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2 M.

SELECTED FOREIGN BOOKS. in which Prof. Jebb has compiled, without sages of Homer where it

acknowledgment, a large part of his account occurs it is applied to AUERBACH, Berthold. Briefe an seinen Freund Jacob of early Greek archaeology from a letter and Akhaean Greeks, not to

Auerbach. Ein biograph. Denkmal. Frankfurt-a- a magazine article of mine, I had not the barbarous Thracians; in BEITRAEGE zur Kenntniss der russischen Armee. Han- slightest intention of reflecting on the editorial later Greek literature, it nover: Helwing. 4 M. management of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.

is merely synonymous with CENTENAIRE du Mariage de Figaro de Caron de Beau- I am fully aware that the authors of the signed

' prehistoric.?"

“Hence Pischel'setym- “ It has been conjecCRUEGER, J. Die erste Gesammtausgabe der Nibel- articles in the new and splendid edition of the

ology, which makes trired that in Pelasgos we ungen. Frankfurt-a-M.: Lit. Anstalt. 3 M. Encyclopaedia are alone responsible for what readyós a compound of have combined the roots GOETHE-JAHRBUCH. Hrsg. v. L. Geiger. 5. Bd.

they write; and the editors naturally expect the roots we have in of répay and elue (na).* Frankfurt-a-M.: Lit. Anstalt. 12 M. JOORIS, J. Aperçu politique et économique sur les that the scholars to whom they have entrusted répar and clue (na), and The name would then

Colonies néerlandaises aux Indes orientales. Brux- them will not offend against the rules of literary so meaning the further. mean 'the further-goer,' LAVELEYE, E. de. Nouvelles Lettres d'Italie (1883-84). courtesy or publish the work of others as if it goers' or emigrants,' “the emigrant.' It would Bruxelles : Muquardt. 3 fr. were their own.

becomes very probable.” thus be appropriate as MARZO, G. di. J. Gagini e la Scultura in Sicilia nei As it is clear that Prof. Robertson Smith has

the name given by the Secoli XV e XVI. Verona: Münster. 120 L. MELCHIOR de VOGUÉ, Le Vte C. Le Fils de Pierre le no idea of the extent to which Prof. Jebb has

Hellenes, who had reGrand, etc. Paris : Calmann Lévy. 3 fr. 50 c. appropriated my facts, theories, and words,

mained behind in Phry. MUTHER, R. Die deutsche Bücherillustration der and as it is probable that others also will be

gia, to the kinsmen who Gothik u. Frührenaissance (1460–1530). 5. Lfg. München: Hirth. 20 M. reluctant to believe that a scholar of his repu

had passed over into Ueb. die Abhängigkeit der jetzigen tation can have gone quite so far as I have My Article in the Contem

Europe before them" SIEVERS, W.

" (!). den früheren Territorialgrenzen. Göttingen : Pepp: asserted, I will print my original text and Prof.


Jebb’s reproduction of it in parallel columns.
WEILEN, A. v. Shakespeare's Vorspiel zu der Wider: It will be seen from this that he has not only “ Phoenicia, Keft, as it

1878. spänstigen Zähmung. Frankfurt-a-M.: Lit. Anstalt. laid hands on the facts and theories I have

Phoenicia, called Kefl'

was called by the Egyp- by the Egyptians, had at THEOLOGY.

quoted from other writers, combining them as tians, had been brought a remote period contriSELIGMANN, C. Das Buch der Weisheit d. Jesus I have done, putting my interpretation upon into relation with the buted Semitic settlers to

Sirach in seinem Verhältniss zu den salomonischen them, and omitting everything that I have monarchy of the Nile at the Delta, or "Isle of
Sprüchen u. seiner historischen Bedeutung.
Breslau : Preuss. 1 M. 20 Pf.

omitted, but that he has also silently appro- a remote date ; and among Caphtor,' and it would WEIFFENBACH, W. Zur Auslegung der Stelle Philipper priated the conclusions which, so far as I know, the Semitic settlers in the appear from the evidence

1, 5-11... Zugleiche. Beitrag zur paulinischen I have been the first to arrive at, such as the Delta or 'Isle of Caphtor' of the Egyptian monuChristologie. Karlsruhe : Reuter. 1 M. 80 Pf.

use of the term Pelasgian in the sense of must have been natives ments that the Kefa, or HISTORY.

'prehistoric,” the older character of the two of Sidon and the neigh- Phoenicians, were a great BROGLIE, F. de. Fénelon à Cambrai d'après sa Cor- Homeric passages in which the word denotes

bouring towns. As commercial people as early respondance. Paris : Plon. 7 fr. 50 C. a Thessalian tribe, the existence of two periods B.C., therefore, we may B.c. Cyprus, visible from

early as the 16th century DRUFFEL, A. v. Monumenta Tridentina. Beiträge zur

as the sixteenth century Geschichte a. Concils v. Trient. 1. Hft. Jan.-Mai of Phoenician influence upon early Greece, the conclude that the Phoeni- the heights of Lebanon, MEYER, M. Geschichte der preussischen Handwerker- diffusion of the Phoenician alphabet through cians were a great com

was the first stage of the politik. 1. Bd. Die Handwerkerpolitik d. Grossen Greece at the end of the ninth century B.C., mercial people. . . Cyprus, Phoenician advance into Kurfürsten u. König Friedrichs I.

(1610-1713.) the Asianic origin of the so-called Cypriote in fact, lay midway be- the Western waters; and Minden: Bruns. 12 M. REUTER, K. Die Römer im Mattiakerland. Wies- syllabary, and one or two other points which tween Greece and Phoe- to the last there was in baden: Nieder. 2 M. 40 Pf. will at once strike the reader.

nicia, and was shared to Cyprus a Semitic element WACHENFELD, G. Die politischen Beziehungen zwischen den Fürsten v. Brandenburg u. Hessen

After saying that "language indicates that the last between an Aryan side by side with the IndoKassel bis zum Anfange d. dreissigjährigen Krieges. there must have been a period during which and a Semitic population. European." the forefathers of the Greeks and Italians, after in the history of the nician influence on carly

Two periods of PhoeWENDT, G. Die Germanisierung der Länder östlich v. der Elbe. Tl. 1. 780-1137. Liegnitz: Reisner. 1 M.

the Celts had parted from them, lived together Aegean thus seem to lie Greece may be distin PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY.

ås one people -a piece of information which unfolded before us; one guished : first, a period BASTIAN, A. Allgemeine Grundzüge der Ethnologie. for which I am not responsible—Prof. Jebb fluence was more or less brought into intercourse

will be new to comparative philologists, and in which Eastern in- during which they were BOEHMIG, L. Beiträge zur Kenntniss d. Centralnerven- proceeds as follows: systems einiger pulmonaten Gasteropoden. Leip

indirect, content to com. with the Greeks merely BOGDANOW, M. Conspectus avium imperii rossici. My Letter in the Academy Prof. Jebb in the ENCYCLO- municate the seeds of by traffic in occasional

BRITANNICA civilisation and culture, voyages ; secondly, Fasc. 1. St. Petersburg. 3 M. 30 Pf.

of Feb. 1, 1879. BRISCHKE, C. G. A., u. G. ZADDACH. Beobachtungen

(vol. xi., p. 90). and to import such ob- period of Phoenician ab. die Arten der Blatt- u. Holzwespen. Berlin: "Greek writers from

“In some Homeric pas- would prize; and an.

jects as a barbarous race trading settlements in Friedländer. 2 M. 40 Pf.

the islands or on the JACOLLIOT, L. Histoire naturelle et sociale de l'Hu

Homerand Hesiod down. sages, and those among the Panité Marion La Genèse de la Terre et de l'Homme. ward mention Pelas. oldest, the name Pelasgoi other in which the East coasts of the Greek seas,

their influence gians; but, if we ex- denotes a tribe of Achaean was, as it were, trans- when OVERLOOP, E. van. Sur une Méthode à suivre dans les amine their statements, or Aeolian Greeks living

ported into the West, became more penetratEtudes préhistoriques Bruxelles : Muquardt. 6 fr. PELZELN, Å. v. Brasilische Säugethiere. Resultate we find that the term is in Thessaly (11. ii. 681, and the development of ing and thorough. It

Greek art was intervon Joh. Natterer's Reisen in den J. 1817 bis 1835. used in two (or perhaps xvi. 233). In other poetical

was probably early in Wien. 2 M. REICH, E. Die Geschichte der Seele, die Hygieine a. denoting a certain Greek repeatedly in Herodotus; and foreign beliefs. This the ninth century B.c.three) senses : firstly, as texts of a later date, and tion of foreign workmen haps about

the end of

rupted by the introduc- this second period-perGeisteslebens n. die Civilisation. Minden: Bruns.

tribe which inhabited Thes. Pelasgoi is WEYRAUCH, J. J. Theorie elastischer Körper. Leipzig: saly during the heroic designation for people period of Phoenician bet became diffused through

a general second period was the that the Phoenician alpha, Teubner. 7 M. 20 Pf.

age ; and, secondly, as of whom the Greeks colonisation as distinct Greece.
equivalent to our own term knew little definitely, from that of mere trading

This alphabet

was itself derived from the FOERSTER, W., u. E. KOSCHWITZ. Altfranzösisches

'prehistoric.' In the first except that they had Uebungsbuch. 1. Thl. Die ältesten Sprachdenk- sense it is used twice in preceded the Hellenic voyages--the period, in alphabet of the Egyptian mäler. Heilbronn : Henninger. 3 M. the Iliadii. 681, and dwellers in the land. made a Phoenician for. brought into Phoenicia by

fact, when Thebes was hieroglyphics, which was FREERICKS, H. De Aeschyli supplicum choro. Leip. xvi. 233. In two other In this second and vague tress, and the Phoenician the Phoenician settlers in

zig : Fock. 1 M. 50 Pf. KAISER, P. De fontibus Vellei Paterculi. Berlin:

Homeric passages of later use, Pelasgian' is equiva- alphabet diffused through- the Delta. It was ime Mayer & Müller. 1 M.

date (II. X. 429, Od. xix. lent to 'prehistoric.' MAYER, M., De Euripidis mythopoeia capita duo. 177) the name has passed

out the Greek world." ported into Greece, prob-, Berlin : Mayer & Müller. 1 M. 50 Pf. MUELLER, E.

"The Phoenician al- ably by the AramaeoBeiträge zur Erklärung u. Kritik d. into the region of myth

phabet, originally derired Phoenicians of the Gulf of Königs Oedipus d. Sophokles. 1 u. 2. Grimma : ology, and a way has

Geosel. 2 M PRAETORIUS, E. accordingly been pre

from the alphabet of the Antiochnot by the PhoeDe legibus Platonicis a Philippo pared for the use of it Opuntio retractatis. Bonn: Behrendt. 1M.

Of course I wrote ya, but Prof. Jebb has SAYHLUNG der griechischen Dialekt-Inschriften, by later writers to de

carefully copied the misprint. I have come across Hrsg. v. H. Collitz. 3. Hft. Die boeotischen In- note those populations

other blunders of his in comparative philology sebriften, v. R. Meister. 5. Hft. Göttingen: Van- of Greece and its neigh

which are quite as portentous. In fact, whenever SERyons du 12e Siècle en vieux provençal, publiés par should now call prebourhood which

Prof. Jebb strays into the province of the comF. Armitage. Heilbronn : Henninger. 3 M.

parative philologist—and he is rather fond of historic, or whose origin

doing so-he generally contrives to make some and relationship were CORRESPONDENCE.

elementary mistake. I should not have noticed unknown. (For this em

these errors in what might seem to lie outside his THE SOURCES OF PROF. JEBB'S INFORMATION. ployment of the word,

special subject had he not once claimed to sit in Queen's College, Oxford : May 10, 1884. see Herodotus i. 146,

judgment on certain Homeric questions which My friend Prof. Robertson Smith has mis- 94, ii. 61, v. 26, vi. 138.) i. 56, ii. 56, viii. 44, vii.

involved a knowledge of the latest and most minute understood me. In complaining of the way

researches in scientific philology (see ACADEMY, In the oldest pas.

November 19, 1881, p. 385).






3 p.m.

7.45 p.m. Statistical: "A Statistical Review of

THE RETORT OF PLAGIARISM. Egyptian hieroglyphics, nicians of Tyre and Sidon

Canada, including its Confederated Provlaces," by and imported into their —and seems to have

Scrayingham Rectory, York: May 8, 1884. Mr. C. Walford. mother-country by the superseded, in Asia

8 p.m. I venture to think that the letter in which

Civil Engineers: “The Progress of Phoenician settlers of the Minor and the islands, a

Upland Water through a Tidal Estuary," by Mr. Mr. Sayce retorts on Mr. Jebb the charge of R. W. Peregrine Birch. Delta, was brought to syllabary of some seventy

8.30 p.m. Zoological : "The Isopods collected Greece, not probably by the characters, which continued plagiarism must have caused not a little pain

during the Voyage of the Challenger -1., The Genus

Here are two professors, Phoenicians of Tyre and to be used in Cyprus down to many readers.

Serolis," by Mr. F. E. Beddard; "The Mollusca

procured duriog the Lightning and Porcupine ExSidon, but by the Ara. to a late time. The direct with a great and, we may suppose, well-earned

peditions," VIII., by Dr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys; "The maeans of the Gulf of Phoenician influence on reputation, charging each the other with un

Structural Characters of the Cotton Spinner (Holo. Antioch. ... Before the Greece lasted to about acknowledged appropriation of a systematic thuria nigra), especially of its Cuverian Organs," by introduction of the sim. 600 B.C. Commerce and sort, if not with downright theft. Mr. Sayce's

Prof. Bell;

"Hybrids among the Salmonidae," II.,

by Mr. F. Day. pler Phoenician alpha- navigation were the pro- retort is provoked by an article on his edition WEDNESDAY, May 21. 8 p.m. British Archaeolngical: bet, the inhabitants of vinces in which the of Herodotos in the current number of the "The Ancient Port of Luni, Italy," by Signora Asia Minor and the neigh- Phoenician influence, Edinburgh Review; and this unsigned article he

Campion. bouring islands appear to strictly so called, was ascribes to Mr. Jebb, the authorship being, as

8 p.m. Society of Arts: "Telegraph Tariffs,"

by Lieut.-Col. Webber. have used a syllabary of most felt by the Greeks, he affirms, an open secret. The measure is

, to THORSDAY, May 22, 3p.m. Royal Institution : “Flame some seventy characters, In art and science, in which continued to be em- everything that con- say the least, a strong one; but his letter does

8 p.m. Society of Arts: “Economic Applica

tions of Seaweed," by Mr. E. C. Stanford. ployed in conservative cerned the higher cul. no more than assert that Mr. Jebb ventures on

8 p.m. Telegraph Engineers: "The Electrical Cyprus down to a very ture, the Phoenicians seem unfamiliar ground, and therefore blunders when

Congresses of Paris," by Mr. W. H. Preece. late date ; but, so far as to have been little more he deals with Egyptology and Eastern learn- FRIDAY, May 23, 8 p.m. Browning Society. we know at present, the than carriers from east to ing generally, and, further, that Mr. Jebb's 8 p.m. Quekett.

9 p.m. Royal Institution : "The Distances of Greeks of the mainland west of Egyptian, Assy- articles on early Greek history contributed to the Fixed Stars," by Mr. David Gill. were unacquainted with rian, Babylonian the new edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica SATURDAY, May 21, 3p.m. Linnean: Anniversary writing before the Ara- ideas."

Meeting; Election of Council. are largely borrowed, without acknowledg

Royal Institution : “Microscopica! maeo-Phoenicians had ment, from writings of Mr. Sayce.

Geology," II., by Prof. Bonney. taught them their phoIt is hard to see how such a counter-charge

3 p.m.

Physical: “An Imm greion Galvanonetic symbols."

meter and Kohlbrausch's Metre Bridges for “We may infer that is any refutation of the indictment brought Alternating Currents," by Dr. W. H. Stone; "A

Speed Indicator," by Mr. Walter Baily: “Enteria, against Mr. Sayce in the Edinburgh Review. the alphabet of Kadmus

or Lowest Temperatures of Fusion," by Dr. Guthrie. was brought to the West There can surely be not the least doubt that

7 p.m. Essex Field Club. at a date not very remote

some of Mr. Sayce's translations given by the from that of Mesha and

reviewer (p. 325) are wrong? There is also no Ahab, perhaps about doubt that Mr. Sayce has brought against

SCIENCE. 800 B.C."

Herodotos some charges which are directly RECENT WORKS ON LUCILIUS. “Phoenician influence

refuted by the words of Herodotos himself. continued to be felt up

Mr. Sayce maintains, for instance, that “The In Luciliana (Berlin : Calvary) Lucian Müller to the end of the seventh century B.c."

tale of the Phoenix, which he plagiarised from reviews two recent publications on Lucilius, In art, as in myth. Hekataeos, is a convincing proof how little he one by Kleinschmit, of Marburg (1883), the

Of Kleinschmit's ology and religion, Phoe

cared for really first-hand evidence, and how other by Marx, of Bonn.
ready he was to insert any legend which pleased

gekrönte Preisaufgabe," which falls into nicia was but a carrier and intermediary between

his fancy, and to make himself responsible for its three heads—(1) Grammatical Forms, (2) East and West."

truth.But this story is one of those for which Syntax, (3) Tropes and Figures-he speaks in “Phoenician art,

Herodotos distinctly disclaims all responsi- a tone of mingled admiration at its subtle though based on both

bility; in fact, he says that he does not believe remarks on Old-Latin usages, and surprise at Egyptian and Assyrian

it (ii

. 73). It is not easy to understand how its incredible errors. To the former belongs the models, owed far more

unfairness and misrepresentation could go much remark that the elision of final : in us and is to Assyria than it did to

beyond this, or how the transgression of one appears predominantly in the fifth foot of the Egypt. ... To underscholar can be atoned by asserting, or even

Lucilian hexameter; the other stand Assyrian art we must go back to

proving, that another is not less guilty. I mostly in the first and second. Again, that primaeval Babylonia.”

confess, for myself, that I read with no little not a few Lucilian words are found only in " The whole cycle of "Thus Melcarth, the

surprise the chapters on “Myths and Myth- Cicero besides ; a remark which naturally myths grouped about the city.god of Tyre, is re- ology” in Mr. Sayce's Introduction to the Science applies primarily to the letters—in which name of Herakles points cognised in Melicertes of Language, in which he seemed to deal with many points of contact, as is well known, may as clearly to a Semitic as worshipped at the me after the fashion in which he complains that be traced, not only with Lucilius, but with the source as does the myth of isthmus of Corinth. In he has been dealt with by Mr. Jebb. To this Satires and Epistles of Horace. Kleinschmit

, Aphrodite and Adonis; one Greek form of the surprise I gave some expression in p. 570 of the as also Marx, is praised for his Latin ; yet and the extravagant worship of Heracles, last edition of my Mythology of the Aryan that the best model for dissertations is that lamentations that Astarte—the goddess of Nations. companied the worship the Phoenician sailors

The habit and the temper shown in these adopted by Lachmann in his Commentary on of the akhaean Demeter becomes Aphrodite who controversies seem deplorable ; nor can recrim- Lucretius, an imitation of the old Latin certainly from the East,” The myth of Adonis, the The remedy"

may be found in the old

way of to pass a damnatory sentence on Leo, who it &c.

worship of the Achaean
Demeter, are other ex-
giving too many, rather than too few, refer- seems, has reviewed Kleinschmit with severity.

Marx differs from Kleinschmit in & perverse amples.

ences, but it is high time that both the I have italicised some of the passages in order plagiarism and the charges of plagiarism should incapacity for finding L. Müller's edition of to facilitate comparison. They will serve to

come to an end.

GEORGE W. Cox. Lucilius final, and appealing to Lachmann's

edition in cases where L. Müller fails to satisfy show that, when Prof. Jebb did me the honour

reasonable criticism. It is not doubtful that of copying out the very expressions I had used, he treated me somewhat hardly in not following

Lachmann's edition (a posthumous work which

APPOINTMENTS FOR NEXT WEEK. the example of his two coadjutors in the article Monday, May 19, 4 p.m. Asiatic: Anniversary Meeting:

Haupt shrank from editing, and which Munro,

one of Lachmann's greatest admirers, can only on Greek history (Mr. Tozer and Dr. Donald

Education: The Training of the partially praise) leaves much to be desiderated. son), who mention the authorities from whom Imagination," by Mr. James Sully.

But this is no reason why Mars should be

8 p.m. Society of Arts : Cantor Lecture, “Fer. they have derived, not, indeed, their turns of expression, but their general facts. I can now

mentation and Distillation,” II., by Prof. w. Noe accused of ignorance for quoting Lachmann's

Hartley. understand why Prof. Jebb accuses me in the Aristotelian : "Hume's Treatise of Human

readings; nor for the repeated and contemptu. Nature” (concluded), by Mr. C. Cave.

ous allusions which L. Müller has thought fit Edinburgh Review of being a plagiarist, who 8 p.m. Victoria Institute : "Evolution," by Mr. to make to the edition as “the book C. Lucili pilfers without acknowledgment, and does not

J. Hassell.

Saturarum;" even if it does justify the par. always pilfer correctly.*

TUESDAY, May 20, 3 p.m. Royal Institution: "The

Physiology of Nerve and muscle,"timur., by Prof. ticularising summary, given on pp. 13-15, of

Gamgee. * I feel grateful Prof. Jebb for drawing my

the principal errors it contains, and the very attention to the complaint made against me by result þeing that several

of the
references and which may, he thinks, be accepted as worth

precise numeration of twelve new emendations Dr. Hinrichs, which I had not previously seen.

numerals contained in it were incorrect, and that Had I done so, I should long ago have publicly the reference to Dr. Hinrich's admirable mono

consideration. asked his pardon for an omission which was alto graph was omitted. But all these shortcomings

Marx' own work is divided into seven gether accidental. Owing to absence in Egypt, I have been rectified in the new edition of the book chapters : (1) critical and exegetical; (2)_(?? was unable to revise the proofs of my Appendix published a year ago, where I have specially on books 1., ii., xii., xiv. ; (6) chronological

; to Prof. Mahaffy's History of Greek Literature, the recorded my obligations to the German scholar.

(7) i. 3. It is praised for its industry and

cases are


7.30 p.m.


research ; and special remarks are quoted with


“vagaries,” or the "faults" and "evident approval. The conjectures are condemned. I

mistakes,” which Dr. Buddensieg_s0 heartily should add that its title is Studia Luciliana;


despises, have influenced the French and Kleinschmit's is De Lucili Saturarum genere

Cambridge : May 10, 1884. English languages. In my former letter I dicendi.


I am glad to notice from Dr. Buddensieg's referred to the word surrounda form which, reply that my criticism on bis Wiclif volumes with its Old-French originals, owes its origin has not ruffled his temper. An answer on my to the same vagary” which produced the

part is necessary, though, of course, I need not form "dupplicitas," quoted by Dr. BuddenOBITUARY.

say anything regarding the strange distinction sieg, and dupplicare," which he may find in ADOLPHE WURTZ.

he draws between “unfamiliarity” and “not the Catholicon Anglicum (of 1483), p. 105. I very familiar.”

might give numerous other instances, but Dr. BUT a month has elapsed since the death of First, as to Dr. Buddensieg's concluding Buddensieg will, no doubt, allow me, for the Dumas, and now another great French chemist paragraph, in which he remarks that I did sake of brevity on my part, and for better is gone. Charles-Adolphe Wurtz was born at not touch upon the main question as to the information on his own, to refer him again and Strassburg on November 26, 1817; he died at MES., their examination, appreciation, com- again to Du Cange and Diefenbach, those vast Paris on May 12, 1884. His first chemical ap- parison, their families, scribes, glossers, cor- storehouses of the very.“ vagaries, faults, and pointments were in connexion with the Faculty rectors, &c." I think it will appear quite evident mistakes " which he wishes us to disof Medicine in his native town. After his natural to everyone that I did not do so, as card and neglect. A considerable portion of arrival in Paris in 1845 he worked and lectured nearly all the MSS. are far away from me, Diefenbach's closely printed quarto volume of in the Ecole des Arts et Manufactures and in either at Vienna or at Prague; only one, and 644 pages, with three columns to a page, is the Institut agronomique at Versailles. He that the least valuable, is in this country, nothing, but a record of such vagaries (!), was elected a foreign member of the Royal in the possession of Lord Ashburnham. It faults ), and mistakes (!), all carefully culled Society in 1864 ; he also_a foreign was, therefore, out of my power to say by Diefenbach from the numerous Vocabularii, member of the Chemical Society. He received anything on this point. Moreover, I gladly the Gemmae, Gemmulae, &c., which were the the Faraday medal of the latter body in accepted Dr. Buddensieg's decision as to that actual dictionaries of Wiclif's period and the 1878. The Royal Society awarded him a main (I use his own word) question, as he two succeeding centuries. In this Diefenbach Copley medal in 1881. Only last year the appeared to me eminently qualified to deal record Dr. Buddensieg may also find, for Royal Society of Edinburgh' elected him a with it. Again, so far as I ani personally con- instance, the form encheridion, which he now foreign member. He was also a member of the cerned, an editor is welcome to take as the quotes as a “vagary," and which he would Institut and of the Académie de Médecine. lasis for his text any MS. he likes, so long as probably omit in his next Wiclif volume. The industry and ingenuity of Wurtz in the he gives the exact readings of the MSS., either Editors are apt to regard these forms as branches of chemical research which he had in the text or in foot-notes. These readings are mistakes of the scribes. But they really mark made his own were very great. The Royal usually a criterion whereby we may know the pa period of the Latin language. Just as the Society Catalogue of Scientific Papers gives a age or, at any rate, the value of the iss. Any Latin of Marculf's Formulae (not to speak of list of 104 memoirs, most of them of consider- additional disquisition of the editor has, no numerous other documents) marks the Meroable importance, which he had published up to doubt, its importance, and may even be in- vingian period, so does the Latin of the the year 1879. His researches on alcohol- dispensable; but, for my part, I prefer the Wiclif MSS. mark the fourteenth and fifteenth derivatives and on the compound-ammonias are actual readings of the M$8.

centuries. Many years ago Marculf's Latin was particularly noteworthy. His discovery, in Here we naturally come back again to the also altered and corrected” by his editors in a 1856, of glycol, the first diatomic alcohol, was only question which I touched upon, and the manner which would have satisfied all those of great interest. Two of Wurtz's books, his only one which concerns me for the present, 'poor theologians and dogmatists” in whose Leçons élémentaires de Chimie moderne and his namely, the question of orthography. Dr. behalf Mr. Karl Pearson made his appeal for Théorie atomique, are well known in England. Buddensieg says I asked him what faults “ critical ” texts in the ACADEMY of April 26. So is his monumental Dictionnaire de Chimie of the scribe" and "evident mistakes.” Dr. But when, a little more than forty years ago, pure et appliquée. In this work he was Buddensieg is in error; I asked nothing of a more careful study of mediaeval history, and assisted by a large number of fellow-workers. the kind. His Preface had sufficiently shown a sounder knowledge of language, prompted The volumes, five in number, are full of me what sort of spellings he considered to be editors to a more rigorous examination and a excellent illustrations, and contain between “ faults of the scribe” and “evident mistakes ; more scientific editing of mediaeval texts, it four and five thousand pages of closely printed and, so far from asking him for a further ex- was found that none of the existing editions text in double columns. A Supplement, planation, I said, as emphatically as politeness was satisfactory. The desire for “emending' which has already extended to more than 1,100 on my part would allow me, that I did not texts, which has existed as long as texts have pages, and goes down to the letter 0, was agree with him—that I regarded the forms existed, now tries to vent itself on the later begun shortly after the completion of the which he had discarded and omitted from his mediaeval authors. Surely, says Dr. BuddenDictionary. This Supplement does not ignore edition as very precious. I even invited Dr. sieg and other editors, if we are not allowed to the work of English chemists and mineralogists Buddensieg to study Du Cange, Diefenbach, correct Marculf, and the documents of his to anything like the extent to which the original and a host of other lexicons a little closely, period, let us then have some later authors Dictionary, in some of its articles, ignored wbich would soon convince him that some of and documents; we must have something to them, and it is really brought down to the the spellings which he regarded as “faults of exercise our “ critical” faculty upon. And so present time.

the scribe," " evident mistakes,” or “vagaries," we are, day after day, presented with so-called had occurred in very respectable numbers, bad critical texts, so critically prepared that they

lived through ages and in all regions, had can render no service to philology. I have DR. ANGUS SMITH.

produced endless forms and new words, and already, on more than one occasion, pointed to required careful handling:

the Master of the Rolls' volumes as being edited A SCOTCH chemist, well known for his in- Dr. Buddensieg now, in order to answer a in this manner. And we now find that the vestigations into the influence of manufacturing question which I never asked, produces a fresh same plan is adopted for works like those of operations upon the composition of the air and list of what he calls vagaries.” None Wiclif, the doctoring of whose language is still rain, has passed away-Robert Angus Smith. of these instances, however, differ, in their more serious than that of historians. Dr. He was bom near Glasgow on February 13, character, from those quoted in his Pre- Buddensieg denies that he has edited his 1817, and died on May 12 at Colwyn Bay, face; therefore my reply to that Preface, volumes on the principle laid down for the where he was staying for the benefit of his quoted above, still holds good. But he now Rolls Series. But I do not quite see how he health. He held the appointment of Inspector- adds that, “with nearly all the mediaevalists of can deny it in the face of his own Preface, General of Alkali Works during the last ten Germany, he considers these vagaries of no where he devotes nearly five pages to an exyears, fulfilling the difficult duties of that value either for characterising the handwriting planation of the mode which he has adopted office with great tact and skill. Dr. Angus of a certain period of mediaeval Latinity, or with regard to the orthography. Dr. BuddenSmith was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society for the development of our present language; sieg's criticisms may differ in the quantity; they in 1.37; in 1882 the University of Edinburgh for they owe their origin, not to the Sprachgeist may also differ in the quality; but yet he has conferred upon him the honorary degree of of the time, but to the negligence of the altered the forms of his Mss., and he has LL.D. He was the author of many papers and copyist.”

omitted readings of the MSS. He says so himreports upon the subject of chemical climat- Dr. Buddensieg speaks here as we might self. Now this is exactly what is done with ology, a science which he may be said to have expect a German to speak who is, perhaps, not the Master of the Rolls' Series. created. _In 1875, in conjunction with Mr. a philologist. The German language owes very But, says Dr. Buddensieg, if an editor has Thomas Young, he edited the collected papers little to Latin, least of all to Latin of Wiclif's merely to reproduce his MSS., he becomes a of Thomas Graham, a magnificent tribute of time. Therefore, a German who makes no mere copyist or mere photographer. No affection and esteem to the memory of that study of Old French and Old English cannot doubt a learned man like Dr. Buddensieg distinguished chemist and physicist.

easily realise to what a great extent the wishes to take up a more congenial position ;



he wishes to exercise his “judgment” occa- selection of the different readings of his MSS.; imagine, forbids him to, at least publicly, ask sionally, or his "critical” faculty. In fact, and Prof. Sohm, reviewing this new edition of for mediaeval texts which, altered and trimmed he wishes to decide between a “fault,” or an the Capitularia, distinctly pointed to this by nineteenth-century editors, can, at best, only a' evident mistake," and a “ correct reading." feature of Prof. Boretius' work as most merit- be uncertain guides to his "poor theologiang But here I repeat what I said already in my orious. These editors, Sickel, Boretius, Sohm, and dogmatists," and must decidedly do harm first letter, that the only question is whether are editors of early mediaeval documents, but to that other class of men who wish to exercise the editor is competent to decide between a what difference is there between them and Dr. their own judgment, and more especially to

fault,” or an "evident mistake," and a cor- Buddensieg? Is Prof. Boretius more certain those who wish to study Wiclif and his conrect reading.” Let me take Dr. Buddensieg to select the proper readings of his MSS. temporaries, and not nineteenth-century editors. himself as an example. We could, probably, than Dr. Buddensieg, who failed to do so

J. H. HESSELS. not find in any part of the globe a better in at least one instance ? I could tell trained Latin scholar or a more accomplished Dr. Buddensieg more about this, if space editor than he is. Well! On p. 23 of his and time would allow me. Let me only

Oxford : May 11, 1884. first volume, in l. 17, he inserts into his text now remark that, far from thinking that German It is, perhaps, a fortunate coincidence that the word commessaciones (with two m’s), a form diplomatists are proceeding according to strict my letter explaining the way in which I am which is not in any of his MSS.; "whereas or sound rules in editing historical documents, should appear in the ACADEMY side by side with three of his best Mss. have the not uncom- I have long intended to address Prof: Waitz Dr. Buddensieg's letter, from which it might mon and better form comessaciones ; three others have conmessaciones, and the remaining one some of the volumes of the Monumenta. No otherwise be inferred that I adopted an exactly conmenssaciones. What induced Dr. Buddensieg doubt Dr. Buddensieg, in his Preface and opposite method, If Dr. Buddensieg's remarks his best MSS., and to put into his text a form youring to impress upon us the difference defence; but it is clearly my duty to vindicate to depart from the correct reading of three of in his letter to the ACADEMY, is endea- concerned myself alone, I should be very which is not in any of his MSS., not even in between English and German editing, and very the Wyclif Society from the suspicion of having the most worthless one ? Of course, he thought naturally comes to the conclusion that the latter that comessaciones of three MSS. was a scribal is far superior to the former. I am not defend appointed an editor whose principles and prac“vagary;” and, as the four other MSS. had ing English editing at all; I know it is not tice are directly at variance. The explanation conm-, he quietly printed commessaciones, thereby what it should be. °But it is not for Dr. Bud- is very simple. The opinion which Dr. Buddennot only departing from the reading of three densieg to boast of the superiority of German sieg quotes from me refers to a quite distinct of his best MSS., but actually inserting a form editing. He seems to be acquainted with the matter from the question raised by Mr. Hessels which, though it occurs elsewhere, must yet be rules in Germany, but he appears to know and it is to the latter that I supposed (I think condemned when we have regard to the etym- nothing of the exceptions to these rules. rightly) the correspondence in the Academy to ology of the word.

Surely Dr. Buddensieg No fault could be found with the rules ; the be limited. Mr. Hessels' contention, with which would not call this a “critical” emendation? exceptions are the obnoxious part of the entirely agree, is that in printing from s

MS. To me it shows that even such a learned editor business.

one should make no change, even of a as Dr. Buddensieg undoubtedly is may some- I hope Dr. Buddensieg will understand me, letter, without saying so; in other words, one times not see far enough, and fail to distinguish I am not charging him with any shortcomings Dr. Buddensieg's extract from a short article of a “fault” from a "correct reading.” Nor as to the estimate he has formed of his MSS.; would I call it a “critical" emendation to nor am I charging him with any mistakes in the mine in the Modern Review introduces another give in l. 19 of the same page consecuntur, deciphering of his MSS., and even if I find question altogether-namely, whether it is which is in none of the MSS. ; while four MSS. occasionally that he has erred (I have only read necessary, in the case of works of relatively read consequuntur, the three others consequentur. till p. 50) I should scarcely like to say so

slight intrinsic value, to make an exhaustive Such “crítical" alterations are utterly useless ; publicly. I know the difficulty of these Wiclit collation of all known MSS. It is not a quesin my former letter I called them irritating. MSS., and I could never hop to have done the tion which touches me individually, since wa Dr. Buddensieg's "critical ” faculty should, in work better myself. All that I have said is possess but one single MS. of the book I am my opinion, have been exercised on p. 30, 1. 13, directed against that practice, that mischievous, editing.; nor did I express my opinion in any. where he prints (from 2 Pet. ii

. 9): “Novit gratuitous, and utterly unnecessary practice, thing like the positive form in which Dr. Bu]. dominos, (for dominus). pios de temptacione of editors altering the plain letter of their densieg quotes my words. “Possibly," I said, eripere.” Perhaps this is a printer's error, and MSS., or omitting readings in the idea that after speaking of the number of MSS. which he should not be charged to the editor; so also they are mere scribal " vagaries.”

collated for his edition, pecata (on p. 43, 1. 11) is perhaps a printer's When Dr. Buddensieg has gained a little " those who are not such enthusiastic Wycliffites

But note 41 on p. 44 is not a printer's more experience of the handwriting of Wiclif's as Dr. Buddensieg may doubt whether the tracts error; it bears witness to the great minuteness period, and more especially of the Sprachgeist of were worthy of an unstinted devotion common with which Dr. Buddensieg prepared his text. Wiclif's period and the two succeeding centuries paid only to literature of which the style as well He there prints in l. 7 elemosina, and in the then I feel sure he will never again speak of

as the matter is of importance. The English accompanying note he tells us that elemosina scribal " vagaries,” nor of "evident mistakes ;

reader, for whom Dr. Buddensieg loses no op (is in MSS.) CDEFGa eelemosina (the first e cr. or, if he does, he will acknowledge that, in will be apt to think that a fair text, printed from

portunity of expressing his immense contempt, out) j.” This minuteness is delightful; but is it the interest of science, they must be studied, any MS. that is complete as regards any particular not deplorable that an editor capable of such and not simply discarded. In what condition tract, with occasional corrections and selected minuteness should have started with the erro- would philology be now if men like Du Cange, various readings from any other available copies, neous idea that he could deal with certain forms Diefenbach, and others had shared Dr. Bud- would have satisfied the requirements of the as he pleased, and alter or omit them as he densieg's notions and omitted from their theological student,” &c. (Modern Reriew, vol. F., thought proper ?

lexicons all those forms which, according to p. 384; April 1884). A few words more with regard to Dr. Bud- these notions, might have been regarded as Dr. Buddensieg begins his extract with “ a fait densieg's assertion that, “ as to the editing of vagaries or evident mistakes ? Or in what text,” and leaves it to be inferred that my mediaeval texts, we have now in Germany condition will philology be a few years remarks related not to the collation of MSS. strict, and generally accepted, rules which ex- hence if Dr. Buddensieg's notions (which he but to the treatment of any particular Ms. clude any idiosyncrasy of an editor.” I knew says he entertains in common with nearly all As a matter of fact, I did not mention the they had certain rules in Germany with respect the mediaevalists of his country) should happen latter point at all. I'omitted it because there to this point. That they were strict, I did not to gain ground? I hope such a contingency were some other features of Dr. Buddensieg's know; certainly Dr. Buddensieg himself does need not yet be contemplated !

volumes on which I felt bound to make adrerse not evince great obedience to them in his Pre

Mr. Karl Pearson will no doubt excuse me if criticisms, and these appeared to me to be ones face where he speaks of Sickel's mode of print- I do not reply directly to his appeal for the about which the readers of the Modern Reeves ing documents. But, however this may be, I continued operations of our editorial cooks. I would be more desirous of obtaining in; am by no means prepared to admit that these feel sure that, as soon as we can obtain a few formation than points of palaeographical rules “exclude any idiosyncrasy of an editor.” undoctored texts, he will find nothing “un- detail.

Indeed, though I agree with Mr. On the contrary, they appear to me to give canny” in forms like edus (even now a very Hessels

, I cannot truly say that I consider this free scope to all sorts of idiosyncrasies; in fact, common form), difniciones, &c. Meantime, it question of orthography to be of very great the very same idiosyncrasies which we discern would be well if he abandoned the position he moment. My own practice is to follow any in Dr. Buddensieg's volumes. Even Sickel, the has taken up. To express such an undefined MS. minutely; but I should be disinclined to great German diplomatist, informs us in the desire for "critical” texts, without showing hold with Mr.'Hessels that an edition like Dr. Preface from which Dr. Buddensieg quoted that “uncritical” texts are inconvenient or Buddensieg's is vitiated to any material degree that he will not give us all the variants of his worthless, is not exactly what one would expect by the adoption of a different plan. Thus, in documents, but only those which he thinks from

him. He should not forget that he is a spite of the scorn with which Dr. Buddensieg would be of inportance to his readers. Boretius, member of the Cambridge Board for modern regards my views-in spite also of the best the editor of the Capitularia, gives us merely a and mediaeval languages, an office which, I which he has, it seems to me unnecessarily,



GEO. REES, 115, Strand, near Waterloo-bridge.


introduced into the controversy-I am un- as giving the only clue to the inferior limit of the matter of painting, the drummer has it all his able to abate the praise which I felt, and date of the Homeric poems.

own way, and kills the rest of the picture not feel, to be due to a work of signal merit.

less by force of colour than execution. In R. L. POOLE.

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES.-(Thursday, May 8.) short, the different parts of this composition, EDWIN FRESHFIELD, Esq., V.-P., in the Chair.— boys and girls, figures and landscape, have the Mr. Waller, Vicar of Hunstanton, exhibited a

appearance of separate studies ill-fitted together, SCIENCE NOTES.

chalice, with a cover used as a paten, belonging and are harmonious neither in colour nor sentiProf. BONNEY, President of the Geological | 1551-2.–Mr. Wylie sent an account of a pre- sional fallings off, and therefore we may well

to his church, bearing the mark for the year ment. Mr. Millais has been subject to occaSociety, will give the first of four lectures on historic road in the Ancholme Valley, near Glan, hope that this picture, which is called " An "The Bearing of Microscopical Research on ford Brigg, Lincolnshire. The road was found in Some Large Geological Problems” this after- the lower stratum of peat, and was composed of

Idyll, 1745," is but the accident of noon (Saturday) at the Royal Institution. oak planks laid on yew branches.-Mr. R. Brown

“bad year.” He cannot be said to be successful The articles on “Blow-pipe Analysis” by

sent some specimens of Samian ware with hunts- in his portrait of “ Miss Scott" (331), nor in the Lieut.-Col. Ross which recently appeared in men and wild animals found at New Holland, flat and poorly painted profile of “ Úr. Irving" the English Mechanic will shortly be published account of a British hearth discovered in a sandpit latter, and in his portrait of " Fleetwood

near Barton-on-Humber.—The Secretary read an (372); there is, however, distinction in the in book-form by Messrs. Crosby Lockwood at Sutton, in Suffolk. The hearth was built of Wilson, Esq." (132), he is more like his usual & Co., under the title of The Blow-pipe in blocks of burnt crag. Some fragments of coarse self. It is a bad year, too, for Mr. Pettie, whose Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Geology, with many pottery, worked flints, and bone were found in it. additional tables and illustrations, and about

two large canvases, "The Vigil

(359) and

“Site of an Early English Altar” (410), are forty analyses of minerals from the note-book EDINBURGH MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY.-(Friday, of a student at Freiberg, with a parallel analysis

Why his brother May 9.)

quite unworthy of him. on Col. Ross's new system appended to each. Dr. Thomas Muir, President, in the Chair.-Prof.

Academicians should have chosen such an

empty and uninspired composition as the Messrs. CROSBY LOCKWOOD & Co. also alike to mathematicians and to chemists, on "The former for purchase under the Chantrey beannounce 4 Treatise on Earthy and other Hypothesis of Le Bel and van't Hoff." _Dr. Muir quest is best known to themselves:

The Minerals and Mining, by Mr. D. C. Davies, gave a preliminary account of a treatise on Deter- decision seems neither fair to the nation nor uniform with the same author's Treatise on minants, published in 1825, and overlooked by all just to Mr. Pettie's reputation. The only Metalliferous Minerals and Mining; and Stone- writers on the history of the subject.

work in which he shows anything like his working Machinery, and the Rapid and Eco

usual “ form” is “ A Reductio ad Absurdum " nomical Conversion of Stone, with Hints on

(307), a small picture clever in suggestive the Arrangement and Management of Stone


gesture and with some richness of colour; works, by Mr. M. Powis Bale.

GREAT SALE of PICTURES, at reduced prices (Engravings. Chromos, but this is sketchy, and the hands are imTHE following new volumes in “ Weale's should pay a visit. Very suitable for wedding and Christmas presents.- perfectly drawn. The less said about the Rudimentary Series ” will shortly be issued by

pictures of Mr. Herbert and Mr. T. S. Cooper Messrs. Crosby Lockwood & Co. :-Barn Imple

the better; nor is there any special commendaments and Machines, treating of the application


tion due to any other figure-painter among of power to the operations of agriculture, and

the Academicians, except, perhaps, Mr. Leslie of the various machines used in the threshing: MR. ALMA TADEMA's large canvas (245) stands very empty picture of the "Flight into Egypt

and Mr. Marks. Mr. Goodall's gigantic and volume of Prof. Scott's “ Farm Engineering by right of size and workmanship at the head takes up space that may well be grudged by Text-books ; Brickwork : a Practical Treatise of that class of archaeological genre into which artists, both English and foreign, who find embodying the General and Higher Principles he has poured so much new life. Though themselves "skied” for no other reason than of Bricklaying, Cutting, and Setting, with the full of subtle and successful painting, and the abused privileges of Academicians; and his Application of Geometry to Roof-tiling, &c., by marked by more than usual ingenuity of com- other works are but average productions of Mr. F. Walker; and Steam and Machinery position, it is scarcely a success. Its subject is his well-known talent. Mr. Calderon, in his Management: a Guide to the Arrangement and

"Hadrian in England visiting a Romano- “Night” (340), fails to elevate an ill-posed Economical Management of Machinery, with

British Pottery.” At the top of the picture model to the region of idea, but gives us two Hints on Construction and Selection, by Mr. the Emperor and his suite are looking at the pretty panels of Cherries" (402) and “CurM. Powis Bale.

finished work. From the gallery of the show- rants" (388), with bright English' faces laughroom a staircase descends to the bottom of the ing between the leaves. Mr. Yeames sends a

picture, which it crosses, and on its steps are two pleasant, but rather stiffly composed, scene from MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. men, very lightly clad, bearing trays of vases for social and literary history, "The Toast of the HELLENIC SOCIETY.-(Thursday, May 8.)

the imperial inspection; under the gallery is seen Kitcat Club" (332), with Addison, Congreve, Prof. C. T. Newton, V.-P., in the Chair. -Mr. unbaked ware. This room is seen on a very small Mary Pierrepoint (afterwards Lady Mary Wortley

a room where potters are shaping and decorating Steele, and others drinking to the little Lady Theodore Bent gave an account of a recent tour scale compared to that of the rest of the picture. Montagu). Mr. Holl has several life-like and among the Cyclades, dwelling more particularly It is like a peep-show, attracting the attention well-painted, but heavy, portraits, and a portraitprehistoric empire.

He exhibited some rude immediately; and, once arrested, the eye finds study of an unhealthy looking boy with a sword inarble images and pottery dug up from graves nothing in the rest of the picture of equal charm. across his knees asking his father if he ever in the island of Antiparos. There was reason to Instead of advancing as we ascend the staircase, killed anybody (67). Mr. Poynter has one nice believe that these and similar objects found at the interest, if it were not for the excellent small study of " Diadumenè" (368), and a porSantorin—the ancient Thera- belonged to a period painting of still-life—the heavy-hanging cluster trait of "Bishop Barry (847) which seems to not later than the sixteenth century B.C. Mr. of ivy leaves, the onions in the niche, and other show that his talent does not lie in this direcBent also gave some interesting facts to show fine pieces of detail-would steadily decline. tion, and also some meduls, of which hereafter. what an excellent field these islands afforded for The workers intent on their labour with well- Mr. Armitage's design of “Faith" (463), though the study of modern Greek language, character, varied motives, and their sensitive touch on the not appealing to the sense of colour or beauty and customs in their purest and most primitive clay, are pleasanter than the comparatively of form, is marked by elevation of sentiment his valuable memoir, 'expressed the hope that he giant figures of the men carrying the trays; and dignity of design worthy of its subject; would carry his researches further. He said that and these, again, well designed and natural, and Mr. Hodgson, though for his large picture the marble images were of special interest for the and with their flesh painted with living effect, he has chosen a subject of little pictorial attracgradation shown in artistic skill, and also because compete in reality to the disadvantage of the tion-"Church Afloat" (184) shows in several they were here found for the first time in conjunc- distinguished company above. These figures smaller pictures of Egyptian subjects that caretion with pottery of the very rudest character.—After are not only less forcible, but more modern, and ful painting and drawing, and in one-—"Flat Perome remarks from Prof. Jebb, Mr. Monro, the the illusion suffers as well as the pictorial effect jury” (66) – that character and humour, which Provost of Oriel, read a paper on the Epic Cycle, as we ascend. We are reminded too much of we expect from him; his colour, if still a little giving a summary of the Aethiopia and Tlion the aesthetic showman of Bond Street, too much hot, is pleasanter than usual. Of Mr. Marks Persis of Arctinus, and of the little Iliad, and of the British matron at the stores. But the and Mr. Leslie, if we have no important work, showing how they carried on the story of the Iliad picture is without any rival in its way. The with interesting deviations, and additions of dis, delicate, rapt sentiment of the girls listening to its kind difficult to surpass

: The formers

we have at least work thoroughly English-of dwelt upon the importance of the several poems of Mr. Millais' bravely attired piper scarcely seems Thames Roses” shows us but a pretty young the Epic Cycle to the study of vases, the subjects a natural response to the shrill piping of the very English girl with her feet up on a sunny winrepresented thereupon being hardly less often taken unromantic musician. The charmer is but a dow-seat by the side of the Thames, but it has from the other cyclic poets than from Homer.- bumpkin veneered with a little drill and a coat his own peculiar charm of sentiment and colour, Prof. Jebb pointed out that the chronology of the (and hat) of many colours ; the " charmed” are and is as good as English air can make it ; while later poems of the cycle was of extreme importance well-bred little ladies in poor raiment. As a Mr. Marks" Entomologist" (526) is admirable.

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