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discovered in the ruins of private dwellings escalier et un couloir qui n'avaient jamais jus- fasten the necklace at the back of her neck, may be mentioned an unfinished kneeling qu'alors été parfaitement dégagés. M. Sayce y a or to take her hand in the way of kindness, figure holding a tablet, and measuring seven- copié, cette année, une trentaine au moins de teen inches in height. It is described by Mr. graffiti phéniciens inédits et dont vous avez dů or in any other. But gradually, as the meanPetrie as “blocked out in the rough, and afford- recevoir communication. Je regrette de n'avoir ness of the foolish little Duke becomes more ing a good example of artists' work-one arm
eu cette idée que l'an dernier ; sans cela ces textes apparent and more odious to her, and as the having the flat side of the block left, showing dans le Recueil des inscriptions sémitiques de otherwise cold, she takes to her husband very
auraient pu vous arriver à temps pour figurer embers of that silly love burn out on a hearth the canon-squares.' an infant deity riding on a goose, of which Mr. coup de graffiti cariens et chypriotes sans compter much. other people have seen how good are Petrie has sent a photograph, is a peculiarly les grecs. Ma campagne s'est fort bien terminée his qualities, and the lady, who is not lacking beautiful specimen of a well-known type, à Saqqarah par la découverte d'une tombe intacte in intelligence by any means, likewise beholds variously identified with Harpocrates, Eros, de la 6e dynastie. Nous y avons trouvé cing that they are estimable. Furthermore, he and Bacchus. The composition is almost iden- barques funéraires avec tout leur équipage, un tical with a terra-cotta of Tarsus in the Louvre grand cercueil en bois couvert d'inscriptions, des withholds his love from her, so that she begins (see fig. 5, plate 53, of Heuzey's Figurines colliers, des vases, un grand sarcophage en calcaire to want it. A little later on she wants it antiques); but the modelling is får finer than encore fermé que je vais ouvrir demain. C'est la very much, but he has not a friendly word the Louvre specimen, and the adjuncts are première tombe intacte et aussi ancienne trouvée for her. Just as the model young woman had more artistically rendered. The child bears in par un Européen. J'ai pu constater que la dis
done an atrocious wrong, the model young his left hand a trrch of Eros, and puts the first tombes thébaines. Les textes du cercueil en bois man—but he is not a very young manfinger of his right hand to his mouth, in token prouvent que le rituel funéraire était déjà en behaves scarcely less discreditably. Seeing of infancy. On his head he wears a cumbrous usage dès la 6° dynastie. Je crois qu'en certaines plainly that she is repentant, and that there wreath surmounted by the emblem of Horns. parties, il remonte aux temps antéhistoriques et is no effort she will not make to appease him, His attitude is that classified by M. Heuzey as qu'il existait avant Ménès. . . * l'enfant assis sur une de ses jambes replié's.”
he repels her cruelly. He will have nothing The next general meeting of the Hellenic whatever to say to her. He is sullen and AMELIA B. EDWARDS, Hon. Sec. Egypt Exploration Fund. on Thursday, May 8, at 5 p.ın. A paper will glum. That is improbability the second. be read by Mr. Theodore Bent on his recent
Of course, if you can once allow that a journey among the Cyclades.
couple of wholly estimable people would make NOTES ON ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY.
these mistakes, the plot is strong, the play is MR. J. THEODORE BENT has returned to Eng
a good one, you follow the story with faith, and land from a visit of about six months to the
not only with interest. But upon some people's
THE IRON-MASTER Cyclades. During that time he explored almost
AT THE ST. JAMES's.
credulity this makes too large a demand ; and, every one of the islands, and has brought back HOWEVER painful was the subject of M. as we are among them, we have to take rea rich harvest of fresh matter, both archaeo
“Le Maître de fuge, for our part, in the acting of Mrs. Kendal. logical and modern. He gave particular atten- Georges Ohnet's drama tion to the island of Antiparos, which has not Forges ”—which has been a success in Paris That is of course remarkable. Mrs. Kendal is been inhabited in recent times, but which he --it was not a theme that the Lord Chamber- always best, as, indeed a fine actress ought to found to abound in prehistoric graves full of lain could taboo; and as it was set forth with be best, in a sympathetic part. As the heroine quaint little images.
a good deal of force, and gave opportunities of " Diplomacy," as the heroine of “The FROM a letter of Dr. Schliemann dated for distinguished acting, it was almost inevit- Squire," as the heroine of Mr. Clement Scott's April 22, we learn that he was then at Athens, able that we should see the piece here. We little adaptation of “ Jeanne qui pleure et but hoping to return immediately to Tiryns, have seen it, and did not enjoy it, yet the Jeanne qui rit,” Mrs. Kendal® reaches her where his fellow-worker, Herr Dörpfeld, was piece has strength and the acting is ad- highest level. That is to say, she makes in continuing the excavations. It is his intention mirable. Mr. Pinero has been charged with these her greatest effect upon the audienceto publish the results of his latest and not least the task of adapting it, and, save for a few especially upon simple people who are not extraordinary discovery in a comparatively
queer instances of mis-translation, has adapted eternally analysing—who are not always wantsnall volume, which, however, will be abund, it well. The piece has its scenes of comedy; ing to know how far this is clever, but rather antly illustrated, not only with wood-cuts of the minor objects found, but with reproductions it has its scenes of intense drama. Its how far it is pleasant. Well, unless these in facsimile of the marvellous wall-paintings of attractiveness, such as it is, consists, in simple people—or these subtle people in their the palace. In these, four colours are used, London, in the acting of Mrs. Kendal. That simpler moods, if you will-bring with them besides white, but no shading. An interesting in it which repels and
revolts the spectator is in to the St. James's Theatre a vast provision of feature is a decorative pattern identical with part the ugliness of the theme, in part the fact credulity, they will not find Mrs. Kendal's new that on the ceiling of the thalamos ut Orchom- that a profound improbability is at the very part sympathetic; throughout its performance enos in Boeotia which Dr. Schliemann brought base of the plot. We said a profound im- they will be harassed by the thought that this to light last year.
probability; but no, there are two of them. could never have been unless the woman was bad. The new museum of archaeology at Cam- The heroine, if she were the woman of We are not sure that the remarkable artist is bridge is to be opened with some ceremony on gracious thought and considerate act that she herself quite free from that thought. But, like Tuesday next, May 6, at 2.30 p.m.
is held forth to be, would never have married an advocate engaged on the wrong side, she Ox Tuesday next, May 6, Messrs. Christie for the reason the playwright asserts. She works manfully, with vigour, with experience, will sell the engraved wood-blocks of Bewick-loved a foolish young Duke, who was, to boot, with tact, with ingenuity, to conquer for a while nearly fourteen hundred in number—that
a relation. The Duke, being bad as well as the sympathies she can hardly look to hold daughter, Miss Isabella Bewick, who died last foolish, jilted her for a perfectly vulgar young permanently. The play leaves many blank year at an advanced age. The include all the woman, the daughter of Moulinet, the maker spaces for the actress. She fills them all in illustrations and tail-pieces to the British Birds, of chocolate. She hid her distress from him; with her wonderful and expressive pantomime. the Quadrupeds, Aesop's Fables, and Bewick's and, not content with letting concealment | Granting her her one improbability, all else Life of himself.
work havoc with the damask cheek, she | with Mrs. Kendal is probable. She reveals SOME while ago a committee was formed to straightway accepted the offer of marriage to you how it would be. Never has she been collect subscriptions for a bronze statue of of an honest and excellent iron-master more skilful. And Mr. Kendal, made up exBerlioz at Paris. One of the last acts of the whom she had not before even listened to. cellently as the stolid French man of business now defunct Municipal Council was to authorise Not caring twopence-halfpenny for him, the a man with neither the freedom of the upper its erection in the middle of the square Vinti- -kind and gracious lady did him the injustice class nor the uncontrolled excitability of the mille, out of which runs the rue de Calais i accept him. Further, she carried her pro- lower—Mr. Kendal seconds her well. He has where the composer died.
stamme out-she actually married him in got French gestures, French bourgeois passion. Is a letter to M. Renan, thanking him fc spite. That is improbability the first. the subscription opened on behalf of Egyptian
Miss Linda Dietz does not play the Baronne archaeology, M. Maspero writes :
Hating him so much that she must needs de Prófont much in the style of a Baronne.
shiver if he performed the not very tender The accent of naturalness—that not learnt "Avec ces ressources, je ferai déblayer Louqsor et service of fastening a necklace at the back of upon the theatre-seems to be wanting to her, Médinet Habou. Je reporterai sur l'exploration her neck, or if he took her hand in friendliness but of ordinary theatrical resource she is me donnera d'argent. En faisant l'année dernière or in the way of kindness, it is not to be sufficiently mistress. Miss Webster is really nettoyer le temple d'Abydos, j'ai mis au jour un wondered at that he shortly declined even to delightfully fresh as a pleasant young rela
tion; and so is Mr. George Alexander as an even by those who disapprove of the method, lastly, there was Schumann's Ballad, “The ingenious stripling, who desires to marry less ability and individuality to work on the ton, and Herr von Zur-Mühlen), chorus, and
but it seemed dangerous for any composer of King's Son,” for solos (Miss Little, Mr. Brereher. It is positively reinvigorating to see them. But neither they nor Mrs. Kendal's has been most successful, and those interested pleasing writing in it, but, as a whole, it is a
same lines. Now we think that Mr. Stanford orchestra. There is some highly effective and unapproached art and sympathetic presence in the future Opera cannot fail to watch with laboured composition. Miss Zimmermann concan make the play either healthy or true. So attention this bold and ingenious attempt. tributed solos by Chopin and Mr. C. H. Party. well is it acted, however, that we fancy for In all the acts there is no break in the music, The performances, generally speaking, were a long time it must fill the playhouse. but there are plenty of concerted pieces with satisfactory; the quality of tone of the sopranos FREDERICK WEDMORE. both tune and form. The composer, while was, however, not very pleasing. Mr. Barnby
exhibiting great talent in his mode of dealing conducted the whole of the concert in an
with the orchestra, shows, however, at times efficient manner. MUSIC.
that he is bound to a system; there are Dr. Hans von Bülow gave the first of two
moments of weakness, moments when we feel pianoforte recitals at St. James's Hall last “ THE CANTERBURY PILGRIMS” AT
that we have the letter rather than the spirit. Tuesday afternoon. The programme commenced DRURY LANE.
We speak not of the orchestration, which with Brahms' interesting but difficult Sonata in MR. C. VILLIERS STANFORD is a fortunate throughout is excellent, but of the style of F minor (op. 5). It was a treat to hear this work
His “Savonarola,” produced at Ham- writing. It does seem surprising to us that interpreted by an artist who is endowed with burg on April 18, was received with every Mr. Stanford, seeing that he was writing a rare intellectual gifts, and who possesses commark of success; and now, only ten days comic Opera, did not avail himself of spoken plete command of the key-board. Every note, later (April 28), his Canterbury Pil- dialogue, which would have formed an agree- every phrase, has been carefully studied, and grims was welcomed at Drury Lane as able contrast, and have proved, we fancy, in the music is thus presented to the listener with heartily as was the “ mery compagnie” which several situations highly effective. And then, such clearness and finish that he cannot but assembled at the “gentil hostelrie” the again, while praising the work, we would not dis- admire even if unable always to approve. There “ Tabard just five hundred and one years guise the fact that the music often shows a certain is at times, it must be confessed, a slight harshago—at least, so runs the fable. When the lack of originality. Individuality is, after all, ness of tone and exaggeration of accent—the curtain rises we see Hubert, an apprentice, and the pearl of great price, and clever writing and result, it seems to us, of the pianist's great his companions singing a madrigal beneath the ingenious orchestration are not sufficient in energy and earnestness; the character of the window of Cicely, the fair daughter of Geoffrey, themselves. We speak plainly, but, when we man is reflected in his playing. He performel host of the famed “Tabard Inn.” Hubert is think of the music in the first scene of the also Beethoven's Variations on a Russian Dance, informed that the maiden is about to start with second act, the serenade (omitted in perform- the posthumous Rondo in G, and No. 4 from the pilgrims bound for Canterbury, to be handed ance), and parts of the love duet, we feel dis- the Bagatelles (op. 126). Then followed an inover to the safe keeping of a gritfin aunt. The posed to think that Mr. Stanford has a store teresting Raff selection. Particularly would we pilgrims, first heard behind the scenes, now of originality still latent. The comic scenes notice the brilliant rendering of the Prelude an! enter in twos and threes: we see the Merchant show that he has a keen sense of humour. In Fugue from the clever Suite in E minor (op. 77! “in mottelee,” the Clerk with threadbare cloak, the first act the madrigal sung by the appren- Lastly came some pieces by Rubinstein, includthe Doctor, the ware and wise Serjeant, the Nun, tices is set to the famous old English song ing the difficult Prelude and Fugue op. 33, No.2 the Monk, and others. They suddenly exchange Sumer is i cumen in." The first bar forms a dedicated to the pianist. The audience listensi their song of mourning for one of mirth, then leading theme constantly heard during the for two hours with rapt attention, and the fall back into their chant, and once again be- Opera; and it gives a quaint and thoroughly applause was most enthusiastic. The scherz of come merry. Now Sir Christopher Synge, a English flavour to the work. The chorus of the Sonata and the Raff Fugue were both ezknight, has fallen in love with the “pretty pilgrims is very pleasing; of other pieces we cored. queen Cicely, and Halo' the Chepe, his would name (besides those already mentioned) faithful clerk, has formed a plan to carry her the sextett in the first act, the "plot" trio, and off when the pilgrims have reached Siden- the whole of the eighth scene in the second act;
OBITUARY. bourne, the Travellers' Rest. There is plot and the quintett in the last act.
SIR MICHAEL Costa, a man who in his time and counterplot, but to try to describe the The performance of the Opera was remark- played many parts, died last Tuesday evening fun of the second act would occupy far too ably fine. Miss Clara Perry made a very good at Brighton. His career was a remarkable one. much space. The young lady has been confided Cicely, and Miss Marian Burton was fairly His early failures as singer and composer hare to the care of Dame Margery, Sir Christopher's successful as the Dame Marjery. Mr. Ludwig long been forgotten ; his successes as leader and wife; and we have the old libertine, the young (Sir Christopher), Mr. Barrington Foote (Hal); conductor, from the time when he accepted the apprentice, the enraged father, and the offended and Mr. Davies (Hubert) all deserve special post of maestro al piano at the King's Theatre wife, all busy making or marring schemes. The praise. The chorus sang well, and acted with in 1830 down to the Birmingham Festival in end of it is that Hubert runs off with Cicely; unusual animation and attention to matters of 1882, when he last appeared in public
, will Sir Christopher returns home, his scheme having detail. Mr. Augustus Harris may be con- long be remembered. He ruled with a firmignominiously failed; while Geoffrey, pursuing gratulated on the manner in which the piece nay, iron-hand; but, though stern in the disthe lovers, takes Hubert prisoner. In the third was put on the stage. The house was full, and charge of his duties, he was of a kindly disposiact Hubert is brought before a Justice of the the applause at the end of each act most enthu- tion, and was not only respected, but loved, by Peace, who is none other than Sir Christopher siastic. The Opera was conducted by the many members of his orchestra. He was comhimself. He and his clerk Hal find both composer, and the reception given to " “The ductor at Covent Garden from 1846 to 1869, plaintiff and defendant troublesome persons; Canterbury Pilgrims” was indeed a brilliant and at Her Majesty's Theatre from 1871 to they try to get Hubert out of the way, but one.”
J. S. SHEDLOCK. 1879. In 1846 he became connected with the Daine Margery and Cicely appear at the most
Philharmonic Society, and in 1848 with the critical moment, and Sir Christopher, making
Sacred Harmonic. The Birmingham Festivals the best of a bad job, reverses the sentence of
from 1849 to 1882, and the Handel Festivals imprisonment. So he thus pleases his wife, and The programme of the concert of the London from 1857 to 1880, were under his managethe father forgives the lovers, who are supposed Musical Society given last Saturday evening at ment; and the energy, perseverance, and great to marry and live happily ever afterwards. St. James's Hall contained several novelties. ability displayed by him have been acknow
A capital plot, and an exceedingly well- First came a short Cantata for solo (Miss Amy ledged on all sides. A tree is known by its written libretto by Mr. Gilbert à Beckett, Aylward) and chorus, “Oh, Weep for Those,” fruits; and history tells of the many triumphs naturally led Mr. Stanford to do his best. Of by Ferdinand Hiller, a short and simple com- achieved by Sir Michael Costa at these musical the extreme cleverness of the music there can position. Miss A. Zimmermann played Schu- gatherings. His Oratorio “Eli surely be no question. The composer and mann's Concertstück in G (op. 92) with orchestra, at Birmingham in 1855, and "Naaman” in librettist have evidently taken “Die Meister- an interesting though by no means an import- 1864. singer" as their model -- and a very good ant work. Four Trios for female voices by Great men commit great faults; and, while model too. There are many features in the Brahms, with accompaniment of harp and two the highest praise must be accorded to Sir play and touches in the music which irre- horns, are quaint, but not particularly original; Michael as a conductor, one cannot but regret sistibly recall Wagner's celebrated Opera, the second and fourth are decidedly the best that he should so frequently have tampered
* The Canterbury Pilgrims” is none the numbers. The second part of the concert com- with the scores of the great masters. Bears less enjoyable on that account. The most im- menced with Jensen's Cantata, “ The Feast of ago he was charged with this crime by a portant thing to notice in the music is the Adonis,” scored for orchestra by J. Buttis, a musician of eminence, yet he continued to purextensive use made of representative themes. work accurately described in the programme- sue the same course. Éis inflexibility of charThe composer has boldly adopted the German
“full of melody and cheerfulness." acter—the cause of his greatness-proved in this master's system. The marvellous use made by The solos were taken by Miss A. Aylward, matter a stumbling-block; it took the peculiar Wagner of Leitmotive has been acknowledged Miss H. Weber, and Miss L. Little. And, and unwelcome form of obstinacy.
SATURDAY, MAY 10, 1884. metheus, who taught man to preserve fire in logical and archaeological lore connected with
the ferule, or stalk, of the giant fennel, was the topic for the consideration of his readers. No. 627, New Series.
borrowed by the Hindus and converted into He believes that the Greeks probably had no The Editor cannot undertake to return, or Pramantha." Surely the hypothesis of the iron in their first foreign campaign, the to correspond with the writers of, rejected etymological mythologists is that Pramantha Trojan war.” Thus the Greeks were, so far, manuscript. was corrupted into Prometheus, not that lower than the_iron-working uncivilised
They learned their ironIt is particularly requested that all business Prometheus was twisted into Pramantha ? African" races. It is particularly requested that all business Next we have (still on p. 1) an examination of working from Egypt. Capt. Burton does not
letters regarding the supply of the paper; the etymology of a Peruvian word, and all assign any particular date for the introduction &c., may be addressed to the PUBLISHER, and
this time we are being distracted from our of iron-working into Greece. not to the EDITOR.
legitimate interest in the evolution of the Chap. vii. brings us as far as the answer to sword.
the question “What is a sword ?" "A metal As to trace the history of the sword blade intended for cutting, thrusting, or cut LITERATURE,
is Capt. Burton's professed object, we can and thrust.” It has elsewhere been pointed The Book of the Sword. By Richard F. only regret his love of toying with all the out that the thrust has not the advantage over Burton. Vol. I. (Chatto & Windus.)
Muses of all knowledge in the shade of foot- the cut indicated in the drawing on p. 127.
notes. As an example of the distractions Pupils of Mr. Waite know that the cut does Capt. Burton is to be congratulated rather on which beguile the traveller through Capt. not require the wide_action contemplated by the amount than on the arrangement of his Burton's tome, we select the following sen- the draughtsman. From this point Capt. materials. The history of the sword might tence from p. 3 :
Burton's book adheres much more closely to make a big book in any man's hands ; in Capt. Burton's there seems to be no reason derived the tale from the Eskimos, the sole of particular value and interest. The fifteenth
“ According to Capt. Hall—who, however, his topic, and his numerous illustrations are why it should ever end at all. This first
living representatives of the palaeolithic race century "sword breakers” (fig. 134) were involume, a large one, carries us only as far as in Europe-the polar dear [sic], traditionally genious, but probably futile, inventions. The “The Old British Sword ; " for the early reported to throw stones, rolls down with its sword in Ancient Egypt and Modern Africa is Britons had swords, though Dr. Schliemann quasi-human forepaws rocks and boulders upon a capital chapter, though, alas! Egyptology thinks their English oppressors had none till the walrus when found, sleeping at the foot of at large seduces the learned author, who after the Norman Conquest. Swords
remarks: “I need hardly say that the to have been unknown to the Anglo-Saxons,” Capt. Burton thinks, apparently, that the mythologies of Greece, Etruria, and Rome were writes the learned explorer of Hissarlik Eskimo are the only extant descendants of only corrupted Egyptian mysteries and meta(Troja, p. 96). From Capt. Burton's book the men who did live in Europe in palaeo- physics." This is an old, but a most improbmore accurate ideas about the diffusion of the lithic times. If that is his opinion, he able, opinion, though to a certain extent it sword may be gathered, but how much else seems to have Prof. Geikie and Dr. Daniel recommended itself to Herodotus; but if one does the author offer us that is not germane Wilson against him ; but, while a reviewer “exit fighting" with Capt. Burton on Greek to the matter! What have the advantages muses on these matters, the sword is still Mysteries, what becomes of the history of the of fox-hunting, and the cruelty of pigeon- unsheathed. One feels like the man in sword ? To the point are the capital drawshooting, and the opinion of Wilkinson as the legend who blew the horn before he ings of Egyptian weapons and armour, and of to the Egyptian Khons," and the relations drew the sword. Still, Capt. Burton does cruel Gold Coast swords, answering to Pip's of Samson to the Sun, and the “ artistic en- draw the sword at last. He examines Theory of the Jigger in Great Expectations. gravings of the South African Bushmen,” and the offensive weapons of animals, which may But Capt. Burton next advances to Hittite the derivation of the word "glass,” and the have suggested instruments to men, and keeps hieroglyphs, and I fear that he will not come, original sense of Firbolg, to do with the an eye on the natural weapons, stone and in my time, to the modern smallsword, for he history of the sword? Capt. Burton's book wood, which nature offers ready made—furor returns to Troy and the war (of scholars) is interesting as Southey's or Buckle's com- arma ministrat. Wooden clubs of many lands round windy Troy. Reaching Greece, Capt. monplace books are interesting; it is an are engraved, and savage and Irish wooden Burton recognises the Hesiodic and Homeric omnium gatherum (as Mrs. Clive Newcome swords, with all the weapons of the boomerang knowledge of iron, while
copper was the said) of erudition, and an excellent companion class, are investigated. The controversy be- metal for arms and armour." But Capt. to Notes and Queries. But it is so much tween Gen. Pitt Rivers and Mr. Brough Smyth Burton thinks the Thracian sword of Helenus more than a history of the sword that the on the Egyptian boomerang seems (so far as may have been of steel. The most accurate final history of that weapon still remains outsiders can discern) to be ended rather in account of Homeric arms (so far as it goes) to be written. The historian who sticks to favour of Gen. Pitt Rivers. Among Capt. has been contributed by Mr. Walter Leaf to his subject will find Capt. Burton's book a Burton's most interesting illustrations are the Journal of the Hellenic Society. The mine of information, but too full, we do not Mexican straight wooden swords edged with “Xiphos," says Capt. Burton, had a "straight say of dross, but of alien metals, precious in pieces of obsidian. The Eskimo, too, it ap- rapier blade;" the “Phasganon” was a their place, but out of place here.
pears, jag the edge of wooden weapons with dirk, probably a throwing weapon, like the Capt. Burton's first page (the first, that is, chips of meteoric iron. To our mind the Seax and Scrama Sax;" the "Aor" had a of his “preamble") might give work to a serrated blades of Italian daggers are not broad, stout blade; the “ Machaira” hung dozen reviewers. We learn that “man's genealogically connected with this rude device close to the sword sheath, and “was for civilisation began with fire.” This leads the of savages. Entering on the age of metals, sacrifices and similar uses. Though it has author to glance at fire-myths. Prometheus Capt. Burton has an interesting excursus on nothing to do with swords, one is glad is “ the personification of the Great Unknown” copper. He prefers, generally, to translate to agree with Capt. Burton that ... who
xadós “copper” in Homer, though the Iliad and the Odyssey might have been "conceived the idea of feeding the onépua nupos weapons found at Mycenae are certainly cut in rude Phoenician letters upon wooden with fuel. Thus, Hermes or Mercury was of bronze. Capt. Burton has had the tablets, or scratched on plates of lead.” Pteropedilos or Alipes, and his ankles were disadvantage of using Ilios as Dr. Schlie- Capt. Burton, like all swordsmen, is much fitted with pedila or talaria, winged sandals, to mann's “last and revised volume,' instead interested in the singular fact that the show that the soldier fights with his legs as of Troja, which, being later and more Mycenaean swords are of the type “which well as with his arms."
revised, is often at odds with Ilios. Thus became the fashion in our sixteenth century, But what has Hermes to do with the “Great Capt. Burton thinks "the Third was the one of them being “a two-edged blade, with Unknown"? Why is he introduced here at burnt city," though Dr. Schliemann is not a midrib-in fact, the rapier, which can be all ? Why are his wings explained as the any longer of that opinion. The bronze used only for the point.” Then, could the expression of military `metaphors? Why period is next studied by our author, who Mycenaean warriors fence ? Had they the should we be led off in a note to Frederick decides that "the Proto-Phrygians and immortal passado? Alas! they used shields, the Great, and thence to Plutarch's absurd Phrygo-Europeans, of whom several tribes and were still in the age of Roderick Dhu, theory of the origin of serpent worship, returned to Asia, were the prehistoric metal not of Fitzjames, whose blade "was sword and again to the statement that “Pro-workers." Capt. Burton offers all the philo- and shield."
THE HISTORY OF THE SCOTTISH BORDER.
Rome is remarkable for a characteristic and selected in such a manner as to illustrate the appreciation of what is best in the original, amusing defence of gladiatorial shows, and an various subjects treated of, and to represent and an evident desire to spare no pains in assault
that " meddling ecclesiastic" | both the wilder and the tenderer elements reproducing it, Miss M'Pherson gives evidence Telemachus.
which they contain. The metre of the of possessing some of the highest qualities It will be seen that Capt. Burton's book is original has been followed, in some cases requisite for her task—a sensitive feeling for full of interest and replete with matter ; but, exactly, in others approximately; and if rhythm, a varied and harmonious diction, and interested as a critic may be in mythology rimes have been introduced where they do a combination of vigour and delicacy in touch. and swordsmanship, he prefers to keep them not exist, it is difficult to find fault with that To translate some of these poems could hare apart-not to read Lobeck at Mr. Waite's, or attractive embellishment. We have compared been no easy task, and we are glad to think Sir William Hope in company with Kuhn. a good many of them with the Greek, and that the work has fallen into such capable A. Lang. have found the translations as faithful as they hands.
H. F. ΤοZEE. . are agreeable. The following, which is a Poetry of Modern Greece : Specimens and fragment of a Cretan war-song, may recall to Extracts. Translated by Florence M‘Pher
the reader some of the thoughts in Campbell's
" Hallowed Ground”:son. (Macmillan.)
The History of Liddesdale, Eskdale, Exesdale, “ How sweet is death that comes amid the fervour This is a delightful little volume, which
Wauchopedale, and the Debateable Land. of the fight!
Part I. satisfactorily fills a vacant space in our litera
By Robert Bruce Armstrong.
Then has it glory for a priest, honour for taper's ture. Hitherto, notwithstanding a few light;
From the Twelfth Century to 1530. scattered translations, the poetry of Modern The smoke of battle wraps the slain as in a fair (Edinburgh : David Douglas.) Greece has been a sealed book to most English
Tue genius of Sir Walter Scott has surrounded men, partly owing to the difficulties that the
incense cloud ; popular language, which is the language of For monument the ground they have where stand halo of romance which makes it difficult to poetry, presents to the scholar; and partly, the brave and free,
realise that until the end of the last century perhaps, because the works themselves have
That soil shall nourish evermore valour and these picturesque dales were never mentioned
liberty." found their way but little into England, and,
by our forefathers except as a land of savages in the case of some of the earlier poets, are The second part of the volume contains beyond the pale of civilisation. The lawless difficult to procure.
translations from lettered Greek poets of the habits of the Borderers survived from the The collection which is now presented present century; and these are even more period prior to the union of the two kingdoms to us is divided into two parts, the first of welcome than the renderings of the ballads, when agriculture was almost unknown on the which is devoted to the ballads, the second because their authors are still less known in Border-side, for no man cared to cultivate to the works of lettered poets. Without a England, notwithstanding the great merit of fields which were constantly the scene of war, notice of the ballads any account of Modern some of their compositions, especially the and were daily in danger of being wasted by Greek literature would be imperfect, as Igrical poems. Many of those which Miss an invading army. The Marches of Englani they have flourished so richly on the soil of M'Pherson here presents to us deal with and Scotland were peopled by clans of mosGreece, and are so varied in their char- patriotic subjects; and foremost among these troopers, who lived in the intervals of war by acter-comprising battle songs and others stands Solomos' famous "Ode to Liberty," of plundering travellers and harrying cattle a relating to the Klephts and Armatoles, or part of which a spirited version is given, the the other side of the Border. These maraudlocal militia, who for a time
poem being too long for insertion. But ing clans were of too much use to their champions of Greek independence; dirges the gem of this portion of the collection seems respective Sovereigns in times of war to be and
other poems relating to the dead ; love to us to be the “Lullaby" of Valacrites a seriously called to account for their misdeeds songs and imaginative pieces ; farewells, to be most touching poem, which is beautifully but they were ruled with a strong hand by sung by, or addressed to, members of families translated in the varying metres of the original
. the Lord Warden of the March to which they migrating into distant countries; and some It is supposed to be sung by a widowed belonged. The Wardens of the Marches of poems which turn on historical incidents. mother, who, in her destitution, is in fear both countries were invested with great power This literature is spontaneous in its growth, lest she should be unable to nurse her infant and privileges, which made the office coveted and has been handed down by oral tradition child. Its length prevents us from quoting by nobles of the highest rank. They had among the people, the songs being usually it entire, and it ought not to be read piece- their own courts for trying offenders, and sung at festivals and on other special occasions.
meal. Among living poets, Aphentoules, maintained state almost regal in the royal The wide area over which many of them are Paraschos, and Drosines are represented; the castles within their jurisdiction. The chicfdispersed is a proof of their popularity; and following poem, entitled " The Wild Vine,” tain of a clan occupied a tower, or peel, strong some must be of considerable antiquity, as is by the last-named writer :
enough to resist a siege, and surrounded bř a they have been found to exist, with but slight “ The Wild Vine climbs aloft and at her side walled enclosure, called a barmkyn
, into modification, in the Greek colony which still
On earth the Bramble trails his thorny stems ; / which the cattle were driven at the approach remains in Corsica, though its founders emi
O'er him the Vine her branches throws to hide
of an enemy:
An Act of the Scottish Parliagrated from Greece two centuries ago and
The Bramble's thorns with her white pearly
ment passed in 1535 obliged "every their descendants have been cut off from He grovels now no more, nor rives each limb, man having £100 land" to build for the communication with the mother country. For his Wild Vine he lives, she blooms for him. defence of his tenants and their cattle ? From the time that Fauriel first introduced "I was a wastrel plant ere thou didst love me, barmkyn of at least sixty feet area, enclosed this popular Greek literature to the notice My precious Wild Vine, but when thou didst by a wall one ell thick
and six ells high. The of Western Europe, the process of col
towers were built on strong positions within lecting the ballads proceeded apace until
Thy branches o'er me, and to bloom above me in 1860 they were brought together into
Wert pleased, thy sweetness made me gentle view of each other, so that on occasion of
an English raid the whole country-side one volume by Arnold Passow, and critically And mated now are the unwonted pair, apprised by signals of the approach and edited, with the title Popularia Carmina With my uncomeliness thy beauty rare. strength of the invaders. Strict watch and Graeciae recentioris. It is from this work In the brief remarks which are appended, ward was ordered for the common safety to that Miss M'Pherson has chiefly collected both to the ballads and to the written poems, be kept hoth night and day in every Border her specimens ; but she has not neglected the translator shows a laudable acquaintance tower, and the laws of the Marches required, other sources, for since that time sup- with the literature of the subject, and with under a heavy penalty, that beacon-fire plementary collections have appeared, such the history and circumstances of Modern should always be ready for lighting in case of
the Cretan ballads published by Greece. In those cases where the composi- a night alarm. Jeannaraki, and those from Epirus, by tions refer to historical subjects, the events The Scottish Border was, before the union Aravantinos; and the number is being con- referred to are described ; and interesting of the two Crowns, divided into three distinct stantly increased by those that find their way notices of the various poets and of the char districts, which were called respectively
the into the Athens magazines. The twenty-two acteristics of their styles are prefixed to the East, Middle, and West Marches
. The East ballads which she has translated have been extracts from their works. Besides a fine March comprised the sheriffdom of Berwick
on-Tweed; but its history must be sought granted eventually to Sir William Douglas Border, but those who are already interested elsewhere, for this volume is confined to the by Edward III., as well as by his own in the subject by family associations will early history of the Middle and West Marches, Sovereign, and they remained in the posses- thank Mr, Armstrong for a useful book of which has been compiled by Mr. Robert Bruce sion of this powerful family until 1492, when reference. EDMOND CHESTER WATERS. Armstrong as a labour of love, on account of the fifth Earl of Angus and his son exchanged his ancestral connexion with Liddesdale and them for the barony of Bothwell. the Debateable Land. The Armstrongs were The West March comprised the baronies of Practical Essays. By Alexander Bain. one of the most numerous of the Border clans, Eskdale and Wauchopedale, as well as the
(Longmans.) and were so formidable in the sixteenth cen Debateable Land. The barony of Eskdale LIKE many other writers, Dr. Bain has had tury that Dr. Magnus, the English Resident, was granted by King David to Robert Avenel, some difficulty in selecting an appropriate wrote to James V. from Berwick on February who was a benefactor to Melrose Abbey, and title for a collection of miscellaneous articles 13, 1525-6 that “the Armestrongges of Lid-died a monk of that religious house. Four reprinted from periodicals. He cannot be dersdaill had avaunted thaymselves to be the successive generations of the Avenels were congratulated on the choice he has made, as destruction of twoe and fifty parisshe churches i lords of Eskdale, and were buried at Melrose ; the contents of several of these essays by nu in Scotteland," and that “they woolde not be but Sir Roger Avenel, who died in 1243, was means correspond to the anticipations which ordoured naither by the King of Scottes, thair the last of his race, and his only daughter the title of the volume will naturally suggest. soveraine lorde, nor by the King of Einglande, carried the barony to her husband, Henry de The first two papers, indeed (« Common but after suche maneras thaire faders had Graham. Their descendants still flourish at Errors on the Mind” and “Errors of Supused afore thayme.” They continued to set Netherby, in Eskdale Ward, on the English pressed Correlatires”), would not have been both Governments at defiance, until at last the side of the Border; but Sir Richard Graham, out of place if the collective title of the Scottish King plucked up courage to hang of Esk and Netherby, the Jacobite statesman essays had designated them as “Speculative" without trial as outlaws John Armstrong and who was created by James II. Viscount instead of “ Practical." his followers when he presented himself at Preston, was a Scottish and not an English Readers who are acquainted with the valuCourt on June 8, 1530, with “24 well- peer.
able work which Dr. Bain has done in the horsed gentlemen of his kindred." The Wauchopedale was from the twelfth to the field of psychological research will turn to peace of the Border, however, was dearly eighteenth century the barony of a still these two essays with keen interest. It is to purchased by these high-handed proceedings, greater family, for it was the earliest posses- be feared, however, that their expectations which were imputed to the King as a crime sion in Scotland of the great house of Lindsay. will be disappointed. Although these essays and a blunder committed at the dictation of Their castle stood on a rock overhanging the contain some excellent observations, they do the English. These gallant outlaws are in river Wauchope, half a mile from Langholm, not, on the whole, rise above an ordinary level, consequence remembered by their countrymen but it was reduced to ruins before the union and the paradoxes with which the author has as patriots and martyrs, and a stirring ballad of the two Crowns. The southern extremity attempted to relieve their dulness are neither has made their fate familiar to every peasant of Eskdale was occupied by Canonby Priory, brilliant nor true. Dr. Bain is laudably on the Border-side. The execution of the which was founded in the reign of King desirous that his readers should “ clear their Armstrongs ranks next to the Massacre of David by Turgot de Rossdale as a cell of minds of cant” in relation to moral questions. Glencoe among standing subjects of popular Jedburgh Abbey. The Prior of Canonby was But it seems to me that his recoil from certain execration. Dr. Armstrong, a well-known one of the peers of the Scottish Parliament ethical commonplaces has landed him in some poet in the last century, was a native of who in 1290 confirmed the Treaty of Salis- positions which are more radically mistaken Liddesdale, and a member of this same clan. bury, and later in the same year treated with than the most extreme forms of the doctrines
The Border counties are not mentioned in Edward I. for the marriage of his eldest son against which he protests. Domesday Book, because they were not within with the Maid of Norway. The nationality Dr. Bain is resolved to give no quarter to the dominions of the King of the English. of Canonby was a constant subject of dispute, what he considers the foolishly sentimental They formed part of the province of Cumbria, for the English contended that it formed part talk about “ virtue being its own reward.” which included the bishopries of Carlisle, of the Debateable Land, by which it was The maxim that happiness is most surely Glasgow, and Whitherne. Carlisle and the bounded on three sides; but it was eventually attained by not making it the chief object of lands between the Duddon and the Solway adjudged to Scotland, and, soon after the dis- endeavour, he treats as though its only (which are now known as Cumberland) were solution of monasteries, was acquired by the element of truth lay in the fact that excessive conquered and annexed to England by William Earl of Buccleueh, to whose descendants it self-serutiny is prejudicial to enjoyment. Rufus, but the rest of Cumbria was erected has ever since belonged,
There is no doubt that the propositions which into an earldom for David of Scotland by his The Debateable Land comprised the parish Dr. Bain impugns have often been exbrother, King Alexander, with the consent of of Kirkandrews with one half of Morton and aggerated into absurdity. It is not true that King Henry I, David, before his accession the greater part of Bryntallow, which were the intrinsic pleasure involved in right action to the Scottish throne, was, in right of his left undivided when the frontier was settled in always outweighs in amount its attendant wife, Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton, the reign of Robert Bruce. It was separated pains. Nor is it true that pleasures deliberand parcelled out his Border territory in from Cumberland by the river Esk from its ately sought can contribute little or nothing baronies among Norman knights who held junction with the Liddel until it poured its to the happiness of a life. But it is true lands under him in England. Liddesdale, the waters into the Solway Firth, and the fish that, in minds animated by a genuine love of chief barony of the Middle March, was granted garths which prevented salmon from ascending goodness, the thought of a right action is the to Ranulf de Soulis, the mesne lord of Great the stream were resented as a standing griev- source of a satisfaction which is not dependent Doddington, in Northamptonshire. The head ance by the inhabitants of Eskdale. Partition on any personal consequences to the agent ; of Ranulf's barony was Castleton, a fortress was made of the Debateable Land in 1552; and it is a fact of every-day experience that which he built on the east bank of the river but, as every reader of Redgauntlet will the happiest persons are, very often at least, Liddel, a little above its junction with the remember, the fish-garths continued to be the those whose absorbing interest in outward Hermitage Water; but in later times the cause of violence and contention long after the objects leaves them little leisure to think of lord of Liddesdale was constable of the royal union of the two kingdoms.
pleasure for its own sake. Dr. Bain's hostility castle of Hermitage. Ranulf's descendants Mr. Armstrong has collected from the to any association of virtue with pleasure is so were hereditary butlers of the Court of Scot- public records a detailed history of the Scottish extreme that he actually asserts that “beneland, and continued to hold this high office, Border from 1495 to 1530, and has supple- volence in itself is painful ; any virtue is together with the barony of Liddesdale, untilmented his text by a valuable Appendix of pain in the first instance, although when the reign of Robert Bruce, when William de proofs and authorities. It is inconvenient equally responded to it brings a surplus of Soulis was convicted of conspiracy against the enough that the Index is reserved for the next pleasure." The author is so delighted with King's life, was stripped of his possessions, volume, but it is unaccountable that the Table this discovery that he repeats it several times and died á prisoner in Dumbarton Castle of Contents should not include a list of the in nearly identical terms. Now there would During the wars of Edward II. and Edward documents printed as proofs. A more stir- be a certain degree of truth in Dr. Bain's III, Liddesdale and Hermitage Castle were in ring and spirited narrative would have created contention, if it related to beneficent actions the hands of the English; but they were a new interest in the eventful history of the done purely from a sense of duty; but to