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SATURDAY, MAY 17, 1884.

that the first mayors were the heads of a now disturbed at the attempt to extinguish

democratic Commune, founded on the French this ancient magistracy. No. 628, New Series.

model after the civic revolution which ended The Inspeximus Cha) ter of 1383 is omitted The EDITOR cannot undertake to return, or in the banishment of Longchamp. The from this collection, with the exception of an to correspond with the writers of, rejected establishment of this hated and much-feared unimportant clause in restraint of foreign

to

It is a document, however, manuscript.

Londoners and the apathy of Richard I., who which will require careful consideration with It is particularly requested that all business had boasted that he would sell London itself reference to the new proposals of the Govern

letters regarding the supply of the paper, if he could only find a purchaser. His charter ment. It is, in fact, the parliamentary fc., may be addressed to the PÚBLISHER, and is lost; but it was most probably dated in confirmation of the legislative power given not to the EDITOR.

1191, twenty-four years before King John to the City by a charter of May 26, 1341, granted to “the barons of London” that which is also omitted from the work before

they might choose to themselves every us. The clause dealing with legislation by LITERATURE, year a mayor faithful and discreet, and fit Act of Common Council is to the following

effect:The Historical Charters and Constitutional for the government of the City. Documents of the City of London. With an

The men of London, though still unincor

“We have granted to the Mayor and Aldermen Introduction and Notes, by an Antiquary. Widdlesex from the time of Henry I. The held and used shall be in any part difficult or

porated, had been entitled to the shrievalty of that if any customs in the said City hitherto (Whiting.)

same office in London itself was granted to defective, or any matters in the same City A new work on the Charters of London is them at some ancient date, which cannot now newly arising shall need amendment for which sure of an attentive audience in a session be ascertained ; and the sheriffs of London a remedy was not before ordained, the same which has seen the introduction of the London and Middlesex have ever since been deputies Mayor and Aldermen, and their heirs and sucGovernment Bill. The labours of the to perform the duties of the offices vested in cessors, with the assent of the Commonalty of "Antiquary will serve at least to fortify the citizens. It will probably be necessary often as, and when, to them it shall seem 'ex

the same City, may appoint and ordain, 80 the defence of the devoted band who have to make fresh provisions for these dignitaries, pedient, a suitable remedy, consonant with vowed to fight the Home Secretary word by now that they are to cease to act as “the good faith and reason, for the common profit word and line and line; and even the Lord Mayor's eyes;” and, when Middlesex of the citizens of the said City and other our liege triumphant reformers may be glad to learn for the first time gains a high-sheriff, it may people resorting thereto; provided, however, what hoary franchises they are destroying and be well to exalt the title of the elected sheriff that such ordinance shall be profitable to us and what privileges are to be retained by virtue of the new county of London.

our people, and consonant with good faith and of the dangerous vagueness of a sweeping The gratitude of the Londoners is due to

reason as aforesaid." Saving Clause. There have been several Richard I. for giving them the Conservancy The reign of Edward IV., who was himworks

upon the subject since the Royal of the Thames from near the bridge at Staines self, above all things, a merchant, was marked Charters were first translated and published to Gantlet Creek in the Medway. “Know by the grant of numerous privileges, by which by "J. E.” in 1745. A collection of these ye all,” says the King,

the old Corporation has laid up some store documents was printed by John Northouck in

“that we for the health of our soul and for the of wealth for the enjoyment of the new his New History of London (1773), which health of our father's soul and those of all our statutory citizens. “Sic vos non vobis melliwas followed twenty years afterwards by ancestors, and also for the common weal of our ficatis, apes !” The City acquired from this Luffman's Charters of London, hitherto con- City of London and of all our realm, have King the offices of packing merchandise, sidered the best authority on the matter. granted and steadfastly commanded that all garbling of spices, gauging and landing of The present edition is based on Northouck's wears in the Thames be removed, wheresoever wines, and other monopolies, which were work, now very difficult to obtain ; but they shall be within the Thames.”

supplemented under the Stuarts by the still the editor has taken pains to elucidate the Northouck maintained that the jurisdiction more valuable rights under which the Metage texts by collating such early copies as are of the Corporation over obstructions and Dues are levied in the port of London. preserved in the British Museum and such nuisances included “the whole river, from It may be worth noticing that James I. of the original documents as are open for its junction with the sea so far westward as did not think it necessary to obtain the sancinspection at the Guildhall. The fault of it is known by the name of Thames;” but in tion of Parliament when he extended the all these collections is that they are very the course of many contests the limits of the boundaries of the City over Blackfriars and incomplete (probably from no fault of the Conservancy have been fixed as explained Whitefriars and the liberty of Cold Harbour, authors'), and that the reader is too often put above. His editor refers the reader to or "the inn of Cold Herberge ;” the inoff with a reprint of an Act of Parliament when Northouck's work “for an interesting note on habitants of the included districts were exhe would like to be informed of the origin of the subject of the soil under the river, and empted from certain rates and taxes, but the Lord Mayor's office, and the extent of the its possession by the Corporation of London, became eligible, like other freemen, for the legislative power vested in the Corporation. made by Lord Burleigh :” and this docu- offices of the City and wards. The matter of real importance is to under- ment may throw some light on the vexed There is no space left to deal with the stand the nature of the changes which trans- question as to the rights of the Crown and subject of the London suburbs. In a wilderformed the City government from a territorial the privileges of the public in the King's ness of bricks and mortar it is pleasant to aristocracy to the fierce democracy of the High Street of the Thames."

think of the tall elms of Smithfield and the "immensa communitas," and from that again The Charters of Edward III. are interesting village games at Clerkenwell, of the Moorto an oligarchy, gradually changing into a as containing the grant of the village of fields granted on condition that they should well-balanced constitutional government, soon Southwark, å noted haunt of felons and lie open for public use. And it seems strange, to be extended over an area as large as a thieves, whose wickedness required to be nowadays, to read of the riot when encroachprovince and populous as an ordinary kingdom. bridled, and as commencing that prohibition ments were made on the commons near Shore

There are many interesting points in the of holding fresh markets within seven miles ditch and Ratcliffe Highway, history of London during the reigns of the of the City which was the foundation of one

“and a turner in a fool's coat came crying Norman kings; but for the present we will of the most valued privileges of the Corpora, through the City, "Shovels and spades ! shovels leave “Godfrey the Portreeve to Dr. Pring tion. By another charter it was declared and spades !' and so many of the people fol. and the other learned authorities who are that the aldermen were removeable by the lowed that it was a wonder to behold, and endeavouring to trace out

the possibly Roman Corporation, and that every alderman should within a short space all the hedges about the origin of the "port” and the “portsoken" utterly and precisely cease from his office in City were cast down, such was the diligence of and the "port-rents,” which seem to have every year at the Feast of St. Gregory the those workmen.” some intimate connexion with the gates and Pope, and should not be chosen again." It One would like, too, to hear more of the suburbs of the City.

The Lord Mayor's was long before the Commons would consent ordinances by which the schools of the much functions must be referred to another source to the aldermen having a freehold in their decayed University of the Law were removed Notwithstanding certain ambiguous entries offices ; and the record of the perpetual strife from the bustling streets and set down in a in the City records, there can be little doubt must seem strange to those whose minds are quiet neighbourhood near the Temple and

are.

Chancery Lane, not far from the spot which on drawing the curtain, the ringers are seen What we feel is, that we are far more deeply Johnson long afterwards chose for watching in a shadowy row, dim and brown, each face touched by the prologue and epilogue, and the flow of the full tide of human exist. at first no more than a faint red blur in the the poems where the poet sings from her own ence."

CHARLES ELTON. night; then slowly the figures grow human intuition, than by any of the poems where she

and the faces clear; but all the time the room speaks in character.
within is reflected on the window-pane, and And yet, perhaps, though true in spirit

, The New Arcadia, and other Poems. By A. mingles with the sight of the outer world ; such a proposition is not altogether trae in

Mary F. Robinson. (Ellis & White.) so hard is it to see things as they really are. the letter, for the poem called “Loss" is in One prime essential of poetry is sincerity. And anyone who knows Miss Robinson's form a " dramatic lyric.” The difference is Whether the poet is telling us what is passing Handful of Honeysuckle will know at what that there

the emotion is such as would not in his own heart or what he sees going on in a sacrifice she must have passed from the be foreign to the poet herself, and so, as in the world without, we must at least ask old to the new Arcadia, from the world the case of a few of Mr. Browning's, it has of him to be perfectly sincere. And this does within to the world without. If we under- successfully transfused the material. Nothing not mean only that he must have the intention, stand her

aright, she speaks of the old inner could be better than the remembered land

“dead child." “My child scapes in this poem. it means that he must also have the power of past as of a

They have Mis sincerity, the power to put his thought or

was gentle visions, and all were wrong.” Robinson's individual tone. “Tuscan Olives" emotion into words which shall adequately

But that a vision does not correspond with is a sequence of seven rispetti, full of the represent it, and to paint things as they really a present reality does not prove it wrong; sentiment of the South. There follow a few represent it, and to paint things as they really rather it may be that revelation which is stornelli and strambotti, very sad and strange

. alone is concerned; so long as the sight is spoken of by the prophet Joel. And anyone “ Flowers in the hay ! keen and true and the expression perfect, we dreams should surely not complain if their whose faculty it is to see visions and dream My heart and all the fields are full of flowers;

So tall they grow before the mowing-day.” others must be content.

And therefore from the New Arcadia to glory and freshness refuse to fade altogether (May we, within brackets, recommend the which Miss Robinson would lead us the critic into the light of common day.

stornello, to any who do not scorn the epigram, has no right to turn away on any other ground

Now, there would seem to be this dis- as a possible middle way between the overthan that these conditions of poetry are not

tinction

among poets—that in some the conciseness of the couplet and the over-diffusefulfilled—no, not even though the people he faculty divine is in their outlook on the ness of the quatrain?) “Love among the may meet there are distasteful to him. For,

world, in others the vision of the spirit Saints" tells of a fresco at Assisi representindeed, although this Arcadia is full of the within; and, though these may be endow- ing the marriage of Francis and St. Poverty

, sweet asphodel meadows we know so well,

ments of the same person, for the most part in which Love crouches a naked captive, and meadows where " the feet of joy might they are separate gifts. If this is so, we may not enter in to the feast. It is a beauti

should venture wander all day long and never tire,” the

upon the assertion that ful instance of Miss Robinson's imaginative inhabitants are not such as we expected to Miss Robinson, notwithstanding her palinode, insight and of the simple sweetness of her find. Battus and Corydon and Daphnis and belongs, after all, to the dreamers of dreams. verse. We have the same power and the

And for this reason. Menalcas have emigrated, and their place is

Theory apart, the one same melody in "Jützi Schultheiss," the filled by forms well enough known elsewhere, test of a poet is his poetry; and these poems story of a mediaeval mystic, and in " Laus but to whom meeting them here we cannot of New Arcadia are wanting in the power of Deo,” which is a song of Pantheism, though but put the astonished question, “ Et tu in sincerity; the figures are blurred; things are whether " higher” or lower we cannot say

. Arcadia ?” There is a wife who has at last not rendered by. “the unique word, the There remain “Apprehension," " Love and consented to go into "the House” though at word which is a discovery ;” and it is notice- Vision,” and “ The Conquest of Fairyland." the cost of severance from her husband, a

able that Miss Robinson's verse rises from an “Love and Vision” has just a touch of Mr. scapegoat child who bears in her own sin equable flow which it always has to a certain Browning in it, but not enough to make it the sins of her fathers, an idiot-girl (the one

incommunicable rareness of music in those an imitation. It is full of moorland wind innocent in a village) who succeeds in drown- lyrical passages where she speaks out her own and heather. At the close of all comes a ing a deserter who looked to her to save him, thoughts from her own lips. In other words, song beginning a squire's daughter who is a murderess, a

“I have lost my singing voice, farmer's daughter who is murdered, an organ- that is why these dramatic lyrics touch us so

My hey-day's over,” little, grinder, and a church-going cripple who

which, if it be intended as a confession, comes neglects his family. Such are the persons of

But the last of these poems is a lyric well at the end ; for the reader, by the time these modern idylls. It will at once be judged proper. It is about the school children, which he reaches it, has abundant 'evidence for that Miss Robinson's purpose is not that of even in the Arcadia of our days have not lost denying its truth. H. C. BEECHING. “the idle singer" to "enchant us or beguile;" all their original brightness; and here Miss on the contrary, it is to make us “ learn and Robinson's veree once more gains "style,” shudder and sorrow," as she has sorrowed, for and the words sing. She tells of a vision that Spanish and Portuguese South America during the shame which she has seen in the world. came to David Joris, a Flemish painter, the

the Colonial Period. The following verses from a prologue of great vision of an array of world-weary kings, who

Watson, &c.* passion and beauty give us the motive of the met a band of children and laid their crowns "In a work of this description I find con

at their feet. poem :

siderable difficulty in giving due regard to “ Alas! not all the greenness of the leaves,

“Very sad and over-worn, Not all their delicate tremble in the air,

Pale and very old,

the unities of time, &c.” (ii. 216). Capt. Look the solemn brows that mourn

Watson thus modestly excuses the shortCan pluck one stab from a fierce heart that grieves.

Under crowns of gold,

comings of his two volumes, whose subject The harvest moon slants on as sordid care

Grown too heavy to be borne.

ranges from Columbia to Patagonia

, from As wears its heart out under attic eaves;

“ Kings and priests and all so gray, Brazil to Ecuador; and which begins with And though all round those folded mountains

All so faint and wan,

Columbus and ends with the unfortunate of sleep,

Drifting past in still array,

whom was said :Think you that sin and heart-break are less deep?

Ever drifting on
Till at length he saw them stay.

“My first is an emblem of purity: They cover it up with leaves, they make a show “ Till at length, as when a breeze

My second's a thing of security; Of Maypole garlands over; but there shall be

Bends the rushes well,

My whole is a name, which if yours were the A wind to scatter their gauds, and a wind to blow

Captains, kings, great sovereignties And purify the hidden dreaded thing

Bent and bowed and fell,

You would blush to hand down to futurity." Festering underneath ; and so I sing."

Kneeling all upon their knees."

* Two vols., post 8vo (London: Trübner), PP; on this we must dwell

' a little. The ringers must not be understood to blame in any way page map Pon verso, not, as happens topped The first idyll seems by way of palinode, and Before passing on, let us repeat that we xvi. -308 and 319; happily no illustrations : a good are ringing in Christmas on the grass outside, Miss Robinson's choice of subjects. Sunt within the house the fire leaps red and blue. lacrimae rerum et mentem mortalia tangunt.” comforted reader.

printed on recto, where its back' faces the dis

ܪ

By Robert Grant

same,

There is no forgetting Whitelocke's igno- The Philosophy of Theism. By the late that our faculties, “duly interrogated,” affirm. minious defeat ; had it not happened, England William George Ward. (Kegan Paul, As to the veracity of memory, it is to be would now have been sole mistress of the Trench, & Co.)

wished that Dr. Ward had examined the whole South-temperates. As it is, her place The ancient Mexicans, when a brave enemy matter in the light of his own essay on explicit in Argentine-land is taken by the Italian, fell into their hands, 'had a strange way of and implicit thought. We do not judge, inwho makes money and returns home, and by showing their respect. They tied him by the tuitively, that memory is trustworthy, and then the Basque, who marries and settles, and is leg to the sacrificial stone, and told off a proceed to trust it. We trust it a long time gradually reproducing the classic "Celti- number of their best men to engage him in before it occurs to notice that we do so. We berian." Yet one has a conviction that, succession : if he disabled them all, he was notice that we do trust our memory of recent somehow or other, Madam Britannia will not free; if he succumbed, he was thrown down experience implicitly, and not (as Dr. Ward drop her old design.

and his heart torn out.' Dr. Ward defending observes himself) our unconfirmed memory of Capt. Watson is a more interesting figure free-will against Mr. Mill, Dr. Bain, and Mr. remote experience ; it seems that our certainty than his book. The “Statement of Services"

Shadworth Hodgson somehow recalls such a about recent experience is a sort of continuain the Foreign Office List shows that after champion ; he does not advance, he is pre- tion of our certainty about present experience, , leaving the Bombay Army he has been em-cluded from shifting his ground, and he gives ployed diplomatically between Constantinople a very good account of every enemy who the extent of this certainty in different persons, and Jedo, Copenhagen and Patagonia ; and comes within reach. It is the same with the except, perhaps, the owner's right to it. that he served some five years (1865–69) on great truth that all trilaterals are triangular, Lord Campbell did not trust his memory more the continent of which he treats. He was which, like other mathematical axioms, Mr! than Lord Macaulay, but it played him more first known as a Persian scholar, and his Mill fondly believed to be learnt by repeated tricks. Again, an absent-minded man or an “ History" (London: Smith & Elder, 1866) observation, while, as no observations even

old man has not a trustworthy memory for was most useful to students.

His next seemed to tell upon the other side, the prin- even very recent events. Why is that, if the venture was Murray's Landbook of Greece, ciple of association invested them with an trustworthiness of memory in general is, or which has run through sundry editions ; and apparent character of necessity. As against may be, known by intuition ? As soon as we that his energies are not exhausted we see by this it is quite unanswerable that whoever begin to test our impressions by physiology, his latest journey, in February, to Paraguay, hears the statement for the first time receives especially the physiology of attention, we as Commissioner of the Council of Foreign it at once as new and self-evident. But it is know where to look for an answer, though it Bondholders, to settle a debt which should doubtful whether the certainty proves any- may be long before physiology is advanced never have been incurred. He is expected thing against the " phenomenist" school of enough to give one. home in July, and it is believed that he will philosophy. Catholic philosophers, Dr. Ward

Again, if the uniformity of nature be known offer himself as M.P. during the coming tells us, call such judgments as all trilaterals by intuition, how is it that the knowledge is elections.

are triangular, two straight lines cannot en-confined to special classes even in England The book is a compendium of South close a space, two and nine are equal to three to-day?. An accomplished man of science American history during about three cen- and eight, "analytical ;” and the name really knows the uniformity of nature in just the turies. It fills up a gap and abstracts the seems to be happy. If one has the notion of same way as a devout experienced theist knows contents of a host of folios and quartos, unfor- a given geometrical figure, one may analyse it the faithfulness of God. Ingenuity like Dr. tunately neglecting Herrera, Ercilla, and and affirm its correlative properties, beginning Ward's is equal to suggesting the same posPiedrohita. Reviewers and readers complain with which we please ; if one has the notion sibilities that the confidence of either is yain. that it is dull ; but how can it be otherwise ? of a straight line, one may affirm that any two Whatever it is worth, the confidence of both South American annals, after the brilliant which intersect must go on diverging; if one

comes by experience, and grows by it. And and romantic period of the “Conquistadores," has the notion of eleven, * one may analyse it yet, . no doubt, all experience, scientific or are as heavy and uninteresting as those into the equivalent notions of three and eight, religious, in a way presupposes the principle of Dalmatia and Croatia-I can say no and two and nine; but these three fundamental which is learnt by it. How would it be

But is not Capt. Watson unduly notions of a straight line, of a figure, and of possible to observe or endeavour or pray if severe to these explorer-conquerors ? (i. 66-eleren may all be due to experience, and to one believed in a reign of pure caprice ? On 68); Has he wholly forgotten what were the nothing else. If so, a quadrangular trilateral the other hand, it might be expected that early English in India, tetrae belluae ac Molos-is a notion no better and no worse than our old those who actually live under a stable and tis suis ferociores? Did not the destruction friend the sideroxylon. And this suggests a abiding order would be influenced by it in of native life in “Van Diemen's Land” rival further question—in what sense is mathe- their conduct and their expectations long that of Hayti? And does not the Australian matical truth more necessary than other truth?

before they attain any conscious apprehension aborigine still disappear at an appalling rate Perhaps it is nearly enough that it deals with of it as a whole. -corrosive sublimate being one of the causes ? very clear and simple notions which may be

Then if it were quite certain that we The truth is that all nations live in glass- perfectly formed, so far as we know, from assume the uniformity, of nature and the houses, and are very foolish to stone one either of two senses; one might look at a bit veracity of memory prior to experience, and another.

of wood for ever without knowing that it that we distinctly understand our assumption, I cannot part from these volumes with would float in water, at a bit of iron without it does not follow that, because these two out a line concerning their publisher, knowing it would sink; and our notions of iron assumptions are legitimate and indispensable, the lamented Nicholas Trübner. We first and wood are generally formed before the all assumptions to which our minds are equally became acquainted in 1852 when he was experiment. No one who has an adequate prone are legitimate too; for, in whatever studying " bibliopolism" at Messrs. Long- scientific notion of wood, water, and iron can sense these two assumptions are prior to ex. mans'; and he ever proved himself an active doubt the truth any more than one with a

perience, it is clear that they are confirmed and cordial friend. His career is not a little competent knowledge of anatomy can imagine by it. Nor, again, does it follow, if all the instructive, showing how the German “eats a centaur if he recollects thať there would assumptions were legitimate which Dr. Ward up" the Britisher on the latter's own ground. have to be something inside.

thinks so, that any considerable part of our With his wider views he soon distanced the

Nor is the polemic about the veracity of knowledge would consist of deductions like sleepy old firms of printers and publishers " memory and the uniformity of nature much those of geometry from the analysis and comwhich, in 1860, still dreamed that they were

more fruitful. Dr. Ward's argument is Our bination of fundamental notions ; for it is in A.D. 1800; his London house at once faculties affirm the veracity of memory and obviously necessary that notions which are to became a focus of American and Oriental the uniformity of nature ; it is impossible to be so treated should be clear, and even, in literature,” and his agencies ramified over stir a step without assuming them; if you some sense, adequate, while the fundamental either hemisphere. He has left many friends assume them on the affirmation of our

facul- notions of theology and philosophy are obscure to deplore his death. S.T.T.L.!

ties, you are bound to assume anything else and mysterious. ** It is therefore perfectly RICHARD F. BURTON.

* Or nine may be analysed into eight and one, * Dr. Ward observes that the "simplicity of three into two and one; "two and one and eight God," which he takes to be known by reason, is to equal two and one and eight” is a self-evident, the full as “mysterious as the Trinity, which is because an identical proposition.

only known by revelation.

more.

possible that they only yield “implicit" realise an ideal—to be what they admire, not which he cannot help torments the devotee knowledge imprisoned, if so be, or enshrined necessarily that they may admire themselves. increasingly the fewer acts which he can in " a form of sound words," while the great Again, as “conscience” becomes enlightened help are left to torment himself about; it is growing body of “explicit" knowledge might there is a strong tendency to resolve all duty the more tormenting precisely because he consist of observations of, and inferences into duty to one's neighbours; “intuitions” cannot help it, because it is a part of him from, phenomena which would admit both of about a God who needs nothing and yet inseparable from his very self, which evil acts precise statement and indefinite extension, requires something beside the service of are not; so these, though he could help them, though both might always, in strict theory, creatures that need much are becoming in- be soon learns to commit to the mercy of the remain subject to a priori certainties. creasingly questionable. If the argument Merciful. Another way of expressing the Such a theory of knowledge would leave from "conscience". were clearer than it is it same facts is that, when a man contemplates room for an historical revelation, but not would certainly fail to make the truth of himself in himself

, he is horrified at his owa for such a system as scholastic theology; theism certain to all serious and decent people. evil; when he looks at himself objectively as a and it was

a vestibule for the temple The same experience which suggests such an term in a series without visible beginning or of scholastic theology which Dr. Ward impressive theory to a Butler or a Newman is end, he pardons everything. So, according to was labouring up to his death to build. expressed by a Zulu in terms of Ugovana (the Philo, the Logos makes atonement for all The scheme seems to have consisted of the bad man in us with a loud, blustering voice) creaturely shortcomings by transfiguring them, following parts-a demonstration that neces- and Unanbeza (the good man in us with a by presenting them in a general view. sary truth exists (this was substantially com- little, tiny voice).

The essay on "Science, Prayer, Free-will

, pleted); that it rests upon the eternal nature Upon the question of free-will, Dr. Ward and Miracles" is full of most ingenious speculaof God (this was not touched); that the certainly threw fresh light. He illustrated tions, generally hard to reconcile with what Being of God is proved chiefly by the principle and re-illustrated with inexhaustible pre- one supposes to be orthodox doctrine about of causation (here we get as good a criticism cision and variety the important and un- the divine simplicity and eternity. It is of Mr. Mill's version of Hume's theory as is deniable thesis that men actually try to do impossible not to regret that Dr. Ward is no possible without employing the doctrine of one thing when, upon the whole, they really longer here to carry on the discussion of the energy *); and by the categorical impera- are inclined to do another; and proved that a questions he has raised. G. A. Srxcor. tive," as a preliminary to which we have a man's inclination is much more easily calcudissertation on free-will, which, with re- lated than his action with the same knowledge. joinders and surrejoinders, occupies quite half When he had done this he thought he had the Court of the Tuileries from the Restorethe book. established free-will, the rather that he

tion to the Flight of Louis-Philippe. By Dr. Ward, as we learn from the Preface, believed that in nine cases out of ten all

Catherine Charlotte, Lady Jackson. In ? did not think very much of the "argument people, except the best theists, do act upon vols. (Bentley.) from design," because, standing alone, it did inclination, and held that in acting from not prove a Being whose attributes are infinite. habit we act upon the balance of pleasure and It is very difficult to estimate the exact value In fact, his view of the effect of the argument pain. He did not investigate the question of this book. To historians or historical in the present state of our knowledge is whether habits have not sometimes more students it is, of course, of no use whatever curiously like Mr. Mill's: “The number of affinity with effort than with inclination, and, for the author lays no claim to the investithings intrinsically impossible, or, to use if so, whether efforts may not be calculable gation of original authorities. To readers of Juarez' phrase, "extra objectum omnipo- to adequate finite knowledge as the effects of French letters and memoirs of the period of tentiae,' might well, he thought, be far larger habit would be. Again, though the dis- the Restoration it will appear stale, because than is apparent to our limited intelligence tinction between “congenial” and “anti- she has only betaken herself to ordinary and knowledge.” It would have been inter- impulsive offort” (as shown, say, by a brave materials, and has made no attempt to arrange esting to know how this opinion was combined soldier exerting himself in battle, and re- her information. To seekers after anecdotes with the assertion that our intelligence and fraining himself under insult) is certainly and bon mots it will be of little value, because knowledge are adequate to establish a creation important, Dr. Ward exaggerated it, for it it has no index; and to lovers of good literaex nihilo a finite number of ages ago.

is plain that a call for effort which is bracing ture it will be repugnant from the looseness There is little strictly original in the treat- to one is paralysing to another. of its style. Yet, in spite of its lack of ment of the two chief arguments upon which barbarian of a high type it is a congenial historical knowledge, its staleness, its bed Dr. Ward relies, though one is obliged to effort to fight at close quarters till he drops; arrangement, and bad style, the book deserves him for pointing out that three such different a barbarian of a low type comes to the end of to be read, because it is amusing. It is a thinkers as Card. Newman, Card. Franzelin, his power of congenial effort in brandishing very pot pourri of historical jokes and good and himself were disposed "" to consider the his weapons at a distance. Yet this barbarian stories, and is never for a moment dull argument from the categorical imperative' might, by exerting himself, rise, or, at any And, further, despite innumerable mistakes in as the palmary," argument. It is certainly rate, raise his descendants, to the higher type. detail, it contains a real picture of the years easier for a theist than for an atheist to One looks for light, on topics like this, to an of the Restoration from 1815 to 1830, when explain the phenomena of “conscience," but essay on the “ Extent of Free-will," but one France discontentedly acquiesced in the rule it is a long way from this to Dr. Ward's looks in vain; it is occupied with a discussion of Louis XVIII. l'Inévitable and Charles X. "intuition' about disobedience

to a holy of whether conscious deliberation is necessary to l'Etourdi. The serene complacency and selfCreator. Most people sometimes have a sense free-will. This question is decided in the nega- satisfaction of Louis XVIII., the obstinacy of keeping a command when they do right tive, among other reasons because the two most and bigotry of Charles X., the severe and and of breaking a command when they do meritorious of created beings never deliberated, revengeful austerity of the daughter of Mariewrong, and this may well be due to an though their action being meritorious was Antoinette, and the wild gaiety of the Duchesse obscure feeling of the fact that they live free. Yet, elsewhere, we are told that, though de Berry are admirably shown rather by under an order established by a Personal Will; free, it was absolutely certain beforehand anecdotes than in the author's own words

. but it is to be remembered that we all learn what they would do, as they were not in a Nor are the minor characters less lifelike ; to behave by being bidden and forbidden, and state of probation ; and so we are led to ask Benjamin Constant, Mdme. Récanier, Talley. that

many of the best people now (like most of to what end could a loving Creator ordain a rand, and Chateaubriand, whom Lady Jackeon the best people among the Greeks and Romans) a state of probation, since the most perfect persists in styling the Chevalier de Chateaq; seem to think more of virtue than of duty; merit is possible without. Another, perhaps briand throughout her first volume, their motive is not to fulfil a law, but to a more legitimate, question is, whether Mr. painted to the life.

Sbadworth Hodgson was not consistent in But, after giving this unstinted praise to * Why is the sun the cause of day? Because asserting both determinism and freedom, or, Lady Jackson's powers of entertaining, it is his energy warms and illuminates the hemisphere at least, responsibility. Remorse in pro- necessary to point out that her book is as exposed. Why is night not the cause of day? portion as the conscience is tender and enlight- weak, both from an historical and a literary Because the energy spent in warming and lighting ened (unless there has been

something special point of view, as it is amusing. To be mine warmed and lighted, when its tum comes, by fresh in the training)

fastens before all things upon with, the very title is misleading, for, while energy from the sun.

"inbred sin; ''the permanent evil tendency Lady Jackson devotes forty-five chapters to

To a

are all

A BIOGRAPHY OF HIS UNCLE BY TIE

SPANISH PREMIER.

& minute description of the Court of the

which was not either classical Spanish or Restoration, she only gives four to Louis

taken from the lips of the people; and in Philippe. Yet in itself the Court of LouisPhilippe is quite as worthy of minute inves- El Solitarioy su tiempo : Biografía de handling this language there is no constraint.

It is no Suul's armour that he has arrayed

Don Serafín Estebanez Calderón, y crítica tigation. There are not, indeed, so many

himself in. de sus obras.

If anyone wishes to become

Por Don A. Cánovas del good stories to be picked up about it, but its importance is fully as great for the Castillo. In 2 vols. (Madrid : Dubrull.) acquainted with the marvellous flexibility and

exuberance of the Spanish language in satire political and social history of France. No Tus work is the payment of a debt of grati- and in description, he cannot do better than mention is made of the King's Belgian tude from a nephew to a deceased uncle- study the Artículos de Costumbres of " EL schemes, and very little of the Spanish mar- "a debt,” says the writer, “which, unsatis- Solitario." Yet it is this very exuberance of riages. There is no allusion whatever to fied, would have positively saddened the close epithet of the gamin of Malaga, joined with George Sand and the remarkable group which of my life. . . . He is the only person in the his classical purism, which perhaps hinders gathered round her, though page after page is world to whom I have owed assistance and his popularity. Even to a Spaniard we devoted to Mdme. Recamier. While the protection. All the rest I have obtained or suspect his works must be more difficult name of Chateaubriand occurs on nearly every conquered absolutely without owing it to any- reading than those of his rivals-Larra and page, that of Lamartine is entirely omitted. one, save only to myself."

Mesonero Romanos, We have dealt chiefly The real title of the book should have been These words are the key to the whole book. with these essays, for in other styles the · The Court of the Tuileries under the Re- It will be read by posterity at least as much works of Estebanez (with the exception of storation." Even on this period there occur for the autobiography which it gives of the what may be called his official ones) scarcely extraordinary mistakes, and still more extra- Prime Minister of Spain as for the life of went beyond projects. His studies in Arabic ordinary omissions. Victor Duke of Belluno Estebanez Calderón. Uncle and nephew were were undertaken solely with a view to enteris termed Duke of Belluna; Mortier is men- both of Malaga, and one charm of the book ing more deeply into the romance of Moorish tioned as an old soldier of the army of Italy, consists in the intense local patriotism which Andalusian history. His fragments show that whereas he served in Germany alone; Cor. is so piquant and salient a trait in the char- he might have excelled in picturesque descripreggio and Carracci are mis-spelt Corregio and acter of many a Spaniard. In Estebanez this tion, but he totally lacked the powers of Canachi. Still more curious is the omission feature existed in the highest degree, and steady application and patient research necesof the scene which took place at the funeral was only surpassed by his still more intense sary for the historian. Of his political and of the Duc de la Rochefoucauld in 1827, love and veneration for Spain. A thorough- official life we do not speak. "In spite of when the illiberal King refused to allow the going optimist as regards everything Spanish, flashes of fierce Andalusian energy, it must mourners to follow the hearse of the real his love was more ardent than wise, and it be pronounced a failure ; but the comments introducer of vaccination into France, and singularly limited his intellectual horizon. of his biographer on it may constitute for the coffin was knocked off and trampled in It might almost be said that for him the posterity the most valuable portions of this the mud. And though the book does not world beyond the Pyrenees and the coasts of work. profess to be historical, surely some men- Morocco did not exist. In this respect the Of the contemporaries of “El Solitario" we tion ought to have been made of Boissy opinions of uncle and nephew are in contrast. have some most delightful sketches. The d'Anglas, of the administration in 1814 of the In literary matters the nephew looks up to greatest revelation is of course the almost unDepartment of the Interior by the abbé de the uncle as to a master whose excellence he conscious one of the biographer himself. Montesquiou-Fézeusac, and of Napoleon's can never hope to approach. In practical Portraits of Gens. Cordova, Narvaez, and attempt to rally the old Republican party and political matters, though dealing most Espartero (the object of especial dislike) are round him in the Hundred Days, when he tenderly with the errors of the man he loved, delineated here ; while we have a side of the nominated Carnot to the War Office. The he still lets it be seen how widely he differs character of Usoz y Rio unmentioned by use of authorities is also strange, for while from him--so widely that he can afford to either Wiffen or by Boehmer. The details of the untrustworthy memoirs of the Duchesse smile at his mischievous exaggerations and the quarrel with Gallardo—like Estebanez, a d'Abrantes are frequently cited, the remark-political anachronisms with the gentleness Spaniard of the Spaniards-are most amusing. able letters of Sismondi, written from Paris with which we deal with the physical eccen- The correspondence and friendship with during Napoleon's short reign in 1815, which tricities of an intimate friend.

Gayangos, who is characterised as almost an were recently published in the Revue his- Señor Cánovas del Castillo believes that his Englishman for steadiness of purpose, who torique, are left unquoted.

relative has been unduly neglected by his was the fellow-student with Estebanez in The style also is deplorable. The author literary countrymen ; that his works ought to Arabic, and both his rival and assistant as a leaps from the present to the past tense with be far more highly appreciated than they are; bibliophile, are among the most delightful total disregard of grammar, and abounds in and that they should attain, at least among pages of a book whose only fault is that, in such paragraphs as “ Already he meditates a the educated, a popularity hitherto lacked. vol. i., it is sometimes too long: " Had I new campaign,” and “Ah! what grim folly! The purpose of the book’ is to justify this had time, I would have made it shorter," It makes one shudder!”. A good specimen of belief. is the justification a valid one? It may perhaps be the excuse of one whose more the vicious style, which is made use of in an is evident that it is impossible for a foreigner important occupations must press hard upon attempt to be vigorous and graphic, is the to determine this; yet to shrink from giving the time he can devote to literary production. description of Murat's Italian campaign : an opinion (though with all diffidence, and

WENTWORTH WEBSTER. "The superb King Joachim, in satin doublet, subject to correction) is to abandon the duty embroidered mantle, and flowing white plumes, of a critic. It seems to us that the future flourishing his riding whip or brandishing his fame of Estebanez Calderón will depend almost sword, is received with enthusiasm. He asks wholly upon his essays. He may, perhaps, be Down the Way. By Miss Hope Stanford. permission to pass through Rome. His regarded as the Charles Lamb of Spain; his Holiness refuses, and Joachim passes without verse, though pleasing, will never place him

In 3 vols. (J. & R. Maxwell.) it. . . . Several battles, however,

The Man She Cared For. By F. W. RobinJoachim's courage and daring are unfailing; which he shows a spark of higher genius is high among the poets. The only instance in

In 3 vols. (Hurst & Blackett.) but with his ever decreasing army he is constantly beaten, and compelled to fight while in the satirical sonnet against Gallardo, the Torwood's Trust. By Miss E. Everett-Green. retreating-for he is hotly pursued; but though thievish bibliophile. Compare this with In 3 vols. (Bentley.) recklessly risking his life and courting death as Milton's two against his literary detractors, Her Washington Season. By Jeanie Gould it were, as the bullets fly thickly around him, and the superiority of the Spaniard is, we be yet remains wholly unbarmed” (i. 231, think, evident. In prose it is quite other: For Ever and Never. By J. Palgrave Simp

Lincoln. (Trübner.) 225).

. of

son. In 2 vols. (Chapman & Hall.) Although this sort of thing is largely in- in every line; quotations from him light up dulged in, Lady Jackson cun, nevertheless, the pages of Cánovas with rare brilliance. Gold and Silver. By Mrs. Sale Lloyd. In 2 be commended for the point with which she Of no other writer can it be more truly said

vols. (White.) tells the numerous anecdotes that give her that the style is the man. The severest of Miss HOPE STANFORD has chosen for her hero

H. MORSE STEPHENS. literary Puritans, he would not suffer a word | a not unfamiliar type of the young man of the

NEW NOVELS.

ensue.

son.

book vitality

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