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foreign Reviews-is more noticeably excellent PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY. by a leaf, as in Latin inscriptions, but otherin the new number than in its predecessors. BOISSIER, E. Flora orientalis. Vol. 5. Fasc.2. Mono wise the words (except in l. 5) are not separated

cotyledonearum pars 2. Gymnospermae. Acoty- from one another. THE German literature of Positivism is ledoneae. Vasculares. Basel: Georg. 12 M.

HELLAND, A. Studier over Islands petrografi og The inscription reads as follows, the leaf growing. Since 1880 much has been done to

geologi. Christiania : Cammermeyer. 3 kr. render the philosophy of Comte more accessible LATZEL, R.

being represented by a full-stop and ligatures

Die Myriopoden der oesterreichischto the German public, and it has been the

ungarischen Monarchie. 2. Hälfte. Die Simphylen, by hyphens :
Pauropoden u. Diplopoden. Wien: Hölder. 16 M.

1. εκκαιδεχετητηsubject of an entire course of lectures in at PETTERSEN, R.. Bidrag til de norske kyströgs geologi.

-S III. Christiania: Cammermeyer. 2 kr.

2. ιδωντυμβωσκεφθανί least one university. The article by Dr. Eugen

Description physique d'Attique.

3. υπομοιγης. ερμη Oswald in a recent number of Auf der Höhe SCHMIDT, J; E. J.

Météorologie et Phénoménologie. Athens : Beck. (April), on “Positivism in England,” deserves 5 fr.

4. κομμαγην {:} vetos

PHILOLOGY. notice not only as a valuable addition to this

5. φιλιβιωτος οδειτης literature, but as probably the most compre- ABEL,, C. Sprachwissenschaftliche Abhandlungen. Leipzig: Friedrich. 10 M.

6. χαιρεσυπαιπαροδου hensive and scholarly account yet offered of a CHRIST, W. Homer u. die Homeriden. München :

7. κηνπερθνητονβιο(ν) movement which, at the lowest estimate, will Franz. 2 M. 70 Pl.

8. ερπης . ωκυτατη-τι rank among the memorable eccentricities of the DUTSCHKE, H. Anleitung zur Inscenirung antiker Tragödien. I. Sophokles, Koenig Oedipus. Leip

9. τηςπ-αρμη-σουιωνεπι century. Dr. Oswald himself is clearly not one

zig : Fues. 1 M. 20 Pf. of the brotherhood ; but he writes without EUCLIDIS opera omnia. Ediderunt I. L. Heiberg et H.

10. κιμωη ρονγη . κουφου Menge. Euclidis elementa. Ed. et latine interanimus, and his impartiality is the more

? pretatus I. L. Heiberg. Vol. II. Leipzig : remarkable in a member of the nation for Teubner. 4M. 50 Pf.

11. σεα--0γγαροπαιςερμης which Comte reserved his harshest criticism, GALENI PERGAMENI, C.,

scripta minora. Recensuerunt

12. βη ... J. Marquandt. J. Müller, G. Helmrich. Vol. I. and to the extraordinary achievements of which

Leipzig: Teubner. 2 M. 10 Pf.

"On the 16th day of the month Idon was prehe continued to the end almost ludicrously GUENTHER, K. De genuini quem vocant dativi usu maturely buried with lamentations Herme(s), the

Homerico. Cöthen: Schulze. 1 M. 60 Pf. blind.

descendant of Kommagên, Filibiôtos, a wayfarer. PLOTINI Enneades. Praemisso Porphyrii de vita Farewell, thou boy, from off the way, although In the Revista Contemporanea for May Señor

Plotini deque ordine librorum ejus libello.

Volkmann. Vol. II. Leipzig: Teubner. 6 M. 40 Pi. along mortal life thou crawlest. Through the exJordana y Morera begins a work on the

ceeding swiftness of thy target, when thou wentest “Natural Curiosities and Social Character of

against Kimiệngê ... the boy Hermes ...” the United States." It is pleasantly written,


Idôn must be the name of a month, since and the judgment is highly favourable to the

the 16th of the ides ” would make no sense. Americans. Philadelphia, both socially and as A GREEK INSCRIPTION FROM BROUGH

It is curious that Ida is said to have been a city, is preferred to New York. Rodriguez


the first Anglian king of Northumbria. The Villa continues his history of the campaign

Oxford : June 8, 1884.

contracted form at the end of the second line in Flanders of 1647. Alvarez Sereix translates A very interesting discovery was made between seems intended for paveis instead of plaváv. M. de Lapparent's lecture on the crust of the four and five years ago at Brough-under- TUMBáoke is an extraordinary word, but the earth delivered before the Geographical Society Stanmore, in the county of Westmoreland. sense is clear. 'Ομοιγή evidently stands for of Paris ; and D. Luis Barthe criticises favour - Brough was the Verterae of the Romans, a oiuwxh. Néros is the Latin nepos, which is used ably Quinet's posthumous work on the genius station garrisoned by the "Numerus Direct- in Keltic inscriptions with the meaning of of the Greeks. But perhaps the most striking orum,” on the road from York to Carlisle. In “ descendant.” Prof. Rhậs tells me that“waythings in these numbers are two little poems by 1879 the present vicar, the Rev. W. Lyde, when farer ” is also an epithet which occurs in Keltic M. Gutierrez-" On a Fan” and “Solitude; engaged in restoring the church of St. Michael, lapidary texts. The final consonant of Biov is the last, on the Gypsies as a people alone found that the old porch had been partly omitted in l. 7. The noun ikutátns has been among the nations. The current novel, just built with the help of sepulchral and other formed from the superlative, and parma was begun, is a translation of Whyte Melville's stones. Among these was one with a Latin the Latin word specially applicable to the Keltic “ Satanella."

inscription recording the name of Septimius target. of seems used with a temporal significaSeverus; another was the stone which is the tion. 'Epuñ is a Greecised form of the Keltic subject of my present communication.

Erema (gen. Eremon from Erem, the equivalent SELECTED FOREIGN BOOKS.

The stone is about two feet in length and one of the Latin Agricola), which is still further

in width, and is engraved upon one side. At Greecised in l. 11 by the addition of the Greek GENERAL LITERATURE.

the top it is ornamented with two squares, noninative suffix. 'It reminds us of the LatinBONNAFFE, E. Dictionnaire des Amateurs français au divided by cross-lines into eight triangles, and isation of Welsh names at a later period.

XVII Siècle. Paris : Quantin. 20 fr. DIEULAFOY, M. L'Art antique de la Perse. 1re Partie. on either side is the so-called palm-branch Kommagêni or Kommagêne (the final letter

** Livr: Les Monuments de la Vallée du Polvar- found on both pagan and Christian monuments may be either e or ) is compared by Prof. DUPLESSIS, G. Les Emblemes d'Alciat: les Livres a of the classical age. Between the palm-branches Rhỹs with the Keltic Komogann, which he has

Gravure au XVIe siècle. Paris : Rouam. 5 fr. runs an inscription in twelve es, which has found in an Ogmic inscription; and he suggests GOBGES, J. M. La Dette publique : Histoire de la evidently been cut subsequently to them. Rente française. Paris : Guillaumin. 4 fr.

that Filibiôtos is Macbeth, fili- representing OSMAN-BEY. Le Canal maritime de Corinthe envisage A photograph and casts of the inscription Mac, and beth being assimilated to the Greek

aux Points de Vue stratégique et militaire et ses Rapports à la Question d'Orient. Athens : Wilberg. Runic scholar. With his mind full of Northern Keltic name; but the obliteration of the three

were sent to Prof. George Stephens, the eminent Bewtos. Kimôê . . . ngê also seems to be a 1 fr. PRINS, Ad. La Démocratie et le Régime parlementaire. antiquities, he pronounced it to consist of medial characters makes it impossible to iden

Paris : Guillaumin. 4 fr.
TISSOT, V. La Police secrète prussienne. Paris :

“twelve stave-runes," and to commemorate the tify it. Dentu. 3 fr. 50 C.

burial of a noble lady named Cimokom. The The historical bearings of the inscription are TRENDELENBURG, A. Die Laokoongruppe u. der Gi: Professor gave a copy of the inscription in his of great interest. The names mentioned in it

gantenfries d. Pergamenischen Altars. Gaertner. 1 M. 20 Pf.

Studies on Northern Mythology published last are Keltic, and yet the corrupt Greek in which

year. An examination of this copy puzzled me it is written must have been a spoken dialect. THEOLOGY.

exceedingly, as the characters in it were Greek, This is shown by the phonetic spelling, the bad BECK, J. T. Erklärung d. Briefes Pauli an die Römer: not Runic, Prof. Stephens having taken con- grammar, the new grammatical forms, and, Hrsg. v. J. Lindenmeyer.

Gütersloh : siderable liberties with the forms of some of above all, the Kelto-Latin embodied in it; BLEIBTREU, W. Die 3 ersten Kapitel d. Römerbriefs- them in order to reduce them to Runic letters, while it is obvious that a mortuary inscription

while here and there I detected a Greek word. ) of this sort was intended to be read and underRENAN E. Nouvelles Etudes d'Histoire religieuse. I was therefore very anxious to get a squeeze of stood. Here, therefore, we have Kelts occu: the original.

pying what had once been a Roman military HISTORY

A zinc cast of the inscription has now been station, and speaking a corrupt Greek; and BONGHI, R. Storia di Roma. Vol. I. Milan : Treves. kindly sent to me, and it has enabled me to this, too, probably at the close of the fifth BLOCH, G. Les Origines du Sénat romain: Recherches make out the greater part of the text. The century, 'at all events subsequently to the sur la Formation et la Dissolution du Sénat

patricien. characters are those of early Greek uncial MSS., departure of the Romans from Britain, but Paris : Thorin. 9 fr. FAVARO, A. Alcuni Scritti inediti di Galileo Galilei. and, like these, admit of ligatures. . So far as before the Anglian conquest of Westmoreland tratti dai Manoscritti della Biblioteca nazionale di

our materials have allowed us to judge, Dr. or the Christianisation of the district. I would Firenze. Florence : Le Monnier. 10 fr.

Isaac Taylor and myself have come to the con- suggest that a Roman official of Greek nationGUEDKMANN, M. Geschichte d. Erziehungswesens u.

der Cultúr der Juden in Italien während der Mitclusion that their forms belong to the latter ality had intermarried with a native family at telalters. Wien: Hölder, 7 M. 20 Pf.

part of the fifth century A.D. At all events, Verterae, and that the latter, after the severHAUSSOULLIER, B.La Vie municipale en Attique: they are not earlier than A.D. 400, or later than ance of Britain from the Empire, succeeded to

Essai sur l'Organisation des Demes au 4o Siècle.
Paris : Thorin. 5 fr.

A.D. 600; and, since the inscription contains no the duties and privileges of their Roman kinsJECKLIN, C. Urkunden zur Verfassungsgeschichte allusion to anything Christian, it would seem man, and continued the use of the Greek lanRAPEA, B Die Memoiren der Kaiserin Agrippina. tion of the North. The paragraphs are divided That Greek officials served in Britain_in the

to have been engraved before the Christianisa-guage, at any rate for a generation or two.

1. Bd.

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closing period of the Roman Empire is clear


resemblance to many which are beyond all from the existence of names like Gerontios or

London: June 10, 1831. doubt representative of the awakening of the Geraint. In any case, the Brough stone throws

For the death of the Will you grant me a corner to express my powers of vegetation. a curious and unexpected ray of light upon thankfulness to Mr. Matthew for his valuable wren, its transport in a decorated cage or that dark epoch when the hapless Britons were letter ? Seldom have I seen so much matter basket, its subsequent burial, and the asking of contending for life and home against their crowded into so small a space; and no one, I alms by the " wren-boys ” Dr. Mannhardt's barbarian invaders.

A. H. SAYСE. feel sure, knows better than Mr. Matthew him- book supplies abundant parallels, some of them self that, if he had chosen to write a pamphlet, familiar to many of us.

It is true that in none he might have made it ten times as long.

of his examples is a bird the central figure in

Not many days ago I was in the Reading- the rite; but there is quite sufficient variety in TENNYSON'S INSPIRATION FROM THE PYRENEES. Room at the British Museum. You scarcely customs of this kind to lead us to expect more, Combe Vicarage, near Woodstock : June 10, 1884. enter that room before your eyes light upon especially in out-of-the-way places.

Take down a

2. These customs, when occurring in the The Poet Laureate's letter to Mr. E. S. Daw- the History of Richmondshire. son, of Montreal, just published in the second volume, as I did, and you soon meet with "The winter (see Mannhardt, p. 249), are always edition of Mr. Dawson's Study of The Prin- Parish of Wyclyffe. There you find whole found taking place after the winter solstice, when cess,” and reprinted from the critic in the pages about the owners or lords of the manor lengthening days give notice of the coming ACADEMY of May 24, reminds me of the following Wyclykkes and Roger, and

William and John, rule, i givet2 parallel from De Gubernati: from the Pyrenees while the Poet Laureate and the saine repeated over and over again. Zoological Mythology. (vol. ii., p. 259): “It is also was in that region, and which (under the You are not many minutes in making sure that believed in Germany that the magpie (a bird of

the name of the family was erroneous heading "London") are in Clough's

darkness and winter) must be killed during the Wyclyffe," or,

twelve days between Christmas and Epiphany, Poems and Prose Remains (1869), vol. i., pp.

written shortly, “Wyclyf.” 264-69:

In that manor house, some 545 years ago, when the days begin to lengthen.' you would have found a youth, a younger

3. The wren is a likely bird to be taken as a “Luz, St. Sauveur, September 1 [1861]. Tennyson was here, with Arthur Hallam, thirty: member of the family, a nephew or cousin, symbol of winter. He seems to be called

• Winterkönig, who was preparing to find his way to Oxford.

," "Schneekönig,” and “Roi de one years ago, and really finds great pleasure in the place; they stayed here and at Cauterets. By the help of the parish-priest, or of the froideur ;” and the very curious Breton story Enone, he said, was written on the inspiration of librarian of some neighbouring monastery, this in Rolland's Faune populaire, i. 298 (to which the Pyrenees, which stood for Ida.”

youth had found access to some books of value book I was directed by Prof. Newton's last Cauterets, September 7. I have been out -Bede, Augustine, Jerome, and, above all, the letter in the ACADEMY) is a remarkable instance for a walk with A. T. to a sort of island between Scriptures in Latin. With these, by constant of the connexion of the bird with winter in the two waterfalls, with pines on it, of which he study, he had made himself acquainted; and popular mind. His lively presence and his load retained a recollection from his visit of thirty-one he was beginning to hope that soon he song make him a prominent object in the leafyears ago, and which, moreover, furnished a simile might present himself in Oxford, and say,

less hedge. to The Princess. He is very fond of this place evidently, and it is more in the mountains than read, and have learnt, a few things."

* Examine me, and you shall find that I have If there are signs that the wren was not only

But that representative of winter, but also a symbol of any other, and so far superior.”

youth, when asked his name, would have re- fertility (@.9., the doggerel quoted in Prof. The simile referred to is, no doubt, that in the plied,'" Wyclyf” or “Wyclyffe.” If the door- Ridgeway's letter of May 10; I think I have following lines :

keeper in Oxford had written it down “Wiclif,” found one or two other traces in Rolland), this " not less one glance he caught the lad would have exclaimed, “No; I never may have arisen from the known fertility of the Thro' open doors of Ida station'd there saw it in that shape before !”

bird ; but it is quite as likely, I think, to have Unshaken, clinging to her purpose, firm

Once more :-Closing up the pages of the had its origin in the close connexion of the Tho' compass'd by two armies and the noise History of Richmondshire, I found, a little ideas of winter and spring, death and life, and Of arms; and standing like a stately pine Set in a cataract on an island. crag,

farther on, the Chronicles of Knyghton. I their constant confusion in custom and ritual. When storm is on the heights, and right and left

remembered that Knyghton knew Wyclyf well, The sacrifice of that which represents winter Suck'd from the dark heart of the long hills roll

and honoured his learning and his talents, becomes an earnest of a spring to come. though he disliked his opinions. I opened his

Whether or not my account is the right one, The torrents, dash'd to the vale."

book, and soon came to the Reformer's name. I believe I am indicating the only path that can J. HOSKYNS-ABRAHALL.

In a few pages it occurred twenty or thirty lead to a "reasonable ” explan ation of curious times. But I never found it written otherwise survivals of this kind. A custom which pre

than “Wyclyf,” “Wyclyf,” “Wyclyf.” And vails in places widely apart, and runs so closely DR. OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES AND THE EGYPT

he (Knygħton) knew the Reformer well, and for parallel in many of its details with other wideEXPLORATION FUND.

many years. He objected, exceedingly, to his spread customs, must have a meaning at bottom

translation of the Bible, the work of his latest which is simple yet not local.
Weston-super-Mare: June 8, 1834.
years; but he honoured the man.


copy of the following letter, addressed by I have no doubt that a few ignoramuses there Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes to the Rev. W. c. were, in those days, who, hearing the name Winslow (Boston, U.S.A.), has been forwarded uttered, wrote it down “ Wiclif,"

THE ANCIENT CAPITAL OF PARTHIA. by the latter, with the identical five-dollar note upon earth should we prefer their ignorance enclosed, to me. Mr. Winslow, it should be to the usage of such men as Knyghton, or of

Shanghai: April 1884, added, is a Nile traveller, a frequent writer on the whole population of Wyclyffe, the birth

Various conjectures have been made--but Egyptological subjects, and a zealous friend to place of the Reformer?

R. B. S.

without much success-as to the Persian name the Egypt Exploration Fund.

of the city called by the Greek geographers AMELIA B. EDWARDS.

Hekatompylos, The-Hundred-Gates. Some

light may be apparently thrown on the subject "To the Rev. William C. Winslow.


from the Chinese. Ma Twanlin relates how the “My dear Sir,-I have read with great interest

Oxford : June 4, 1884. last of the Sassanidae resided, previous to his the accounts of the projected exploration of Zoan.

outhern Prof. Newton asks for a reasonable explana- fall, at a city called Tsih ling, in "I believe in the spade. It has furnished the tion of this curious custom. I would suggest Chinese Tsat ling: The former character

, tsat cheap defence, if not of nations, yet of beleaguered that it is a primitive example of those innumerarmies. It has fed the tribes of mankind. It has

or shat, seems to be the transliteration of the furnished them water, coal, iron, and gold. And able rites in which the decay of winter and the Persian cata, a hundred ;” and, if so, as ininow it is giving them truth-historic truth-the corresponding revival of the powers of vegetation tial r is absent in Chinese, it is usually repremines of which have never been opened till our are represented in a manner partly symbolic and sented by 1, so that Tsat ling may be taken as time.

partly sacrificial. A very large collection of having the force of Çataring. Now, the Aluan It seems to me that the whole Christian and such customs will be found in Dr. W. Mann- Yasht, para. 101, speaking of Ardvi-cura, says the whole Hebrew world should be as much inter- hardt's Baumkultus der Germanen und ihrer (Spiegel-Bleek, p. 41):ested in the excavation of Zoan as the classic Nachbarstümme. The custom in question seems world is in that of Troy or Mycenae or Assos.

“Who has a thousand basins, a thousand chan. to me to be one in which the “ death" of the nels; each of these basins, each of these channels, “My guinea-hen does not lay as many golden winter is represented by the death of the wren, eggs as do the more prolific fowls

of some of my the correlative
idea of the return of spring being man who rides. At each canal stands a well-builde

is forty days' journey long, for a well-mounted neighbours, but one of them is at your service to lost in this case, or only traceable in the house with a hundred windows, a lofty one with a hatch a spade for Zoan. * Very truly yours,

foliage and decorations which encircle the bird thousand pillars," &c. "OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES. as it is being carried round. My reasons are as The word in the original used for a hundred " 296 Beacon Street, Boston ; follow:

Çatôraochana," in Huzvârish "May 11, 1884."

1. The details of the practice bear a striking "Çataróchan,” and in Persian “Çatarôzan,"

But why

Statistical : "Some Sta

either of which, with a slight modification states (vol. ii., p. 412, English translation) strength of fragments alone, to deny the would answer to the Chinese Tsat ling: that the Roman playwrights did not at this truth of Cicero's remark, based on a complete * Çatarôzan” would, in Modern Persian, not early period even attempt to elevate their knowledge of Ennius' works,“ non discedit

a communi more uerborum” ? ing of the former term having been lost ! audience to that high level

of feeling which was habitually reached at Athens; and he quotes

From the through its gradual corruption.

Nor can I think it at all likely that the Caspian Gates to Hekatompylos, according to in proof of this a passage of Polybius (ap. description of Romulus eating hot turnips Strabo, was 1,960 stadia, and from the latter Athen. 615), in which it is asserted that at (feruentia rapa uorare) in heaven, which to Alexandreia (Herat) 4,530 stadia ; and these the triumphal games held in the circus at Bücheler thinks Seneca may have got from measures seem to point to a site not far distant Rome by L. Anicius in 167 B.c., at which Lucilius (see his note on Apocoloc. ix.), really from Shahrud. Thos, W. KINGSMILL. the most famous flute-players from Greece had came from Ennius. “The expression, it is

been invited to attend, the audience, dis- true, is not very select.” It is not, but it is

satisfied with the music, were restored to very comic; and, if anywhere, might well APPOINTMENTS FOR NEXT WEEK.

good humour by Anicius' ordering the music occur in Lucilius. MONDAY, June 16, 4 p.m. Asiatic: Three Embassies cians to box with each other, instead of It is hardly too much to say of this latest

B.C. 1109, and the Way Thither.” by Prof. de La playing. The affair is told with much detail utterance of our author that in it, more than in given by Dr. 5.90. Malan to the Hungarian Academy by Polybius, generally reputed the most any of his works

, he seems to be guided by a pertruthful of historians. There is no hint of verse spirit. The numerous offenbars” which 1 30 p.m. Education : "Is Knowledge Power?" personal feeling in any part of an obviously are to be found in it throughout are, I firmly

8 p.m. Victoria Institute : Anniversary Meeting. exact and rather difficult narrative; but L. believe, very generally questionable, often TUESDAY, June 17, 7.45 p.m. tistics of Egypt," by Mr. J. Rabino.

Müller--after premising generally that Poly wrong. This does not prevent the book from 8.30 p.m. Zoological : " The Employment of the bius, as a Greek, was not likely to judge fairly being interesting, and, in parts, especially Atrica," by Mr. F. Holmwood; Further Notes on of barbaric culture; then hinting that indi- when he is not defying Mommsen or Vah

The Muridae collected in Central Peru by m.con: vidually he would be likely to speak of his len, instructive and edifying. R. Ellis. stantin Jelski,” by Mr. Oldfield Thomas; "Some conquerors with prejudice; then adding that

New Asiatic Butterflies of the Genus Teracolus,” by his circumstances at the time make it imTAURSDAY, June 19. 5 p.m. Zoological : Davis Lecture, probable that he witnessed the games in

MATHEMATICAL BOOKS. 8 p.m! Linnean: “Flora of Madagascar,” by person, and inferring that his account was American Journal of Mathematics. Vol. VI. Mr. 3. G. Baker, Species Coelacanthus from the drawn from that lying (!) tribe, the perform- Nos. 2, 3. (Baltimore.) In No. 2, G. P.

Development of the Lady Fern," by Mr. Druery! ing artists—proceeds to question the truth of Young concludes his paper on Equations of Chemical Bodies in relation to their composition explanation of it :-Anicius, finding the flute- of Solvable Equations of the Fifth Degree.” 8 pm. Chemical. The Magnetic Rotation of the whole affair; and ends with the following Higher

Degrees,” which we have already noticed,

and applies his method to the “Resolution High Temperatures on Petroleum Hydrocarbons," players lacked fire, ordered them by a lictor

“On Certain Possible Abbreviations in the by Dr. Armstrong and Dir. Miller ; •* Nitrification,” | to put a little more animation into their Computation of the Long-Period Inequalities of

sp.m. "Historical : The Origin of the New performance, acrius contenderent. The words the Moon's Motion due to the Direct Action of England Company, London," by Mr. J. Heywood. FRIDAY, June 20,8 p.m. Philological : “Modern-Irish

were misunderstood; instead of vigorous fluting the Planets” is a useful contribution by G. W. Sounds,” by Mr. James Lecky.

they began an angry hand-to-hand fight. Hill to a calculation which has been charSuch a misunderstanding can prove nothing as acterised as extremely difficult. Capt. P. A.

Macmahon furnishes to No. 2 a long paper on

to the ordinary temper of the Romans; or,
granting that Polybius narrates the facts as subjects recently treated of by many writers

“Seminvariants and Symmetric Functions,” Quintus Ennius. Eine Einleitung in das Studium der römischen Poesie. Von Lucian they occurred, it was, after all

, nothing more in the Journal and elsewhere, and to No. 3 Müller. (St. Petersburg.)

than one of those outbreaks of nature which a notelet on “The Development of an Algebraic

occur in every people. Against all which Fraction.” “Compound Determinants," by Tas is the first, probably the less satisfac- it seems enough to reply that most readers C. A. Van Velzer, is on the same subject as a tory, half of the well-known Petersburg phil- will be disposed to accept the fact because it paper by R. F. Scott in the Proceedings of the ologist's contribution to Ennian literature. is so stated by Polybius ; that the fact quite London Mathematical Society, vol. xiv., but There is in it much that all L. Müller's agrees with the express statement of Livy quite independent of it. It treats of a somewhat readers have been told before; much vehement (xlv. 32) that the Romans at that time were discovered by Prof. Sylvester.

unsatisfactory proof by Picquet of a theorem

A. L. Daniels polemic against great or considerable names; novices in shows and spectacular games; and contributes to each number “ Notes on Weiermuch that is lively, if not true; a good deal that the special presence of the most dis- strass's Methods in the Theory of Elliptic that is neither true nor lively. The spas- tinguished flute players of Greece (oi dampe- Functions.” T. Craig (who is now assistant modic style of the work is very marked; but réotatol) at Anicius' games makes the order editor) writes on “Quadruple Theta-Functions,” this will prove to some readers an attraction, which Anicius himself issued an act of ex- an article which runs into No. 3. He also widely removed as it is from the ordinary traordinary barbarism.

continues the subject in a paper on Certain close reasɔning of German writers. The author

Not less paradoxical is the assertion (p. 53) Groups of Relations satisfied by the Quadruple has studied French, and, we think, with that Plautus is less dangerous to youth'than Theta-Functions.” “On the Absolute Classificaadvantage to his readableness.

Terence. “ The sound moral judgment” of sections with Each Other and with Linear Whether L. Müller will convince his readers the former, if it exists at all, is apt to conceal Loci,” by W. E. Story, treats of that" classificaof the various positions which he successively itself strangely: Think of the Asinaria, the tion which is not altered by any real linear upholds is very doubtful. In his anxiety to Truculentus, the Mostellaria, all of them transformation, and which is identical with the prove that Ennius was not, as is generally presenting vivid and witty scenes of more or ordinary classification in so far as the latter is believed, a very rough genius, in whom the less licentious passion. On the other hand, independent of all considerations of the nature roughness far surpassed the genius—that he the ordinary tameness of Terence's scenes

of the infinite elements of the loci.” Many of possessed " brilliant beauties” of diction and prevents their taking hold of the memory, tially considered by Prof. Sylvester in the

the results are old ; in fact, part was essenmetre which ought to give him a high place and makes them comparatively innocuous.

Philosophical Magazine for February 1851. It among the poet-creators of the world-he

Again, how can it be said, in the paucity of is a full and interesting communication, to be advances some theses to which much objec- extracts of any considerable length, that Ennius finished in a future number. “ The Imaginary tion will be taken. Thus he tries to show has more Schwung und Feuer than Arcius ? Period in Elliptic Functions” is by W. W. that the Roman public of 200-150 B.C. (the Such a conclusion, without complete scenes to Johnson. The remaining paper is, we are glad period of Plautus' best comedies, as well as judge by, is surely quite unwarrantable. to see, the first instalment of the “Lectures on of the poetic activity of Ennius, Caecilius, and the accidents which occasion the preservation the Principles of Universal Algebra” Ly Prof. Terence) was a public of advanced refinement of the short fragments that have come down Sylvester. These will demand careful study as and cultivation. Mommsen's view--familiar, to us have often very little to do with their this new land. We may mention here that

embodying the writer's recent discoveries in it may be hoped, to every student of Roman goodness as poetry: But, even if they were Prof. Sylvester retains his post of editorhistory-that Rome could not compare with all quoted for their fineness, we should not in-chief; may he long keep it, and “ more Athens in this respect, is examined and be justified in any such sweeping conclusion power” to him! criticised with some minuteness, Mommsen as this, And who could venture, on the The First Book of Euclid made easy for



Beginners. By William Howard. (Smith, examples, as well as a great number of harder Middle High German hegecisse, hegre, hecse, in Elder, & Co.) “Now, according to what we miscellaneous ones. The text appears to be Modern German hexe. Weigand in his Dictionary proved in prop. xli., the parallelogram formed very correctly printed, but many of the figures thinks that hágazussa may be derived from by the thick part of the blue line, the dotted are badly drawn.

Old-High-German hac (gen. hages), a hedge, yellow line, the dot-and-dash blue line, and the part of the thin dot-and-dash black line Conic Sections. By W. H. Besant.

Enunciations of Propositions in Geometrical bush, and that it therefore meant originally

a forest-woman, one haunting the forest

. between the dot-and-dash blue line and the bridge : Deighton, Bell, & Co.) This hardly Etymologically, this explanation is not quite dotted yellow line, is double the triangle formed calls for notice. It contains, however, more

adequate, as it does not account for the latter by the thick red line,”. &c. The forty-seventh than the title might lead one to expect;' for it part of the word -zussa, -disse,,, -tesse. The proposition is thus elucidated in about one hun- has the accompanying figures of Dr. Besant's German word does

not explain itself as clearly as dred lines. But let us hear the other side. A well-known text-book. Its manufacture has the Icelandic tán-riða, a hedge-rider, a witch. gentleman, "whose son was at one of our great been very simple. The figures, as we have

However, I think it is extremely probable public schools,” tested the acquaintance of the said, and the enunciations from, we presume, that the old Teutonic word, represented by the said hopeful with the first two books, which the fourth edition (our own copy is the third, Anglo-Saxon hægtesse, did mean a dweller in

was supposed to have learned, and and does not quite correspond with the work the forest ; and analogies in other languages found him to be sadly wanting—“he did before us), have been indicated to the printers; appear to lead to the conclusion that the forestnot really understand the first proposition.” The father then wrote out the first five such a statement as and consequently in some places we meet with dweller implied by the word was, in the first place

, we shall now prove

an owl, and, secondly, some supernatural being propositions as coloured lines but no letters, and his labours on p. 3, prop. v., read in this book, employing (pp. 19, 31). It is very carefully printed, but in woman shape. The owl, the bird of night

, were crowned with success

5, for dwelling in the gloomy and lonesome woodland,

P “his son not only “ vortex read " vertex;

p. '27, 1. 7, 'read striking horror into the souls of men with her easily mastered them, but had little subsequent AN.NA';" p 63, 1. 3' up, read “EB.Eb." melancholy screech or hoot, became an embodidifficulty with his Euclid.”, Acting on an old The book will be very handy for self-examina- ment of the vague terrors of the darkness; and Horatian direction, the gentleman here candidly tion.

then to the superstitious fancy this symbol took imparts his experience, and we hope our comathematical masters and co-members of the

human shape, and appeared in the forın of a

An Erplanatory Arithmetic. By G. Eastcott spiteful, mischievous, supernatural being-Association for the Improvement of Geometrical Spickernell. (Portsmouth : Griffin.) The title-witch. Teaching will take the lesson to heart. What page-a very crowded one-would take up too

The Greek word otpiy, in Latin strix, meant halcyon days are before us if we

use this many lines, so we do not reproduce it here. a screech-owl which sucked the blood of young rendering of geometry. We quite agree with The writer aims at carrying boys intelligently children. The Latin word was also used in the the statement in the Advertisement: the and quickly through a full course of arithmetic, sense of a woman bringing harm to children; "temptation to endeavour to repeat the pro- and for this end copious references are furnished so Festus. Another form of the word in Latin blems" [sic] by rote” is removed. Notwith to the book-work. Pupils are to be required to is striga, a witch, whence the usual Romance standing, the book will be useful. We ourselves make good use of these. The work is honestly word for a witch : see Diez (s.v. strega), and have frequently used a very similar method in written, and appears to be the result of Tozer, Highlands of Turkey, ii. 172. With stris viva voce teaching-.e., in going over the pro- long experience in teaching the subject. The and its derivatives we may compare Spanish position for the first time to beginners—but we business applications are clearly put. The bruxa, (1) an owl, (2) a witch, whence bruseria

, have not met with such good success ; but then examples are numerous, diversified, and well witchcraft ; bruxear, to practise witchcraft. we had not individual boys to deal with, nor

arranged. On pp. 50, 51, 93, 108, 109, occur There was probably the same association of were we a father. The work is neatly got up, the only errors we have detected. The book is ideas among

Semitic people. In Isa. xxxiv

. 14 the figures are in almost all cases very carefully neatly turned out. (A second edition has since

we find the word lilith, "nocturna," appearing done (and this is a great thing in a text-book reached us, nearly half as large again as the among the names of wild creatures of the for boys), and the text

is aceurately printed, the first edition, and with a much-improved title- desert, and rendered in A.V. (probably coronly correction we would make being the sub- page.

The mistakes referred to have been rectly) by stitution of "a" for "

“screech-owl” (see Smith's Bill

. on p. 27, 1. 7 up.

It can be recom- | Dict., 8.v. in some cases corrected.

owl”). This word becomes in mended for school use.)

Rabbinical stories the name of Adam's first An Elementary Treatise on Conic Sections. Part I. By H. G. Willis. (Cambridge:

A Treatise on Higher Trigonometry. By the wife, the queen of the demons, a murderer of Deighton, Bell

, & Co.) This is another geo- Rev. J. B. Lock. (Macmillan.). This is the young children (see Cheyne, Prophecies of Isaiah, metrical treatise on thé subject, and has novel promised continuation of the “ elementary” | i. 188). Then, returning to Teutonic ground, features. The conic is discussed with refer- treatise by the same author. In eleven chapters we find that Old-High-German holzmuoja is ence to focus and directrix (chaps; ..-xiii.); the subject as Demoivre's theorems and its tonic Mythology, P: 433, English translation;

it takes the student through such branches of glossed “lamia and ulula” (see Grimm, Teuthe projection of a circle or section of a cone (chaps. xv.-xvii.); the reciprocal of a

dependent theorems, as series, proportional Graff, i. 652, ii. 604); and Grimm tells us circle (chap. xiv.). The treatment of homo- differences, errors in practical work, applica- (p. 1040) that Middle-Dutch haghedisse is graphic rows and pencils is deferred to tion to geometrical theorems, and the use of glossed strix," owl, besides being the equivapart i. Analogous properties are proved in subsidiary angles to facilitate numerical cal-lent of Old-High-German hágazussa, hag. single propositions. The relation between the culations. All is treated in the clear and in

A. L. MAYHEW. conics, their similarities and dissimilarities, are

teresting manner which commended the prebrought prominently forward.

The early

vious work to our favourable notice. The chapters are short; chaps. ii.-v. take the hyperbolic sine and cosine come before us, we

THE AKKADIAN HERESY. general conic, chaps. vi.-vii. the parabola, think, for the first time in a book intended for

London: June 8, 1884. chap. viii. the central conic, chap. ix. the con

school use; and some useful, if scanty, remarks In the last number of the Zeitschrift für jugate diameter and the auxiliary circle. Much are made on the use of the imaginary V-?. Keilschriftforschung M. Stanislas Guyard

, the stress is laid upon the logical treatment. Very We might take exception to $ 9, but this is convert to the Halévist heresy of Akkadian free use is made of the points and line at the only one that does not please us.

cryptography, formulates a series of questions infinity," but, on account of the present state ample store of capital exercises, including Sand

os a defiance to orthodox Assyriologists

. It is of elenientary geometry, chiefly in the corol- hurst, Cambridge Little-Go and Tr Wool

surprising that the theory has survived the laries." It may be mentioned, in connexion wich College, and other papers. Mr. Lock is failure of M. Halévy to prove anything in the with this last remark, that the author thinks to be congratulated upon the successful termina- large volume he has devoted to the subject, “there is no good text-book of geometry in tion of his task.

and it is to be regretted that a scholar such as general use." There can be but one opinion

M. Stanislas Guyard should use the same as to the author's ability, and all readers will


weapons as his master. He attributes to many agree that they have here a very useful book ;

characters values which but we do not think that they will consider it


rejected by most Assyriologists; he compares to have superseded its predecessors on the

Wadham College, Oxford: May 27, 1884. Akkadian to Assyrian words without taking score of being well written throughout. The word hag, an ugly old woman, in Cooper's into account the translations given in the texts ; any rate, the early chapters produced upon us Thesaurus, 1573 (s.v.

strix), hegge, Middle-Eng- he gives to the words their most unusual mema a feeling akin to that celebrated in the lines lish hagge, is generally taken to be a shortened ing; and, what is worse

, he often bases bis anent Dr. Fell; as we advanced into the work form for Anglo-Saxon hægtesse, a word fre- arguments on broken, defective, or incorrect and got into the chapters treating of the quently occurring in the glosses (see Wright's texts. individual conics this feeling wore off, and we Vocabularies, 1884), and often in the plural A few cases will suffice to prove these stateare now of opinion that a revision of the early rendering the Latin furiae. Cognates of this ments. In para. 1, he attributes to the two horin part would materially improve a really valuable old word are to be found on the

Continente.9., zontal wedges the value (instead of tab). In treatise. exercises, comprising sets of carefully graduated Old-High-German hágazussa, which becomes in ) not notice that the former is translated in Asiya


are doubtful and




the Grosveuor Gallory. Admission, Ono Shilling.

and Oleographs). handsomely frarned. Everyono about to purchase pictures should pay a vixit. Very suitable for wedding and Christinas presentsGEO. KEES, 115, Strand, near Waterloo-bridge.

rian by armannu and the latter by irise. In para. in his search for Sanskrit MSS. in Nepal and at corded for Britain, occur & few of these 7, he reads tzab (with a sadi) instead of shab or Benares.

examples. In mentioning a cross which is found sab (with a shin or samech). In para. 14, he gives DR. W. CLARKE ROBINSON, lecturer in the Prof. Church suggested that it might stand for IT

on some pieces of red ware after the letters FEC, salisa as an Assyrian root, though it is nowhere University of Durham, has in the press an found in the texts. In para. 16, he gives a Introduction to our Early-English Literature, ton exhibited a number of Roman coins lately

as in the mark VIRTVS · FEC+.-Miss Ffaringgloss as shimet instead of simet, and bases his which will give a critical review, with extracts found in Lancashire, and some very remarkable argument on this gloss, though, as the Assyrian in the original and translated, of every Anglo- Chinese figures used for wall decoration. -Mr. translation of this syllabary is brok off, we Saxon poem composed before the Norman Con- Baylis also exhibited an early edition of Aesop's have no means of ascertaining the real meaning quest.

Fables in Latin and Greek, and a Descrittione di of this isolated word. In paras. 17 and 18 he alters the text to suit his convenience, though

PROF. J. H. GALLÉE, of Utrecht, has re

tutta Italia (1588). the text in both cases is correct. On the other printed from the Tijdschrift voor Nederl. Taalen

PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY.-(Friday, June 6.) hand, he bases an argument (para. 20g) on a

Letterkunde his edition of a recently dis- Prof. W. W. Skeat, President, in the Chair.mistake in the lithographed plate, which gives covered Low-Saxon” version of the legend Mr. Granville Browne was elected a member: tir for su. In para. 2od, he treats as aphone of Griseldis, and his reprint of the Historie- Prince L.-L. Bonaparte read two papers-(1) on the sign which he does not want to read. In Lied of Grisella, which was published, at Am- Modern-Basque and Old-Basque Tenses,” explainthe same way (in paras. 11 and 19) he bases his sterdam in 1771. The “Low-Saxon” version ing the peculiar characters of the Old Basque as arguments on the misreadings and theories of bears evidence of being based on Petrarch's shown in the translation of the New Testament, a single Assyriologist. It is evident that with account, probably as it appeared in the Basel which is practically the oldest printed Basque ; and

of. / (2) on "The Neo-Latin Names for Artichoke," such a system anything might be argued; but edition (1496) of his Opera Omnia ; and it is sufficient to state the process in order to Gallée is disposed to assign 1500 as the approxi- which was an expansion of a letter that appeared reduce these attacks to what they are worth.

mate date of its composition. The forms of in the ACADEMY of March 15, and gave rise to a G. BERTIN. the proper names are Grisildis, Jannicol, of of his investigation into the history of the arti

long explanation from Dr. Murray of the results Ian Nycol nae onsen duytschen”, (a curious choke for the purposes of the society's new Dic

nationalising of Petrarch's Janicula), and Gal- tionary, of which he is editor. SCIENCE NOTES.

terus. Prof. Gallée's Introduction contains Mr. VINES has been appointed reader, and legend in Holland.

many details attesting the popularity of the Mr. F. Darwin university lecturer, in botany

FINE ART. at Cambridge. University lectureships have

Germanische Philologie, Jahresbericht. Of this also been given in advanced physiology to Dr. useful publication the first part (128 pages) of Moro. DOWDESWELLS: 1:33. NEW BOND STREET, two dooro from Gaskell and Mr. Lea; in animal morphology to the fifth volume is out, and the second and


GREAT SALE of PICTURES, at reduced prices (Engravings, Chromos, Mr. A. Sedgwick; in histology to Mr. Langley; part is promised for next month. It is the in geology to Mr. R. D. Roberts; and in work of several hands; this shows itself in the applied mechanics to Mr. Macaulay.

different mode of quoting: one writer quotes

the Neue Jahrb. f. Phil. u. Päd. by volume and It is not unworthy of note that the Physio- part, another writer by year and page; somelogical Society met at Oxford for the first time times the number of a programme is given,

ART BOOKS. last Saturday, when there was a large gather- sometimes not. We have missed a few good A Dictionary of Artists who have exhibited ing of members.

reviews of books; e.g., a very searching one of Works in the Principal London Exhibitions of MR. WILLIAM PHILLIPS, of Canonbury, E. Nicholson in the Saturday Review (No. 185). Oil Paintings from 1760 to 1880. By Algernon Shrewsbury, has in preparation a Manual of the There is a misprint on p. 65, 1. 2—" Hense” in- Graves. (Bell.) Mr. Graves, whose Catalogue British Discomycetes, which will contain descrip- stead of “House.”

of the Works of Sir Edwin Landseer is a tions of all the species of this family of fungi THOSE who have taken in SandersErgänzungs- industry, may be congratulated at having com

sufficient guarantee of his faithfulness and that have been found in Britain, together with Törterbuch will be glad to hear that the next pleted a very laborious and useful and, we illustrations. It will be published by subscrip- double number will be the last. In the pro- hope, not a thankless task. It has been sometion, at a price not exceeding ten shillings.

spectus issued with the first part the publisher MR. JOHN HENRY GURNEY has completed spoke of about twenty-four parts, ał" 18. 30. thing more than a compilation from catahis List of the Diurnal Birds of Prey: The each; the number will

, however, reach forty given about each artist is confined to a few author gives, under each species, in tabular surely a big price for a supplement” to a facts, it has taken a great deal of trouble to form, references to his own published notes in dictionary.

establish even these. Mr. Graves states in his natural history journals, and to books or papers WE have received from Messrs. Trübner Prof. Preface that the lack of information about by other writers, also a record of specimens Laman's Sanskrit Reader, chiefly intended for Christian names and the maiden names of preserved in the Norfolk and Norwich Museum students of Sanskrit in American universities. married ladies has been a source of great diffi-a collection including nearly three thousand It contains extracts from the best-known culty to him, and we hope that all who are specimens of diurnal and more than one thou- Sanskrit texts, with sand nocturnal birds of prey.

a carefully prepared able to supply such defects of this kind as still The book is glossary. Unfortunately, the notes, which will exist in his book will do so as soon as possible. published by Mr. Van Voorst.

no doubt form the most valuable part of the The scheme of the Dictionary is very simple. A DESCRIPTION of the grotto of the Roc du book, are not included in the volume now One line only is afforded to each artist; and Buffens, near Caunes (Dépt. Aude) appears in published ; and we must wait for their appear- each page is a table divided into columns the last number of M. Cartailhac's Matériaux ance before expressing an opinion of the showing the name, the town of residence, the pour l'Histoire de l'Homme. This description is merits of the new. Reader as compared with years between which the artist exhibited, his contributed by M. G. Sicard, who has been other Chrestomathies.

specialty, and the number of works exhibited engaged for some time in exploring the cavern.

at each society, with a total. The information His researches have brought to light a large

may seem meagre, but a more extended scheme pumber of objects in stone, bone, horn, bronze, MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES.

was plainly impossible. The work contains iron, and pottery, many of which are figured.

265 pages of this “pemmican” of facts, and A small gold ornament was also discovered. ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE.-( Thursday, June 5.) deals with something not far short of sixThe cave appears to have been inhabited during The President in the Chair.-Mr. J. G. Waller teen thousand artists. As might be expected, the Neolithic age, and again towards the close made some interesting observations explanatory of the number of works exhibited is no test of the of the Bronze period. Associated with some

the costume and other features on a number of present esteem of the artists, though, as a rule, of the bronze objects were several human rubbings of brasses, ranging from 1325 to 1183, it may be taken in proof of popularity in their skeletons.

lifetime. Micklethwaite described some fine wall-paintings

Of those who exhibited over four discovered in Penvin church, near Pershore, of which hundred pictures there is none of the first rank. PHILOLOGY NOTES.

tracings were exhibited made by Canon 'Wicken- James Ward, with exactly four hundred, seems

den so long ago as 1855. The pictures are of to draw a distinct line. The Singletons and The General Board of Studies at Cambridge various dates, and include a Virgin and Child, Drummonds, the Beecheys and the Abraham has appointed Dr. Peile reader, and Mr. E. S. St. Roche, the Trinity with adoring angels, and a Coopers, may reach above this level, but Turner Roberts university lecturer, in comparative good early composition containing the Annuncia- and Reynolds and Landseer are content with philology, Dr. Schiller-Szinessy_reader in Tal- tion, the Visitation of Elisabeth, the Adoration of lower figures. We are glad to see that Mr. iudic, Mr. Reid lecturer in Roman history, the Magi, the Crucifixion, Resurrection, and Ascen- Graves contemplates a second edition (the first and Mr. Neil lecturer in Sanskrit.

sion.-Prof. A. H. Church drew attention to some is, we believe, already nearly exhausted) which The Council, at Cambridge has recommended Cirencester. More than two hundred pieces of will include the Grosvenor and, much more im& grant of £200 from the Worts Travelling lustrous red ware with potters" marks have been portant than this, the Water-Colour Societies. Scholars' Fund to Mr. C. Bendall, to assist him secured. Some names, apparently not yet re- The Engraved Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds.

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