouring

because his execution had been much complained fects, the figures being partly lost and indistinct showing, as they do, how similar are the number of carefully executed pictures by other being very beautiful, and the heads having an exnatural notions of many peoples with regard great artists; but, whether careful or not, quisite expression, the works of this artist give very to final judgment and punishment. In the whether worked out most elaborately or merely great pleasure.” first we see miserable souls shivering on the sketched, it is undisputable that the individu- Bronzino's portrait of a young prince, with bank of a river; some have crossed, not by ality of character in the great fourteenth- and the emblems of his tutelary saint (St. Louis Charon's boat, but apparently by wading, to fifteenth-century artists is always distinctly of France ?), as the fashion of the time would the opposite shore, where they fall on their marked in some way or other ; whereas pictures have it-compare No. 24 in the National Gallery knees before a terrible female monster with a

of their schools, however pleasant, will never -illustrates the last stage in the development

come up to that standard. This very reason of Florentine portraiture (168—also lent by white woolly pate. In the next scene they obliges me to dwell on a few pictures only, Lord Lansdowne). are in the judgment-hall undergoing a terrible selected from this attractive, but somewhat Among the North Italian pictures there is a examination before a blood-red judge of promiscuous, show.

series of portraits (234-236, 240-242, 248-250,

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