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Of the Associates, none has come out so “After Culloden” (noticed last week), both as the successes of Mr. Orchardson, whose influena strongly as Mr. Fildes, but he is too strong. English as they can be; and the best landscapes is strongly felt in the style and execution o To paint Van Haanen subjects life-size is surely are Mr. Hook's and Mr. Peter Graham's. More- both works. “ A Rose in June" (189) repre a mistake--unless, indeed, it be done by a great over, the attempt to denationalise is never sents a young lady in a morning gown o master of colour; and this Mr. Fildes is not. successful. Even when painting nature, an white, dreamily gazing at a full-blown ros Gay, and daring, and ingenious his colour may artist is seldom authentic except at home, and which she holds. This is by far the more be, but it is not fine. Gaudy even as a decora- Mr. Mesdag's gray seas and skies of Holland successful of the two pictures, and has mud tion, it clashes and flashes with crude contrasts are more to be trusted (if the hanging com- charm both in the simplicity of the conceptio unblended and inharmonious. But it is strong, mittee would only have the courtesy to hang and the breadth and directness of much of the and so is the force with which the artist pre- them where they can be seen) than those of 8 execution. Less agreeable is “ Far from the sents bis Venetian beauties; and, in design, foreigner. Not that our artists have not learnt Madding Crowd” (214), another young lady both his large group, “Venetian Life” (390), much, and may not learn much more, from whose garments are somewhat complicated and and his single figure, “A Venetian Flower- foreign artists, but it should be in things in inharmoniously arranged, standing alone in the girl” (747), are picturesque and clever. Un- which our school is weak, not in which it glade of a park, in painting the background of fortunately, Mr. Van Haanen’s contribution, is strong. They may learn style from M. which Mr. Macbeth seems to have been fired “ Afternoon Coffee” (721), is unusually scat- Bougereau, tone from M. Fantin, execution with a sudden desire to rival the achievements of tered and confused in composition, and the from M. Van de Beers, gain vividness from the “Impressionniste” school, without success figures at the end of the room are ill-relieved ; Impressionists, and improve their technical however, except in respect of incompleteness
, but it is full of painting of high skill. Better skill from a hundred foreign sources; but the for he does not apparently possess their peculiai as pictures, but not so masterly in execution or attempt to rival such masters, or, indeed, any quality of realising an effect or "impression" refined in feeling, are “After Church ” (423) | real masters, on their own ground is fruitless, at a certain distance. The gallery contains and "Secrets”. (839), by M. de Blaas, thé and the tendency to adopt their manners can three works by Mr. John Collier, of which the latter of which is humorous and life-like; but, only end in the destruction of native impulse most important is the portrait of “Mrs. George on the whole, the palm for pictures of this kind and the product of a hybrid art.
Peck” (95), who is represented standing upright rests this year with Mr. Woods, who, without any
Cosmo MONKHOUSE. against a curtain of white on very light gray, ambitious effort or popular appeal, shows in
wearing a dress of white brocade, relieved with several bright little pictures of Venetian life
a few touches of a brilliant dark red. The and Venetian sunlight a growing skill, a sure THE GROSVENOR GALLERY.
technical difficulties of this combination bare and untroubled aim, and a sense of colour that
been happily overcome, and the figure stands are the best augury for his future. “ Venetian
out well; the rich material of the white dress, Cloisters ” (446) is, perhaps, the best of these Among the most remarkable portraits of the with its changing reflections, being especially charming little pictures. As usual, scenes of year are those of Mr. Hubert Herkomer, who well rendered. On the other hand, the painting
foreign parts are very numerous. Mr. has acquired an increased power of characterisa- of the head is open to the charge of lack of charm, Boughton sends a vigorously drawn “Field- tion with a certain sympathetic quality which and a certain paintiness in the carnations. A handmaiden, Brabant (80), with her head is often wanting in the otherwise powerful and study by Mrs. John Collier (223), painted against a warm pearly sky, one of his best highly successful works in portraiture of Mr. almost in monochrome, of a youthful female studies of the kind; an unsentimentalised, but Ouless and Mr. Frank Holi. There may be figure, entirely nude, lying on a low sandy withal a graceful, figure, painted (as her green specially cited the portrait of “R. C. Beavan, shore, is very carefully drawn and modelled
, and red cabbages are) with breadth and Esq.,' an admirable half-length, largely and and is altogether a work of promise. Mr. refinement, and surrounded with that moist brilliantly painted, but which suffers, on closer Whistler has this year, in his own peculiar Northern air he knows so well how to render. inspection, from the looseness and insufficiency style, produced an admirable work, the portrait
Village below the Sand-dunes, Walch of the modelling. Most of this painter's works of "Lady Archibald Campbell ” (150). Many
(458), is a sincere study of clouds and are open to the same reproach, though, per- portions of the picture are worthy of the sea and sand; but the houses in the village haps, in a less degree than in former years. highest praise, and once more prove
, on the seem too small. Though it were a pity, perhaps, Another fine and sympathetic portrait is the painter's part, a close study of the art of that Mr. Woods should desert Venice or Mr. full-length of “C. S. Parker, Esq.” (42), where, Velasquez. Particularly noticeable are the Boughton desert Holland altogether, there is however, the head is the only portion of the arrested onward motion of the little, graceful too much, not only of foreign countries, but of canvas in which the painter has taken any figure, and the natural action of the glored foreign influence, in the pictures of the year, special interest, even the hands being rendered hands, which are rendered with extraordinary especially those by younger artists. Mr. Bland- in somewhat summary fashion. Mr. Philip skill. The curious tones and reflections of the ford Fletcher's scenes from France are certainly Calderon has made a new departure with his otter-skin cape worn by the lady are also very clever; his “ Leader of Public Opinion Aphrodite” (38)—a picture which has many felicitously given. Mr. Whistler has so often (405) is well drawn and well studied in char- merits, among which cannot certainly be classed shown himself subtle and harmonious acter, and his other works are full of promise; its title. His divinity may be " fresh as the colourist, and is so fully equipped for success as but we are getting tired of French grays and foam,” but she is not " Idalian Aphrodite regards technical power and accomplishment, greens. French blue, as seen in Mr. Stanhope beautiful; " the goddess, in her lightest mood, that he might now surely abandon his someForbes' "' Preparations for the Market, Quim- should not be so entirely human--nay, modern what eccentric position in contemporary art perlé,” is still more tiresome. Miss Clara and Parisian-in aspect. As a study from the and aim at taking as a painter the position Montalba's shadeless Middelburg” is, indeed, nude the picture has much to recommend it, which he might" undoubtedly grasp it be luminous enough and to spare ; and Mr. and deserves the more notice as being a success would only think the effort worth the making
. Clausen's picture of very solid labourers (124) in a branch of art upon which English painters The younger French school is represented by seated on very unsubstantial ground is no too rarely venture. The foreshortening of the the American painter Mr. J. S. Sargent, doubt very cleverly painted-almost as good torso is remarkably skilful, and the entire whose portrait of “Mrs. T. W. Legh” (203) will and as ugly as a Bastien Lepage. Nor can it be abandon of the pose well rendered. The deep scarcely satisfy those who bear in mind his redenied that Mr. John Reid, in his “Ugly brilliant azure of the sea is not sufficiently re- markable performances of the last few years. Customer" (669), has gone almost as far as lieved by the vibrations of colour which the It has passages of surprising dexterity, such as possible towards the abolition of shade, though strong movement of the waves would naturally the painting of the diaphanous black fan which scarcely equally successful in preserving a sense produce, neither is the idea of palpitating, the lady holds ; but the whole is distressingly of distance. All these things are more or less ever-varying movement sufficiently indicated flimsy, and bears evidence of haste and want of due to foreign influence, and not the best Mr. Orchardson exhibits a picture painted interest on the part of the painter in his subforeign influence. Our young artists seem to in 1881, “The Farmers' Daughter" (85)—a ject. Better things may be exacted from the be doing their best to denationalise themselves, young girl clothed in light-coloured rustic painter of "The Gitana” and the portrait especially in the rendering of light and air, garments, feeding, with evident delight, a group of children exhibited at the Salon last in which their best models are to be found | Rock of pigeons, of which one special favourite year. Another American painter, Mr. Julian in England and in English painters. Even perches on her left arm, while others at her story, exhibits three works, of which the
Academy the best work by feet cover the foreground of the picture. The “ Aesop” (212)—a group of semi-nude, some English artists is the most English work. The girl's figure is charming in its freshness and what academic-looking figures who sit at ease best picture of “ beauty” is Mr. Albert Moore's unstudied grace, and her face especially should listening to the humorous teaching of Aesop in exquisite “ Reading
Aloud” (416), and it is best be noticed as a rare example of real mobility shows abundant evidence of sound training in gives us English girls and Spanish lace and all consciousness or affectation. The drawing and expression. On the other hand, his portrait of in the nineteenth century finds to admire ; the in harmony with the youthful elasticity of the and entirely lacks
the distinction which the best dramatic pictures
are Mr. Orchardson's figure. The two pictures of Mr. R. W. Mac- subject requires. Very successful in its way is "Mariage de convenance" and Mr. Lucas's beth again demonstrate his desire to emulate "The Rival Grandfathers" (35) by Mr. J. R.
in this poor
Reid, who, without losing his English indi- is Mr. R. Barrett Browning's “Dryope fasci- many creditable efforts is yet one of the viduality, has, in some respects, profited by the nated by Apollo” in the form of a serpent--a weakest performances of legitimate comedy example of the modern French school as regards work which it must be considered a grave that has been offered us at an important technique. Two old fishermen compete for the error of taste to have admitted to the exhibi- theatre. This is, no doubt, in a great
measure notice of a little girl, their grandchild, to tion. It is nothing more than a study by the consequence of those intervals which one whom they are exhibiting the wonders of a a comparative novice from a coarse and untelescope, while her mother stands looking on. select model, whose defects of form it has not blames and resents not only for their mere The background is one of calm sea and coast been sought to correct or to atone for by any length—for they might have been nearly as upon which the figures have hardly sufficient harmony of line or arrangement. It shows long in the old days, when, if the arrangements relief. The quaint simplicity of the subject more courage than discretion to have exhibited of the stage were rough, they were likewise and the skill and truth of the rendering are such a performance so soon after the appear-carried out at leisure. One resents these inalike to be commended; but exception must be ance of Idrac's exquisite “Salammbo, the tervals most of all because they occur at the taken to the general scheme of colour—almost subject of which is well-nigh identical with entirely a combination of blue and green, that of the “Dryope.” There is, however, wrong time at a time when they cannot be which on so large a scale is anything but considerable power shown in the rendering of borne with imponity: If the curtain falls agreeable. Among other figure subjects too the unpleasant facial expression and in the upon a strong situation, our interest in the numerous to allude to separately may be men- general modelling of the head; and these story is sufficient to keep attention awake and tioned the two contributions of Mr. Matthew qualities appear in more agreeable form fresh ; but if it falls on a feeble situation-on Hale (125 and 200), both of them classical in two bronze female busts by the same that which was meant to be the end of a scene, subjects showing to a certain extent the influ- artist (423 and 424), which are marred, how- but not the end of an act-our interest is ence of Mr. Alma Tadema. These possess con- ever, by the unplastic and exaggerated treat- dissipated. The new arrangement of “The siderable merit, but suggest the idea that the ment of the falling masses of hair in which Mr. Rivals” by Mr. Bancroft and Mr. Pinero is artist is not as yet completely acclimatised as Browning apparently delights. A marble bust, an oil painter. “Portrait of Miss Mary Swainson” (421), by
one of which we cannot approve. Too much Many of the landscapes exhibited bear M. A. Legros, bears strong traces of the influ- is sacrificed to the furniture, yet the furniunmistakable traces of the influence of Sig. G. ence of the great Florentine school of sculpture ture is not worth the sacrifice. Doubtless the Costa, which seems already in some cases to of the fifteenth century; the structure of scenery, and especially that of the old street of have borne good fruit. His own subtle and the head is admirably made out, and the Bath, with which in the present arrangement poetical art is represented this year byone canvas play of the muscles indicated with great the play begins, is the result of an order of study only, “St. John Lateran from Villa Mattei truth and delicacy. Another work showing which is still rare, and was a few years ago (10)—a subject which gives less scope than usual a close study of the same school is Miss E.
never displayed. The "researches made in for the display of his best qualities, and the Halle's bas-relief, “Music.” (396), a careful and Bath” have resulted in the complete realisarendering of which cannot compete with many harmonious, though not strikingly original, more successful pictures by the same hand. design, which is chiefly remarkable as showing tion, for the space of some few minutes, of an Yet the representation of the early Italian considerable mastery over the difficult and ancient quarter of the town and its varied life. spring, with its wealth of blossom and delicately little understood art of low-relief. Finally
The coach arrives, the abbey bells peal out harmonious tints, has much of genuine charm may be mentioned two spirited wax medallions, the quarter, the sedan-chair passes bearing and shows loving care. Of the same school is a “ Beatrice” and “Benedick” (427 and 428), by someone to a rout, and the bibliophile tine landscape, "Evening" (159), by Mr. M. R. Misses E. and N. Casella ; these are a clever lingers over a book at a book-stall. When Corbett, representing a sunset seen from wooded revival of the cires peintes of the Renaissance, we come to the interiors we certainly are mountain heights overhanging a Southern sea. of which many interesting examples of the not disposed to blame them because they Very beautiful is the suggestion of perfect Valois period have come down to us. Many happy calm which the picture conveys, and to other works would deserve more than passing
are not very gorgeous; but, if it was not their which the calm sparkling sea, the sky with its notice did not the limited space at command gorgeousness that was to be attractive, why sunset tints, and the foreground occupied by a render allusion to them in the present article was so much sacrificed to their pretentious few sheep and a solitary female figure in repose, impossible.
CLAUDE PHILLIPS. presentation ? Surely the mere avoidance of all contribute. The picture of Mr. Alfred Parsons,
shifting the scenes in view of the audience “ Meadows by the Avon" (60), is very patiently
was not enough to warrant the transpositions and skiliully drawn and studied, and the sub- NOTES ON ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY. in the dialogue, and the variation in the ject is a well-chosen one; but it suffers from paintiness and a lack of atmospheric effect- The illustrated Catalogue of the exhibition locality? But enough of this matter-let us defects which often mar the otherwise faithful of the Royal Society of Painters in Water- pass to the acting. transcripts from nature of this artist. There Colours is published by Mr. Fisher Unwin. For Mr. Pinero to play Sir Anthony is no want of the latter quality in Mr. J. W. MR. AYSCOUGH WILKINSON has just hung at effort has been made ; the result is highly
Absolute required an effort, and a valiant Hennessy's refined " "Twixt Day and Night”
the galleries, 53 Great Marlborough Street, a (87), which bears evidence of much study of the selection of his work in water-colours. The commendable, if it is incomplete. Mr. Pinero art of Corot; it would perhaps gain by a little series comprises studies in the Riviera, some fails somewhat in the expression of rage; and added decision and compression in some parts pleasant transcripts of Venice, picturesque we cannot help suspecting throughout the of the picture. Mr. Mark Fisher has three jottings in and round about the Isle of Skye, greater part of his performance that Sir pastoral landscapes kindred in subject and and two or three little bits of Welsh scenery. style, of which the most important is “Home
Anthony was a man who laboriously played wards” (213). All are artistically composed
In our report last week of the meeting of the at being absolute, but who was glad when and well painted, and are unmistakably the Royal Archaeological Institute on May 1, we the slightest pretext
was afforded him to drop work of an accomplished artist ; but the painter mentioned
that Mr. W. Thompson Watkin the mask of obstinate dogmatism and self-will. and the same effects ad nauseam, and labours the base of a small Roman column at Thistleton, character, and, if so, he may have good
. This was, however, apparently under an inability to see nature in tion of the "find,” which included a number of reasons for entertaining it,
But at the any but one particular and very limited phase. silver and brass Roman coins, “ Samian same time we cannot avoid surmising that Among many other landscapes which deserve notice may further be mentioned Mr. Keeley other pottery, tiles, boars' tusks, and the usual Sir Anthony was played (some pieces bearing the potter's name) and the minor key, so to speak, in which
is due rather Halswelle's " A Bed of Water-lilies," a careful débris found in Roman sites. The frequent to the general aim that has governed this Moore's “ The Sea-weed Harvest," in which he previous discoveries of this nature at Thistleton revival than to the personal taste of Mr. breaks fresh
ground, but cannot this time be said prove that it must have been a Roman station Pinero in playing it. For Sir Lucius to have achieved complete success; and, finally, of some importance.
O'Trigger-generally a very fiery person—is Miss Clara Montalba's “The Port of Middle
played by Mr. Alfred Bishop with but a very burzh," a picture remarkable for atmospheric effect, and the rich and delicate harmonies of
limited display of ardent character; and the
Captain Absolute of Mr. Forbes-Robertson, colour in which she delights, but which we THE RIVALS" AT THE LAYMARKET. cannot consider an advance in completeness and Mr. Bancroft has presented at the Haymarket accounted rather tame. Mr. Bancroft plays
though quiet and gentlemanly, must be thoroughness of drawing and execution, qualities Theatre a performance
of “The Rivals” that nearly all that he plays with an air of conMost of the sculpture exhibited is on a small is curiously ineffective. Though several of viction, and his Faulkland is no exception to scale, and does not call for extended remark. the members of the company comport them- the rule. Mr. Lionel Brough is, we cannot The most noticeable and unfortunate exception selves with admirable skill, the result of 80 but consider, the best Bob Acres now on the
stage; his art in his low comedy is as com- carries the hearer along with him in his tale of fried Idyll," and two songs from "Die Meisterplete in its way as is that of Mrs. Stirling in chivalry and love. The coda, with its muted singer” excellently sung by Mr. E. Lloyd.
J. S. SHEDLOCK. her high comedy. We cordially acknowledge strings and solemn chords for wind and brass, Mr. Brookfield's successful effort to give a niscences of the leading themes and of a passage
is singularly beautiful; we have in it remilittle local character to David, who, as heard from the opening of the Symphony.
MUSIC NOTES. at the Haymarket, speaks with the accent of
While attracted by the charm and cleverness THE Bach Choir gave a very good performSomerset.
of this new work, it is difficult to say how it ance of Mozart's “ Requiem” Mass at their What are we to say of the ladies ? In “The will be received and judged by musicians. It second concert, last Wednesday evening. The
soloists were Miss Carlotta Elliot, Miss Helen
opens Rivals" only one of them has the opportunity does not seem to us a revelation, it of being really distinguished, and that is the up no new paths, and it occasionally reminds D'Alton, Mr. W. Shakespeare, and Mr. Frederick representative of Mrs. Malaprop, who has us, though without direct plagiarism, of Beeth- King. Miss Elliot deserves a special word of
These praise. While commending the performance as a been distinguished for nearly half a century: reminiscences are not by any means displeasing, whole, we must say that once or twice there Mrs. Stirling is in the Indian summer of her yet they show where the composer's heart lies.
was not a complete understanding between conart; her performance has about it the com- He appeals to us in sweet and, at times, noble ductor and choir, and also that the " Benepleteness of experience and of gentle self- strains, but, nevertheless, in language of the dictus” and “ Agnus Dei” were taken too fast, confidence. The utterance of every word and past. To speak boldly, it is a great and in- especially the former, Brahms' “Gesang der
Parzen" each ceremonious gesture help to the attain- teresting third attempt on the part of Brahms
was sung. Further acquaintance does ment of the effect required. The generally to measure himself against his great pre- not make us like it any the better; the words stately presence of Mrs. Bernard-Beere is decessors; and, though we cannot regard were sung in German, but the rendering of the somehow subdued to the modest requirements the work as a landmark in the history of new work was not very satisfactory: The of Julia Melville; and Miss Calhoun plays add much to its author's reputation, and which, tata and the “ Credo” from Cherubini's Mass Lydia Languish with graceful command of whenever played as it was last Monday,
in D minor. her resources, and, where that may be, with cannot fail to give real pleasure and satis- Ar the College for Working Women, 7 Fitzfreedom and charm. Miss Gwynne, too, is a faction. The Symphony, completed only last roy Street, a lecture and entertainment hall has sufficient Lucy; simple, we can hardly wish year, was produced on December 2, 1883, at just been built. The committee and friends of her to be, but unabashed.
Vienna, under the direction of Herr Richter, the college have lent their aid towards FREDERICK WEDMORE. and the talented conductor may be con- defraying the cost, but there still remains
gratulated on the first performance here under a debt of some £80. To meet this a concert his bâton. To accept the encore for the third will be held in the Steinway Hall on Saturday
movement was, however, an artistic mistake. next, May 24. Miss Mary Davies, Miss Kate MUSIC.
Why does not Herr Richter set his face against Flinn, Mdme. Antoinette Sterling, Miss Agnez BRAHMS NEW SYMPHONY IN F.
encores ? They are bad at all times, but espe- Zimmermann, Mr. Herbert Reeves, Mr. Bar
cially so in a work where the sequence of rington Foote, and Herr Emil Mahr have all JOHANNES BRAHMS' third Symphony was heard movements with regard to character and generously given their services; and Mr. Alerfor the first time in England last Monday tonality is a matter of serious moment. The pro- ander Macmillan has undertaken to defray the evening at the fourth Richter concert. The gramme of Monday's concert included the over- incidental expenses. Hence the entire receipts production of this noble and earnest work is tures of “Egmont” and “Obéron,” the “Sieg-' of the concert will go to the fund. an event of no small importance. The musical world listens with respect and with the deepest interest to each fresh utterance of one of the
OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS greatest of living composers. Brahms, and next to him Dvorák, seem to be the two who
ISSUED BY THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL OF THE have specially undertaken the task of persuading INTERNATIONAL HEALTH EXHIBITION, us that classical forms are still valid, and that instrumental music can still maintain its ground
NOW READY. in spite of Wagner's assertions and his new THE OFFICIAL CATALOGUE - 1s. | DAILY PROGRAMME of MUSIC, &c. id. art theories. Thus a new Symphony by Brahms THE OFFICIAL GUIDE brings fresh and weighty matter for argument.
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POPULAR HANDBOOKS.-One Shilling each. The subject-matter is dignified and attractive; LEGAL OBLIGATIONS in respect to DWELLINGS of the POOR. Harry Duf, 1.4, and not once does Brahms allow himself to bé Barrister-at-Law. With a Preface by ARTHUR COHEN, Q.C., M.P. mastered by his mystic moods or by his at OUR DUTY;” or, Moral Responsibility of the Individual in Regard to Health. times prolix method of development. The G. V. POORÉ, M.D., F.R.C.P. characteristic featurs of his style, the mixede
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OfficiaL PRINTERS AND PUBLISHERS TO THE EXECUTIVE Council, 13, CHARING Cross, S.W. theme of each movement asserts its supremacy THE INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES EXHIBITION LITERATURE. in so masterful a manner, that the listener easily understands what is set before him, and
OFFICIAL NOTICE. his interest never flags.
WM. CLOWES & SONS, LIMITED, are instructed by the Executive Committee to announce that the The first movement, in F (allegro con brio), WHOLE of the IMPORTANT LITERARY OUTCOME of this Exhibition will be issued in a collected form, complete, after two chords, commences at once with the with copious Indices, in Fourteen Volumes, demy 8vo, cloth :bold principal theme in six-four time; the
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Vol. 13 smoothly, that one scarcely likes to find fault
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forming Vol. 14 of thought. So, again, with the following alle- Eminence anhanetiyernes, and memorismprehensive amature of the Papers which emanated from the ceremos como
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and condensed Library of Reference at will given out by the violoncellos, has a peculiar questions appertaining to Fish, Fishing Appliances, and the Fishing Industries of all Countries, brought down fascination, and the delicately scored middle to the date of the International Fisheries Exhibition of 1883. section is most welcome, although the movement
Any of these Divisions may be had separately at the above prices, or a Complete Set will be supplied for £6 68. has no very marked individuality. The finale
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Outlines to the text-books in general use a are human enough to differ very widely among
whole generation ago, in the full middle of themselves, and their aims, motives, and No. 629, New Series. the century:
processes are at times wholly inTHE EDITOR cannot undertake to return, or In the sternness of his resolve not to be scrutable. A careful record of the ages at
to correspond with the writers of, rejected seduced into the flowery fields of metaphysics, which such primitive mental processes manuscript.
Mr. Sully does perhaps rather less than might observing, desiring, and grasping are successIt is particularly requested that all business have been wished to show the philosophical fully accomplished, would be valuable if the letters regarding the supply of the paper, starting point of the analysis of mental pro- cases given were sufficiently numerous and fe., may be addressed to the PÚBLISHER, and cesses; and at times the extremely simple all above suspicion of mistake ; but its
mode of statement which he has chosen, as if interest would be mainly biological, and it not to the EDITOR.
to avoid controversy and make things easy to would be difficult to exclude the risk of
the student, rather defeats its purposes, and misinterpretation, unless all observations LITERATURE.
invites, after all, the kind of criticism which is on the first-born were tabooed. We know
reserved for first principles. For instance, how often the parental interest in the first Outlines of Psychology, with Special Reference reserved for first principles.
we are told at the outset of the second chapter sweet smile of the babe is crushed by the to the Theory of Education. By James
that the aim of mental science “is to establish scornful dictum of the experienced matron, Sully. (Longmans.)
as many general statements or propositions “ Only wind on the stomach !” And, at the As the title of this book seems intended to about mind as possible,” to which one might later age, when it would be exceedingly valuindicate, it aims at serving a double purpose, object with the Quaker, " Thereafter as the able to trace the order and pace of the or rather the purposes of a double set of propositions may be.” The phrase is meant average child's progress in the power, ,6.g., readers. So far as it deals with the outlines seriously, for the statement is repeated a few of naming and generalising, it would be of psychology, it is a book for students ; and pages farther on that “the psychologist desirable, if possible, to check the data colsomething of the continuity of treatment analyses and classifies mental phenomena in lected by philosophical observers not specially desired by other readers has been sacrificed to order to go on to make comprehensive asser- learned in child nature—by a committee of the advantages which a text-book is supposed tions about them,” which assertions are monthly nurses and infant-school mistresses, to gain from the accentuation and punctuation truths of mind;" and, apart from the form of empowered to eliminate all cases in which of the thought by the machinery of para- the proposition, there seems a deliberate in the interesting action or remark can be exgraphs, headings, and varieties of type. On completeness in it, answering to the definitions plained by a bit of wanton wilfulness of the other hand, as is almost a matter of course, in the paragraph before of sensation as the thought (like the one quoted on p. 425) or the theory of education is treated from the discrimination of a sense impression from by pure animal or childish silliness, as when teacher's point of view; and it is not at first others ” (as if it were not necessary to have words apparently significant are spoken at obvious why young students of psychology sensation. A before judging it to be not only the prompting of some unknown physical should be expected to take a more lively identical with itself, but different from sensa- stimulus, not as part of a coherent mental interest in the applications of psychology to tion B), of perception as the marking off of process. Mr. Sully says of the “Why” of tuition than in its applications to experimental a group of impressions, and of thinking as the a three-year-older: “He now looks at things or political science or to any other practical separation of whole classes of objects. And, as occurring for a purpose, and can only calling. The explanation is probably simple later on again, thinking is described as con- understand them in so far as they present and innocent-namely, that a large proportion sisting, “like the simpler forms of cognition, some analogy to his own purposive actions." of the students examined by the author, and in discrimination and assimilation, in detecting It would, no doubt, be of the utmost psyfound to be in want of a book on psychology differences and agreements," as if apprehension chological importance if it could be shown revised and corrected up to date, are actually or perception necessarily involved the more that the average child at that age, sponpreparing for or engaged in the teaching pro- complicated processes of comparison and judg- taneously, and apart from the inspiration of fession; and, if so, there can be no objection to ment, which are, nevertheless, treated as separ- idle and unphilosophical nursery maids, apposite references, by the way, to their special ate. The philosophical doctrine of the rela- arrived at the idea of " reason” (or sureichrequirements
, though it is to be hoped that tivity of knowledge throws no light on the more endes Grund) before it arrived at the idea of they will not run away with the idea that elementary problems of scientific psychology. “cause” (or Ursache); but a casual opinion there is any specially close and intimate con- Nor is it quite satisfactory to be told that about one child is scarcely the beginning of nexion between their chosen art and the mental phenomena “are commonly called such a demonstration. If my own experience science to which Mr. Sully introduces them, states of mind or states of consciousness, were wide enough to be worth counting, as such an impression would interfere with without some further definition of the phe- I should say that a child's “Why" should the duly disinterested mastery of the science. nomenal existence of mind which it is the I do so and so o ? means,
" What am I to Criticism upon single points in a volume of business of psychology to investigate, as dis- gain by it?" and his “Why do you do so the size (over seven hundred pages) is almost tinguished from the mental “thing in itself” and so ?” means, “What are you and I to necessarily misleading as well as captious in which is abandoned to the philosopher. A gain by it?” while his enquiry into the appearance, because it is impossible to enu- similar illustration of the difficulties of ele- why and wherefore of external phenomena merate at proportionate length the instances mentary teaching may be found on p. 427, represents a disinterested search for antein which accepted doctrines are clearly put or where the author humanely substitutes new cedents. If the nursery is to throw any newly illustrated. In general the value of and original specimens of the syllogism for light upon these questions, the babies must the work may be said to consist mainly in a the time-worn “ All men are mortal;” but, be taken as seriously as if they were earthconvenient restatement of the doctrine and unfortunately, from the educational point of worms. Another passage seems to show that analyses of the English school of psychology, view, the propositions substituted are such as the supposed experience of children is only so re-arranged as to leave space for all that is any moderately argumentative child would referred to to illustrate a full-fledged theory, known and part of what is foreboded as to have much pleasure in confuting by the not as furnishing experimental science with the physiology of sensation and thought. legitimate logical process of "denying the primary facts to work on. We read (p. 562): This is a work which has not been done for major.”
is At first the child's repugnance to wrongthe present generation of students; and Mr. Pending the revelations still looked for from doing is little more than the egoistic feeling Sully is not to blame if his summary leaves a physiology, the most valuable addition recently of dislike to or fear of punishment,” thougħ lurking sense of disappointment in our minds made to the resources of the psychologist is it may also “manifest a feeling of deferat finding ourselves, after all, so little the perhaps that to which Mr. Darwin first ence towards a command impressively laid forwarder for all Mr. Spencer's imaginative seriously called the attention of philosophic down." Now, for a utilitarian psychologist grasp of the metaphysics of psychology, Mr. fathers—namely, the interrogation of the to take Bentham and Austin for granted is, Lewes's imaginative forecasts of its physi- domestic baby. But, like all new and fas- perhaps, allowable ; but it is scarcely so to ology, and Dr. Bain's continued work upon cinating studies, this branch of psychological invoke the authority of children, and omit all the lines of psychology proper and unmixed. investigation requires to be pursued with the evidence they have to give in favour of But even this disappointment might disappear caution, and a holy dread of basing general the derivation of moral ideas from customary if we were condemned to turn from these statements upon single observations. Babies use and wont, rather than positive law.
in this way:
With children, as with dogs, the memory of | Outlines may be welcomed as a substantially It is good to turn from the ungrateful duty having been naughty, is quite distinct from reliable introduction to psychology, while of inspecting the spots upon his muse's robe, the fear of being found out or punished; and the educational addenda are enriched with and to contemplate her form and features. there is, further, the large class of cases in remarks some of which, we hope, may get These, be it frankly said, are large and noble. which children and school-boys form special indelibly registered in the nervous system of Perhaps the most remarkable poem in his independent moral codes, to which they con- the rising generation of teachers.
new volume is “ Sospitra." This legendary form spontaneously, without penalties, and
EDITI SIMCOX. maiden dwelt in a ruined temple, amid oldoften in defiance of the direct moral teaching
world deserts; and there two spirits, visiting of their eldersinstance the feeling of shame,
her, endowed her with miraculous wisdom, generically like that felt on doing wrong, Earth's Voices, Transcripts from Nature, Sos with subtle power over living creatures, and when a child finds itself markedly different pitra, and other Poems. By William Sharp. with insight into the secret heart of existence. from its fellows, more shabbily or very much (Elliot Stock.) more smartly dressed, with short hair in the MR. SHARP's maiden volume disclosed to us a
“ All things before her were laid bare;
All knowledge and all power she had; midst of long or the reverse, or in any way | poet of real imaginative power and of affluent
She knew no sorrow, felt no care, at variance with the customary code. speech, who seemed now and then in danger
Had perfect vision, and was glad; After all, the psychologist who expects to of being seduced from his truest aims as an
Even as in a glass she saw find a utilitarian motive for every process that artist by the fascinations of a rich, but some
The evolution of one law. goes on in the human mind is as much at a what turbid, rhetoric. “Motherhood," "The
“ She watched the life of nations grow; disadvantage as the student of any natural New Hope," "Rispetti,” were anything but
She heard the sound of puny wars;
Each mockery of triumph blow science wedded to a fetichistic interpretation thin or half-hearted song. There was beauty Beneath the same unchanging stars ; of the universe. The doctrine of evolution and strength; there was some tumult and
She heard the sound of prayers rise, recognises the beginning of conscious, self- fermentation. We said, on laying down the
Felt the old stillness 'midst the skies." interested processes and tendencies in the volume, This is a first book, and will not be a The two visitant spirits (to cite Mr. Sharp's animal, almost in the vegetable, world; and it last one ; it will be interesting to watch this prefatory note) had given her “lordship over must évidently recognise also in man the writer settle and solidify.
herself, and over all things save Love and continuance rather than the absolute end of
He committed little sins of style which Death." blind, deaf, unconscious properties, which writers without a tenth part of his ability ' But one day a strange restlessness have their share in determining the action of would have avoided. He began a powerful
Fell on her, and a keen desire the human animal, and indirectly, through his
To know the ill or happiness poem action, his conscious, purely human appetites,
Of life herself to feel the fire “Beneath the awful full-orb'd moon.”
Ev'n though it should consume; but weak desires, and emotions. In treating, early in
A moment only, with blanch'd cheek, the volume, of the “interdependence of in- and elsewhere he mentioned something that
She changed her thought-for well she knew tellectual, emotional, and volitional develop-was destined to "know no nobler sphere."
That if Love strove with her and won, ment,” Mr. Sully truly observes, “The Observing these lapses, we said to ourselves,
Even as a leaf a wild wind blew, growth of feeling in its higher forms involves It is to be hoped that in his next book he will
So would she be ; for ever done considerable intellectual development, but no eschew such things, which offer a handle, so The serene glory of her days,
The sight and knowledge of God's ways." corresponding degree of volitional develop- to speak, for adverse criticism of the niggling ment;" but, subsequently, after describing kind, though they do not affect his total At length, however, comes Lore–no airy voluntary actions actions consciously claims as a poet.
vision, but irresistibly concrete-and her soul directed towards some end, and the end as
Something, we must admit, of his old dis- surrenders under his siege. The tone of the necessarily the gratification of some feeling, regard of tiny details—his disdain of polish- poem here is perhaps earthlier than one could he is brought round to the opposite and less ing a pebble, let us call it still cleaves to wish; but let that pass. Sospitra no sooner tenable conclusion that “it is feeling which him. In a song on p. 97 of his new volume yields to mortal passion than a woful change ultimately supplies the stimulus or force to we are amazed to read
comes over her. Her mystic omnipotence of volition, and intellect which guides or illu- “ Would'st thou vert mine to my last hour to inner vision departs; the film of human mines it.” The person by nature or habit
weakness falls dense over her eyes; her lover, prone to varied and energetic action does not and can only indulge a faint hope that per- too, forsakes her, and she is left alone, her indulge his propensity because of a stronger haps a cruel and relentless printer is re- spirit bare of everything that once had made desire than other men have that the act sponsible for "wouldst” having got there, her as a goddess; and in this fallen state should be done, but because of a stronger to the defiance of all grammar, instead of Death finds her. The colouring of the poem impulse to do it. The pain of impeded would." This hope does gather strength is very impressive, full of wild Aushes and impulse is indeed great in proportion to the when, a few pages farther on, we find weird pallors, with lurid gleams that shiter strength of the impulse, but it cannot be
across a strange sky. The spirit of desolation seriously argued that a man wishes to do Who long hath loved him faithfully; in nature, heightened by ruinous remnants something—0.9., to go for a walk, in order to which might
well drive one to the conclusion of a human Past, is finely caught; and Mr. avoid the annoyance which he would feel if that this individual printer must have a Sharp is here fortunate in having ample scope he were prevented from going. It seems malicious trick of levelling the conventional for such bye-effects as specially allure him, equally doubtful, psychologically, whether distinctions of first, second, and third person there being many opportunities for picturesque the opposite disinclination of indolence " im- in his author's verbs. At least, we feel that it allusions to lions, hyenas, meteors, and plies a shrinking from a represented pain; is kinder to impute these irregularities to an cyclones. that of excessive or effort-attended action." evilly disposed printer-he being an imper- One of Mr. Sharp’s conspicuous merits lies Surely
a true idler will not waste his energies sonal abstraction whom pain cannot touch in his affectionate intimacy with Nature; but upon such a superfluous stretch of imagina- than to lay them at the door of the author. this, though his most obvious excellence, is not tion, when the spontaneous attitude of the
The above are instances of carelessness; his chief claim to regard. Indeed, although mind and muscles is that of a sub-conscious sometimes we come upon minute blemishes,
his detached pieces of verbal landscapeaffirmation, “J'y suis ; j'y reste."
painting—the numerous "Transcripts" —are Of French writers, it is curious that Mr. although the wanderer in one of Spenser's always welcome for their truth as records and Sully quotes M. Ribot for the pathological fantastic palaces found inscribed upon its their beauty as pictures
, it seems to us that fact that the loss of self-control may arise walls Be Bold, Be Bold, and everywhere Be in the cycle of lyrics from which his new either through the inerease of the force to be Bold, he was at last confronted by the volume takes its name (" Earth's Voices a power of resisting and overcoming.” What example, such a word as " memorious ” is, manifest designs upon her; it is ever, ihet is this but a clumsy version of La Roche- perhaps, a not unhappy innovation, and may more circuitous and insinuating way that help c'est plutôt par leur faiblesse que par notre precedent ; puente enchantio »,"can never make about for his primary virtue as a poet, we thinks force to? These cavils notwithstanding, the ) its way in the world.
it will be found in the sincere human sym