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Gamgee.

Pinches and Ernest Budge.

16 froo

Mr. Paul Hunfalvy, in a polemic pamphlet on note the gloss tentorium : papilionem on p. 26. Latin name is correctly given as robor. Some A Székelyek” (1880), says :

In connexion with “moustache,” we find English names are merely borrowed from “ In the county of Zala, on the day after Christ- mustacia : granae on p. 15. The curious Old. Latin ; such as plum from prunus, poppy from mas Day-i.e., St. Stephen's Day-groups of lads English granae is not given in Ettmüller's papaver, gladen from gladiolus ; we find in (regösök) go round calling at every house and shout- Dictionary, but it is obviously cognate with the Glossary the old spellings plumae, popaeg ing * in the compliments of the season. They are especially well received at houses where there are

Icelandic grön, “the moustache; so that in (20), and gladine (24). Some names have unmarried daughters, as it is commonly believed this instance the Old-English obsolete word is been remarkably well preserved; thus the that the girl whose name is coupled with that of an clearly expounded to us by the Romance word Ruscus is still called * knee-holly," from unmarried man in the song will undoubtedly be which has superseded it.

its prickly appearance and stunted growth; married during the following carnival ; and hence the local sayings: 'Elregélték,' 'the young man

When we come to examine the words of compare ruscus : cnioholaen, p. 22. The very and girl;' or · Říregélték," the unmarried young native origin, we shall find it not without next gloss is ramnus : thebanthorn. Here man with some girl?– .e., the young folks may be profit to consider them in groups or classes thebanthorn is the Middle-English therethorn ; considered as engaged because their names were wherever this is practicable. For example, the Promptorium has : "Thethorne-tre, therecoupled together by the wandering singers on St.

we may consider the plant-names, and may thorne-tre, Ramnus." It is curious that HalStephen's Day."

W. HENRY JONES.

compare the lists here given with the plant- liwell, in noting this word, should have added

names in Wright's Vocabularies, especially as the remark that "ramnus is the medlar-tree," APPOINTMENTS FOR NEXT WEER.

reprinted in the very convenient book on for ramnus, or rather rhamnus, is certainly the

English Plant-Names by Prof. Earle. Among bnckthorn. But the Promptorium also has MONDAY, May 5, 4. p;mAsiatic : The She king for the more noticeable are the following ancient the entry: Theve, brusch”-i.e., brush

bpm. Royal Institution : General Monthly spellings of familiar names—viz., garlæc wood, as Mr. Way explains it; and the name 8p.m. Society of Arts : Cantor Lecture, "Some (garlic), haeguthorn (hay-thorn, hawthorn), was probably given to any rough and thorny Now Optical Instruments and Arrangements,” II., biouuyrt (bee-wort, apiastrum), dil (dill), bush. See Herrtage's note in the Catholicor

, 8p.m. Aristotelian? "An Analysis of Force,” | boecas (beech), on p. 1; mapuldur (maple- where he cites from the Medulla the entry

: TUESDAY, May 6, 3 p.m. Royal Institution : "The tree), holegn (holly), alaer (alder), saeppae Ramnus, a whyte thorne or a thepe-bushe." Physiology of Nerve and Muscle," I., by Prof. (sap-tree, fir-tree), geacaes surae (gowk's This we take to be certainly the origin of the

8p.m. Victoria Institute : " Prehistoric Man in sorrel, cuckoo-sorrel), uuegbradae (waybroad, curious Norfolk name for the gooseberry-tree Egypt and the Lebanon," by Vice-Chancellor Daw- usually corrupted to waybread—i.e., plantain), -viz., “ fea-berry tree;" the gooseberries

8 p.m. Biblical Archaeology: "New Texts in uuermod (wormwood), breer (brere, briar), themselves being called fapes, fabes, feabes, the Babylonian Character principally referring to hindberia (hind-berry, the Northern name for feapes, feabers, also thapes, thebes, &c.

.

raspberry), on p. 2. On p. 6, we find blitum : “Fea-berry" is for feabe-berry-.e., thebe8pm sivil Engineers: The Antiseptic Treat- clatae ; here clatae is the clote, of which the berry, f being a childish substitution for th, as

8.30 p.m. Zoological: "The Dentition of a literal sense is “ball.” The clote was a name when a child says for “through." a New Genus of Dendroclinotous Holothurians, and given to two distinct plants, but for a similar At any rate, this is a more probable solution its Bearing on the Classification of the Sub-order," reason. One of these was the burdock, so than Forby's singular suggestion that all the

by Prof. Jeffrey Bell. WEDNESDAY, May 7, 4.30 p.m. British Archaeological : named from the burs upon it; the other was above terms are corruptions of fea-berries," Annual Meeting: 8 p.m. Society of Arts : " Bicycles and Tri

the yellow water-lily, so named from the and that the etymology is from the Anglocycles," by Mr. C. V. Boys.

“ball” in the centre of the flower. It is in Saxon fean (sic), to rejoice, because " it is THURSDAY, May 8,3 p.m. Royal Institution : “Flame the former sense that it is used by Chaucer, one of the welcome first-fruits of the year,"

6 p.m, Hellenic Society: "A Tour among the as has been shown in the note to l. 577 of the or, in other words, from the rejoicing of Cyclades," by Mr.J. T. Bent. 8.p.m. Society of Arts : “Cupro-Ammonium

“ Canon's Yeoman's Tale” in the Clarendon young people who eat gooseberries. Forby's Solution and its use in Waterproofing Paper and Press edition; Halliwell has expressed the suggestion is

, moreover, somewhat impaired Eliminating the Effects of Polarisation and Earth been convinced that clote could mean a bur- invariably applied to the unripe fruit; for it

sp.m. Telegraph Engineers: A Method of contrary view, but he does not seem to have by his explanation that the term is almost with Supplementary Remarks and Illustrative Ex- dock, though this is perfectly evident from is not the universal experience that the eating periments by Mr. Latimer

Clark. 8 p.m. Mathematical : "Motion of a Network

the old vocabularies. On p. 7 we find uulfes of green gooseberries leads to joy. of Particles, with Some Analogies to Conjugate camb (wolf's comb), ribbae (lit. rib, but But, while speaking of gooseberries, let us

Function in bringen. Romihati subsidiary applied to hound's tongue), and hymblicae not neglect the important entry on D. 1% FRIDAY, May B. Civil Engineers - Students' (hemlock). Also aac (oak, mysteriously given col

. c, 1. 3—viz., pampinus : cros

. Here, Meeting, “The Electric Light," by Mr. A. R.

as a gloss to color, which would appear to be last, we have the long-sought origin of the 8p.m. New Shakspere Society: Musical Evening. 8p:m. Society of Arts: "Indigenous Education

an error for robor), haesil (hazel), cisirbeam word "goose-berry" itself, a matter which it in India," by Dr. Leitner.

(a curious error for ciris-beam-i.e., cherris- is worth while here to prove. The Dutch 8p.m. Quekett. Royal Institution : “ Mohammedan

beam, now cherry-tree), cuicbeam (quick-beam, doen, German thun, as compared with AngloMahdis," by Pror. W. Robertson Smith.

as a gloss to carisous), p. 8; aesc (ash), fearn Saxon dón, show that the Dutch oe and Discoveries in Roman Archaeology," n. comme (fern), finugl (Middle-English finkel, from German long u are equivalent to the AngloPalatine Hill, by Mr. H. M. Westropp.

Latin foeniculum, whence also the equivalent Saxon ó. The Dutch kruisbezie, formerly

word fennel), p. 9; segg (sedge), quiquae kroesbezie, and the German krausbeere, both SCIENCE.

(quick-grass, couch-grass), broom" (broom), mean goose-berry; and the German kraus is The Epinal Glossary; Latin and Old English. galluc (gallock, another name for comfrey), the Middle-High-German krus. Edited by H. Sweet. (Trübner.) p. 10; hunaegsugae (honeysuckle), p. 14"; syllable, in Anglo-Saxon, must have been Second Notice.)

apuldur (apple-tree), gearuuae (yarrow-i.e., crós, and its signification was “a curl,” not The chief point of interest presented to hoar-hound), p. 15; birciae (birch), p. 19; &c. reference being to the short crisp curling

milfoil), hunae (houn, now called hound or inaptly rendered by the Latin pampinus ; the students of English by this Glossary lies in There are other plant-names that offer more hairs upon the rougher kinds of the fruit. the fact that it exhibits so many examples of difficulty. Thus, on p. 13 e, we find lactuca : The Anglo-Saxon o in eros was, accordingls

, English words in their eighth-century spelling; pubistil. A trilingual glossary of the thirteenth long, and therefore became oo in Modern thus throwing much light upon their etym- century gives us andivia, letrun (French), English, just as gós is now goose. The goodology. But, before proceeding to notice these bugepistel (English). Cotgrave explaing French berry is, accordingly, a corruption of gronden more particularly, it is worth while remarking lettron by sow-thistle; whence it might at berry (cf. French groseille), which again stands that the Glossary also throws light upon many first seem likely that sow-thistle is a corruption for croose-berry, from the Anglo-Saxon crás

. words of Romance origin which subsequently of an older form thow-thistle. Yet this does I do not find any mention of this Anglofound their way into our language, as well as not appear to be the case, for we find in Saxon

word in Ettmüller, Leo, or Bosworth: not borrowed. In connexion, for example, distel, and in Danish svinetidsel , which clearly Kluge" allies German krause to German krolle

, with the Modern-English “ pavilion,” we may prove sow-thistle to be a legitimate name for so that the English "curl," which best • The word hadarni, or elhad:arni, really means

the plant. We may note here that, on p. 22, expresses crós, is from the same root. “ to speak very rapidly."

we find aac (oak) repeated, and this time the Another remarkable class of names is that

Sennett.

9 p.m.

The first

a

= Orn

а

of birds and insects. Of birds, we may notice of stal-k, which is an extended form. "Falces: The MS. has horn naap in two words; I think aenid, a duck (1), well known as the source uudubil, sigdi, riftr” (9); here uudu-bil is

horn is

ran, and naap = náp (from of English "drake;" hragra, a heron (2), wood-bill for chopping wood, and sigdi is a népan) sank down,” and Decurat a mistake for

Decurrit.

JULIUS ZUPITZA. | interesting as being cognate with the Old- scythe. The form sig-di is important, as it

High-German heigir, the original of Italian preserves the radical g (from the Teutonic aghir-one, Old-French hair-on, and our own root sage = SAK, to cut), which was early

SCIENCE NOTES. her-on (borrowed from French); chyae, a lost, the i being lengthened by compensation; THE Royal Geographical Society has decided chough, orauuae, a crow (8); ganot, a gannet, so that the usual Anglo-Saxon form is sithe, to appoint for one year an inspector to enquire finc, a finch (9); hrooc, a rook (10); hebuc, a later sithe, now mis-spelt “scythe" by a thoroughly into the state of geographical educahawk, sualuuae, a swallow (11); oslae, an strange perversity.

tion at home and on the Continent. In addition ousel (15); nectaegalae, a nightingale (22); Some of the glosses present much difficulty, to studying the best method of geographical staer

, a stare or starling, emer, an ammer, or and may perhaps await their solution for teaching-chiefly probably in Germany and yellow-ammer, without an h (23); throstlae, some time. As an example of a difficult pair Switzerland-he will be required to collect and a throstle, lauuercae, a lark, scrie, a shrike of glosses we will take the following, at the report upon the best text-books, maps, models,

and appliances. (27); and so on.

same time suggesting an explanation. On Among the insects we may notice briosa, p. 9 we find, in col. c, “famfaluca : leasung,

THE May number of the Journal of the breeze or gad-fly (p. 1); earuuigga, earwig (2); uel faam;" and in col. e, “famfaluca ? Anthropological Institute contains

several

valuable dora, dor, which is Norfolk for cockchafer uuapul." Here leasung is a lying story, a

papers by original observers, including

one by Mr. H. O. Forbes, the well-known (5); bitui, beetle (6); hnitu, nit (13); luus, lie; faam is foam ; wapul is an adjective from traveller and naturalist, descriptive of the louse, fleah, flea, buturfliogae, butterfly (20); a base wap, expressive of a boiling or bubbling natives of Timor, and another by Dr. Garson mygg, midge (24). Among fish, we find motion, whence was formed a verb wapelian, on certain skulls brought by Mr. Forbes from uuiluc, wilk or welk, which it is the fashion to bubble up, well preserved in the familiar the island of Timor-laut. African ethnology to mis-spell whelk (7); lear, lax—i.e., salmon Modern-English “wabble.” Somner records is represented by Mr. H. H. Johnston's paper (12); baers, barse, usually mis-spelt bass (13); wapul as a gloss to pompholic, and this gives on the peoples of the Congo region, while flooc, Aluke or flounder, styria, sturgeon (20); us the key. Famfaluca stands for the Greek Australia receives attention in Mr. Howitt's bering herring (23); smelt , smelt (24) pompholyga, accusative of pompholyx, a description of some curious ceremonies of initia

tion. We understand that Mr. Howitt, who Considering the present confusion of English bubble, a boss, knob, also slag or

has contributed so many excellent papers to the spelling, it is comforting to find occasional scoriae; further used by Pliny to denote a Anthropological Institute, is the son of William examples of words the spelling of which is substance deposited by the smoke of smelt- and Mary Howitt. This number of the Journal the same at this day as in the eighth cen- ing-surfaces. Thus the gloss “foam" is also contains Prof. Flower's presidential adtury; such words are malt, east, north, wind, not far wrong; the gloss wapul-i.e., bub- dress delivered at the anniversary meeting. hood, west (written uuest), broom, frost, bling—is also tolerably near; but thé gloss The death is announced of Don Eulogio storm, stream, brand, web (written uueb), and leasung can hardly be other than a metaphor. Jimenez, of the Observatory of Madrid. He elm. In many others the change has been We may also learn from this that Pliny was was one of the first mathematicians of Spain, only at the end, as locc, dros, steeli, goos, buce, probably one of the authors whom the glos- and author of La Teoria de los Numeros, and of bedd, hara, disc (dish), apa, sadol, cressae, rygi sator read, a fact which should be noted. We many educational works in arithmetic and (rye), with obvious meanings. It is not im- may further gather from

the use of the verb mathematics,

original and translated. probable that b, when medial or final, had the wapelian, to bubble up, clear notion of the sound of e, as in thebanthorn, thevethorn, curious Provincial-English potwabbleri.e.,

PHILOLOGY NOTES. gloob, glove, salb, salve. We will conclude pot-boiler (given by Halliwell). This word is The Council of the Philological Society have this notice with a few notes upon some in- also spelt potwaller, or potwalloper (see Web- resolved to recommend the anniversary meetteresting words. ster), presumably from weallan, to boil.

ing of the society on May 16 to elect Prince " Andeda : brandrad” (1); this is the We record our thanks to the Philological Louis-Lucien Bonaparte a vice-president of the Northern brandreth, a trevet. " Axedones : and Early-English Text Societies for producing society. The Prince's engagements obliged lynisas” (1); here lynis is a linse, as in this most interesting facsimile edition, and to him to decline the offer of the presidency. English linse-pin, corruptly “linch-pin.” Mr. Sweet for his care in editing it.

Mr. Henry Sweet will fill that post for the next "Armilausia: sercae" (1) gives us the

WALTER W. SKEAT. two years, and will probably be succeeded by origin of sark. Acega : holtbana (2);

Prof. Skeat. The society's new members of

council will be Mr. Henry Bradshaw, the Camhere holt-hana is a holt-cock, now called a woodcock.

bridge University librarian; the Rev. Prof.

CORRESPONDENCE. Alga: vaar" (2) shows us the

Kennedy, of Cambridge ; Dr. E. L. Lushingi The Thanet men (saith WÜLCKER'S EDITION OF WRIGHT'S

ton; and Mr. Peile, of Christ's College, CamSomer) "call it (sea-weed] wore, or woore,"

bridge. is quoted by Ray, who also gives the forms Berlin, S.W., Kleinbeerenstrasse, 7: April 27, 1884.

PROF. BIRT, of Marburg, is engaged on a waar and weir as being used in Northumber

In his new edition of Thomas Wright's new edition of Claudian for the “Monumenta “ Asfaltum : spaldr." (2); perhaps of the Corpus Glossary " is based on a colla: Mr. Haverfield are collating parts of the MSS. Vocabularies, Prof. Wülcker says that his text

Historiae Germaniae" series. Mr. Ellis and spaldr is merely an English attempt at pro- tion recently made by Prof. J. Zupitza.' nouncing “ asphalte ; in Maundeville's Being afraid that these words may lead bis Christi College, Cambridge, for him.

in the Bodleian and in the library of Corpus Trarels, p. 100, it appears as aspalt. “Ami- readers into a mistake as to the extent of my culo: hraecli" (2); a rail, or night-rail, is own responsibility, I beg to state that what I

PROF. HERBERT STRONG, of Melbourne Uninot uncommon in our old 'dramatists, and is lent to Prof. Wülcker in 1877 was not a colla-versity, who is now on a visit to this country, used by Massinger (see Nares' Glossary). tion of Wright's text with the MS., but a is engaged on a translation of Schleicher's "Actuaris : uuraec

(2) probably refers to transcript of the whole of the MS., Latin Geschichte der deutschen Sprache, with notes and the sea-weed known as bladder-wrack or sea- glosses and all

, so that the task of picking out ari additional chapter. Wrack. "Conuexum : hualb” (7); here hualb all the English words was entirely left to himis the word which at a later period was spelt more than the so-called “Interpretatio nominum self. I have not yet found time to go through

MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. herealf, and is the source of Middle-English ebraicorum et grecorum, out of which Prof.

ROYAL Asiatic Society.-(Monday, April 21.) overhwelren and Modern-English “over- Wülcker has added four more English glosses to Sir F. Goldsmid in the Chair.—Mr. F. V. Dickins whelm ;” the Provincial-English whemmle the twenty-three printed already by Wright. read extracts from a translation of the roll of the means to turn a hollow vessel, such as a But, leaving a few doubtful cases out of the ques- Shinten Doji

, a famous Japanese outlaw of the tenth basin, upside down, thus presenting a convex tion, I find there are five more in my transcript century: The roll, which was exhibited, consisted surface, and the Provincial-English whelver of the InterpretatioGucila snithstreo; Lancola of six - Makimous," or scrolls, and was finely caliin Halliwell) means a large round hat, from cellae ; Sicini ac dus; Trilex trili; 'Vertellum graphed and illuminated, the principal scenes of the its convex shape.

somewhat gruesome story being brilliantly depicted. Sicini is a mistake for the interrogative Mr. Dickins ascribed it to the early days of the “Caulem : stela” (?); Sicine, uerua the West-Saxon hweorfa. By-the- Tokugawa dynasty, and believed it to be the work here stela is the Provincial-English stele, way, Prof. Wilcker's Clebulum is a misprint for either of a Buddhist monk or of artists maintained generally used in the sense of “handle,” and Glebulum in the MS., and this a corruption of in the household of some feudal or vassal baron of applied to a broomstick, but here in the sense Cribellum. But what is “ Decurat hornnaap”? the Shogun. The story, which was a version of one

Kentish wore.

VOCABULARIES.

land.

of the chief exploits of the traditional hero Go inferior equally with the better work of the poet. ing's is but a gleam of mirth playing over waters rimitsu or Raiko, presented the usual features of Occasionally Browning is whirled away by the very of misery too deep to be sounded. Agony and such tales, whether told in the Far East or the sweep and torrent of his own abundance; but, pathos may be too intense to admit of direct es. West, but possessed a special interest in the curious making all deductions, no poet has given us greater pression-excessive grief at times can only knd mixture is displayed of the scholarly sweetness variety or shown more originality. Browning stays vent iu bitter jest, as in Hamlet. We see the same characteristic of the Chinese style, and the some- by a man; he is not a fashion, not a whim; he in Beethoven's work : the hushed pianissimo is what overdone ferocity equally characteristic of does not belong to a period of a man's life. If more impressive than the height of the crescendo the literary productions of old Japan. The whole it be complained that he makes us think too much, which preceded it. It may be doubted if any poet is cast in a Buddhist mould, and permeated by an is that a highly valid objection? But, more than ever seized the shot-silk hues of the tragi-comedy under-current of Shintuism.

anything else, what justifies Browning's claim to of existence, or reached a deeper note of scorn at

--not mere admiration, but something deeper—is the bitter irony of fate. Turning to the immediate ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE.—(Tuesday, April 22.) his strength, the abiding feeling that he is a mas- subject of the paper, the writer said that Shak. Prof. Flower, President, in the Chair.-The Pre- culine, a virile poet. Browning is sometimes said spere had not treated his Caliban with much sident, in welcoming the members to their new

to be wanting in music, but he is as musical at complexity or subtlety. Physical form apart, he is quarters, gave an outline of the history of the In- times as any other poet, he never

confuses music made little more than a depraved, brutish

, and stitute and of the eminent men who have presided and poetry, as a sculptor will sometimes confuse malicious man; his deeper nature and ultimate over it. The Ethnological Society, founded in the provinces of painting and sculpture by giving motives and ideas do not find expression in 1843, and the Anthropological Society twenty years

a bas-relief--properly the link between the two “The Tempest." This deficiency has been later, were united in 1871 under the title The An- arts--the cffects of a picture, sacrificing severity supplied by Browning's magnificent grotesque

. thropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. and simplicity. Browning has besides helped many Our best grotesques belong to the art of the -The Marquis of Lorne sent to express his regret found importance

to the human race. -A paper by tendency is to broad farce or delicate comedy, to

to simplify their minds on certain subjects of pro- Oriental and mediaeval sculptors; in literature the at his inability to attend; he exhibited a large collection of North American objects, including a

Mr. J. Cotter Morison, upon "Caliban on Setebos, which the grotesque is not necessary. Browning scalp taken last summer.—The veteran of science, his remarks by one or two observations on the sharp in outline as if by " Claus of Innsbruck cast

was read by Mr. Furnivall. Mr. Morison prefaced has produced a grotesque in language as solid and portrait of an aboriginal Tasmavian. The paper general character of. Browning's poetry. The in bronze for me." The second title of the poem, was illustrated with two busts and several portraits very fact that the society existed, had thriven for “Natural Theology in the Island," marks clearly belonging to the Institute.-Prof. A. H. Keane

some years, and was now stronger than ever is enough the writer's intention. It is to describe, in then read a paper on the ethnology of the Egyptian sufficient proof that its members at least consider a dramatic monologue, the Natural TheologySoudan, which was described as a region of extreme commentary and reflection on Browning's works that is, the conception of God likely, or rather complexity-a converging point of all the great nt misplaced ; that they think him not one of certain, to occur to such a being as Caliban. And races of the African continent, except the Hotten- those writers who disclose their full meaning to the moral conveyed is plainly this : If Caliban, by tots and Bushmen. Although official documents, contrary, a poet of such depth and volume, so consciousness, feelings and instincts, such as

the first reader at the first perusal, but, on the appropriate reasoning, deduces, from his inter for 1883, recognised only two main divisions, charged with hidden

and complex beauties, that, by grotesque, laughably hideous theology as you see Arab and Negro," it was shown that here were re

the hasty reading now so common, an indefinite here, what right have philosophers of another order presented the Hamites, Semites, Nubians, Negroes, looked. He had found the Browning Society a help success or foundation? The writer did not approre

amount of his supreme quality may readily be over- to suppose that their deductions have any betta the Tibbu, in Dar-Fur, and the Ethiopians, stretch- and stimulus in the study of Browning's writings, of the attempt to turn Browning's works into an ing east of the Nile, without interruption, from and would fain repay a portion of the debt. It is arsenal of Agnostic argument. It is not the poet's Egypt to the Equator, and including the Galli admitted that the proper object

of the poet is the business to lead us to intellectual conclusions

, and Somali south of Abyssinia, various tribes presentation of the Beautiful; but beauty admits which very inferior men can do as well as be, but between Abyssinia and the coast, and the Bejas, of almost infinite degrees from the lowest stage of to give us living realities, creations organic and who occupied the greater part of the Nubian desert trivial prettiness up to the loftiest pinnacles of the vital, which take their place amid the woršs between Abyssinia and Egypt. The Bejas, whose sublime, and the degrees of development in the of nature as independent existences. But are we very existence was ignored by our officials, and sense of beauty among men vary to an equal ex- therefore called upon to ignore the poet's obvious who were universally confounded by newspaper tent. In some it reaches a taste for portraits of meaning in a given instance or poem? The truth correspondents with the Arabs, were the true abori: race- horses and photographs of pretty actresses is, that * Caliban on Setebos” is an indirect yet ginal element in the country between Berber and for dance-tunes and easy ballads--and is merely scathing satire of a rather painful class of reasoners Suakin, where they recently came into collision with rudimentary ; such persons are impatient of the who, beginning with the admission that the nature the British forces.

claims of Raphael, Tintoret, or Turner, and think of the Godhead is an inscrutable mystery, proced the partisans of Beethoven and Wagner hypo- to write long books to prove their special and

crites and “ Browning Society.-(Friday, April 25.)

superior persons." So in poetry. minute knowledge of its character, which knof.

Some people, not insignificant in number, do not ledge of theirs you must not contradict or deny The Hon. J. Russell LOWELL, in the Chair.-- The care for poetry at all; but in these days of “cul. under penalties. Very well, the poet seems to say, Chairman said that he did not come because ture" the confession is rarely made. There is you think Caliban's conception unlovely ; what he felt that for himself a Browning Society was nothing criminal in the want, but surely a great surety can you offer that yours may not be equally needful to the understanding of Browning's works, loss. Low in the scale, but higher than the others, repulsive to other beings who may be as much but to express a debt of gratitude which had gone are those who like a story and tolerate the rhyming superior to you as you are to Caliban ? Nay, that on increasing for now more than forty years. In for the sake of the canters in the metre which beat it is not as repulsive to many of your fellow-men, 1848 Browning said that his public was small, but through the polka and the schottische. But these who, by reason of different education and studies, he himself has demonstrated that recognition cannot tolerate a great poet; they find him “ob- do not share your opinions? The opening of the was not needed to enforce his native vigour; scure,” for they are short-sighted, and large and poem shows finely the bestial, or rather nonfor, in spite of indifference, he has gone on con- lofty beauty is hidden from them. This immense human, character of Caliban. He gives a good es. stantly producing, and deepening the impression class resisted as long as possible the recognition of ample

to some other writers on Natural Theology

, which he has made on all thinking men. So far Shelley, Keats, Coleridge, and Wordsworth, while by getting quickly to his subject, and by avoiding as he had followed the proceedings of the society, they were obstreperous in applauding the brassy prolixity. The passage about the clay.bird is a it seemed to him that less than due stress had been resonance of Byron and the rocking sing-song of terrible one-it cuts to the bone ; and even more inIaid upon the dramas, which he thought the most Moore. "Laras” and “Corsairs" gained more cisive is that which follows about the crabs, important series of poems Browning had produced. recognition in a few months than Keats has gained Having in these shown how Setebos has made all Throughout these he never paints from actual fact, in half a century for his odes “To a Nightingale" things, not for themselves or their welfare, but in but from his idealisation of the fact. The char- and "To a Grecian Urn.” It is not denied by regard for his own exceeding power and glory

, acters are idealisations, elevated, as in a drama Browning's admirers that he is obscure--to those Caliban proceeds to show how capricious his Deity they ought to be, to an ideal plane. There is a ten- who have not the means of understanding him. is, with a most untheologian-like candour, for be dency in them all in favour of high-mindedness, of He takes no pains to write down to the meanest calls Setebos' cruelty, not mercy, but, bluntly, greatness of soul, of self-sacrifice and devotion, capacity or to select subjects which admit of it. “spite.” He believes his god envious, and hopes which is very striking, and they leave the mind But that he is obscure to the gaze of reverent to deceive bim - Wherefore [Caliban) mainly ennobled after the reading of them. It is objected and patient study we peremptorily deny. Not dances on dark nights”-a touch of marvellously to Browning that he has no form. Does form mean only do we always find a meaning, but mostly fine irony. He has the fullest faith in sacrifice and finish? and, if finish, the finish of single lines, find it expressed with almost unprecedented

force mortification

as a means of appeasing Setebos ; amit that larger unity which makes a theoretical unity which puzzle some of his critics, and which are out, we honestly pity poor Caliban, whose theologi of the piece possessing it? Men who have most found admirable by others—his subtlety and is a torment to him. Nature is hard, harsh, and discussed form have not always been successful in humour. His subtlety is not mechanical like destructive, but not cruel and spiteful; Setebos is: producing it-Goethe, for instance, whose “Faust” surely is form-less. But if "form" means the and it extends beyond his language, penetrating immortal ; but a sudden thunderstorm shatters production of that which stimulates and reinforces and fashioning his thought. This microscopic this mood of hopeful scepticism to pieces

, and thought by powerful emotions, the subsidence of power is not popular; and, when interwoven with

and believing that it comes

of his gibes reported by which leaves the thoughts as a key of life and a rule expanded by Browning's gift of humour,

matters " His raven who tells him all," he crouches suid truer examples of it than Browning. But it would stand are apt to think the joke directed against gibes. The closing passage is magnificent, and be unfortunate if we were led by admiration to themselves, and this may account for much

of the nowhere, perhaps, out of Beethoven's or Wag: be indiscriminate, and insist on people liking the resentful criticism. Like all grand humour, Brown. ner's music is there to be found a more daring, superb, and startling modulation than with all other students, recognises a truly rather, Thüre (Dürer used a pair of doors” in the break at the last four lines. There fol-original worker, one “the compass and readi- | for his seal), is the Magyar Ajtó. Now, the lowed a discussion, in which Mr. Furnivall, Mr. Moncure Conway, Mr. Barnett Smith, Dr.

ness of whose memory of forms have for those painter, in his own diary, tells us that his Berdo, Mr. Revall, and others took part. 'Most whọ labour with him on the same lines some- father came from

a village named Eytas, of the speakers repudiated the idea suggested in thing terrible, almost disheartening:" The not far from Gyula, eight miles below Grossthe paper that the poem was intended as a satire conclusions announced by "Lermolieff” have, wardein,” in Hungary. This does not prove Setebos was the Patagoniau god or demon, and apparently in every case, been accepted by that he was not the son of a German colonist contrasted, in some detail, the conception of Thausing, and he devotes more than one of there.

Recently, however, it has been Caliban in Shakspere and Browning respectively. these essays to giving wider currency to cer- discovered that near Gyula are the ruins

tain of them. Needless to say, the poor of the castle of the ancient noble Hun

" Venice Sketch-Book” is relegated to the garian family Ajtós, and the probability FINE ART.

subordinate position which it is destined here that Dürer was descended from a member GREAT SALE of PICTURES, at redaced prices (Engravings. Chromos; after to occupy. The Dresden “Reading of this family is greatly increased. Two bould passivist. Very suitable for wedding and Christmas presents. Magdalen” has to descend from her Correg- essays are consecrated to the notable sketch, 115, ,

giesque throne and take up her position in book of Jaques Callot, which is among the

the ranks of her lowland companions. Gior- recent acquisitions of the collection over Wiener Kunstbriefe. Von M. Thausing. (Leip- gione, on the other hand, is raised to the high which our author keeps guard; in one of zig: Seemann.)

place which henceforward must be his by them he admits us to a share of the littleTo all students of the history of art the undisputed right; and he is duly accredited, realised, but most keen, anxieties which tear Director of the famous Albertina Collection at not only with the “Sleeping Venus” at to pieces the slumbers of museum directors Vienna has long been known as an investigator Dresden, but with one, and perhaps two, when the question of securing a peculiar of extraordinary, perseverance and power. pictures in the Eszterhazy Gallery in Pest. treasure, the question whether it be a treaWith the majority his title to fame has For Thausing, in accepting the method and sure at all, is undecided. In the article on mainly rested upon his work in connexion conclusions of the Italian Senator, has done so Sodoma, and in those on Lionardo da Vinci, with Albrecht Dürer; but those who pursue in no cold and formal manner; he has taken we breathe a more peaceful atmosphere; and their studies into the columns of the daily and them to himself as living principles, and in the accounts of a journey down the Danube, monthly periodical literature of Germany him they promise to produce a rich harvest. and the visits to the Eszterhazy Gallery have learnt to watch for every article from He will probably not be disposed to quarrel which followed it, are all full of matters of the pen of the Viennese Professor, confident with us if we say that the very style of his interest, brought forward with a variety and that it will contain matter of more than writing has not been uninfluenced by that of a freshness that leave the reader always ordinary weight and interest. The publica-" Ivan Lermolieff.” Nevertheless, his own unfatigued.

W. M. Conway. tion of this collected series of essays upon individuality is not in the least suppressed. various topics connected with art will, it is to He has come in contact, as so many others be hoped, bring a larger number of foreign have done, with a new spirit; only he has THE ROYAL INSTITUTE OF PAINTERS readers into contact with the learned author. known, more than most, how to draw increased

IN WATER-COLOURS. The subjects dealt with are very various, power from the new source, and himself to This second show of the Institute in the fine but they are all handled with the same advance with renewed energy along his own new rooms is a more crucial test of the great firm and skilful touch. The student of lines. Makart and many another of the and generous change they have made than the German scientific-artistic literature is wont to popular artists of Vienna have long held the first. In opening their exhibition to all comers be wearied with discussions of interminable name of Thausing in horror; the publication of they were pretty

well assured that the curiosity length upon points of detail; his complaint is this volume is not likely to bring comfort to the which attends novelty would help them largely, that the German mind usually fails to impart soul of the painter of the “ Entry of Charles V. unusual exertion in order that the experiment a human interest to the matters with which into Antwerp.” As we learn from the might not fail from any effort on his part. it concerns itself, but casts the atmosphere of “ Open letter to the Bügermeister of Vienna," The result, as we know, exceeded the most the dissecting-room eren about the loveliest the Keeper of the Albertina holds the singular sanguine expectations. But this year much of creations produced for the gladdening of the opinion that a painter of historical pictures the novelty and enthusiasm of the moment has heart. With Prof. Thausing there is nothing should have by his side a competent his

worn off, and members as a rule have scarcely of this. He breathes the air of the joyous torian, whose advice and direction it should exerted themselves more than was their custom Austrian capital; and in every sentence, be his business to follow in all matters that fore be viewed as a fair example of what we may nervous, terse, and trenchant, the author's come within his ken. Artists at Vienna, and expect in the future. That it is an astonishing living interest and whole-hearted enthusiasm perhaps elsewhere, may be surprised to learn exhibition can scarcely be maintained, that it find unconscious expression. On the other that such men as Ghiberti, Perugino, and contains any one work of supreme achievement hand, let not the reader imagine that our Raphael were not ashamed to place them. I dare not assert, but that its average level is Professor is one whit less thorough than any selves under the guidance of scholars. The satisfactory may easily be granted ; and there of his dryer contemporaries. It is his general public at present thinks otherwise, can remain little doubt that, in throwing open thoroughness that enables him to handle with and the historian is left to laugh in his corner

their galleries to all comers, the Institute acted ease matters of greatest complexity. It is over the absurd productions of contemporary wished that the two societies would amalga

not only well, but wisely. It is still to be hardly necessary to

say

that such a man, when art of the historical kind. Students of social mate, so that we might have one exhibition he has come to a definite conclusion, holds his history at the period of the Reformation, for each year which would authoritatively represent opinions strongly and expresses them plainly. instance, have recently given vent to much the state and progress of our most national art. Thus it was long the custom, not in Germany unholy chuckling over the publications in The separation was always to be regretted from alone, to entrust the keeping of picture connexion with the Luther commemoration. a public point of view. It was unpleasant to galleries and museums to the charge of retired, Among other subjects discussed in these think of rivalry, and especially a rivalry which no doubt deserving, but often unsuccessful, essays, the so-called "Giant's Portal” of the generated no emulation ; and if no rivalry

existed, the

of division was less artists. Into their hands, moreover, came a cathedral at Vienna gives occasion for some

obvious. Still, at that time both exhibitions good deal of the current criticism ; and they wholesome remarks upon the “ restoration"

were so small that it was but a small tax to tooded Europe with inaccurate Catalogues disease-Phyllo.cera renovatrix. Akin to this visit both, and few could grumble at the and ignorant opinions. Against the retired is the question of modern forged drawings, journey from one part of Pall Mall to another. artist, as museum director and art critic, prints, and the like with which the unwary it is different now when the number of the Thausing nourishes an implacable enmity, to are still continually deceived. The Professor pictures at the Institute reaches to over which from time to time he gives humorous gives an interesting account of certain in- thousand. To the public generally the work of expression. On the other hand, the whole of stances which have come under his own “outsiders ”- the future, we may say, of English his sympathy, personal and literary, goes out notice at different times. In dealing with will find neither leisure nor inclination to towards his " lieben Freunde und Bruder in the question, "Was Dürer's father, a Hun enjoy the three or four hundred drawings in Rafael, Giovanni Morelli,” to whom the garian ?" he is on ground which he has made Pall Mall after so full a feast as the Institute volume is dedicated. In him he, in common peculiirly his own. The name Dürer, or, provides-especially at this time of the year,

reason

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9

DISCOVERY OF THE NECROPOLIS OF TANIS.

when the Royal Academy and the Grosvenor very complicated scheme of light; and “A EGPYT EXPLORATION FUND, are about to open their doors. The interests of Summer Breeze is distinguished by similar the public, of this noble and specially English merits, and sets its little domestic drama well art, and perhaps of both societies seem alike upon the stage. Still cleaving to his pathetic In discovering the site of the necropolis of to demand the fusion of the two bodies who pictures of fisher life in Cornwall and to bis Tanis Mr. W. Flinders Petrie has probably together, and together only, fully represent the broad and original method, Mr. Walter Langley made the most important “ find” which Säni highest level of water-colour art in England. seems to be steadily advancing to mastery, yet held in store for the explorer. Mariette

As might perhaps have been expected, the growing still larger in design and more secure discovered some graves within the city premembers have not repeated their extraordinary in execution. All his drawings this year are cincts; but the great necropolis proves to hare efforts of last year. Mr. J. D. Linton, now the admirable, from the large and noble scene been extra-mural. Mr. Petrie describes it as President of the Institute, sends only one small in a Cornish fishing village, “Among the “of considerable size ;” and it is as crowded

, drawing—"Priscilla" (613), which, notwith- Missing”. (275), to his study of an old woman apparently, as a London graveyard, for the standing a good deal of beautiful work (the (423). It is perhaps a matter of congratula- upper stratum of interment lies quite near the sheepskin cover of the book and the chamois tion that he has found a new old woman, even surface. This, of course, has been much pouch, for instance), is not the most attractive if not of so fine a type as that we know so pillaged by the Arabs, but it is hoped that the of his studies of this kind; and Mr. E. J. well. Near this fine head, and a larger more ancient and valuable sepulchres have Gregory's contributions, if masterly, are small

. drawing by Mr. Langley, in which an old man escaped. The locality is secluded and difficult One, under the name of “A Look at the is reading the paper, are two similar subjects of access, and was quite unknown to Mariette. Model,” is a capital portrait of the artist. by Mr. Arthur Stocks ; but these and his pretty The extensive trenching of the last few weeks Such clever figure painters as Mr. Seymour “Little Rosy-cheeks” (302), and all Mr. has brought to light a large number of ancient Lucas, Mr. Charles Green, and Mr. Abbey are Bale's refined and beautiful work, and much dwelling-houses, chiefly of Ptolemaic and represented by one work only, and the same is else that is pretty, and clever, and praise- Roman date, erected against and upon the true of one of the best landscape painters, Mr. worthy-even Mr. Passini's brilliant "Pas- gigantic temenos-wall of Pisebkhanu, which Thomas Collier. In the latter case the drawing seggio”—must be passed by. The drawings we extends round three sides of the great temple, (427) is so fine in quality and so rich and varied have named are sufficient to show how much and is eighty feet in thickness. One of the à composition that, like the same artist's skilful and healthy work, both humorous and most recent discoveries reported by Mr. Petrie picture last year, to which it seems to be the pathetic, this exhibition can boast - work in this part of the ruins is of a small Graecofellow, it may well stand alone as a sufficient honest, kindly, and genuine, national and Egyptian shrine, or chapel, occupying a crudproof of skill scarcely to be equalled in its way vital, borrowing more from human nature than form recess of brickwork, which had been by any other artist of this generation. Mr. from the upholsterer, from real life than from walled up possibly at the death of its founder. Charles Green's "Tom Pinch and Ruth " (458) the stage.

The upper end, or place of honour, was adorned is also worthy of the painter-a good illustration In work of a more spiritual and imaginative with a large tablet flanked by two androof the famous pudding scene, and technically order there is less movement and less success. sphinxes, the tablet measuring three feet and a of very high merit. Admirable in design and Mr. Stock is as noble in aim as ever, and Mr. half in height by twenty inches in width, very pure in feeling is Mr. Abbey's “Bible George Wilson in “Summer and the Winds” and the sphinxes being eighteen inches high by Reading," the most important drawing we have is delicate in colour and graceful (if we may be twenty-nine in length. The top of the seen of his, eloquent of the simplicity and piety allowed the paradox) after an awkward fashion; tablet is rounded, and the subject is surmounted of a Puritan household, composed of serious old and the measure of their success is much greater by the usual winged globe and a short inscripladies and sweet young women of that fresh than that of Mr. Spencer Stanhope, whose tion, below which are seen Ptolemy Philiand healthy but withal refined and gentle type dream of “Love's Peril” is surely the poorest delphus, and Arsinoë, in long Greek robes

, worwhich, mainly through him and Mr. Boughton, realisation of the poorest dream that ever vexed shipping Khem, Horus, and Buto. Two we have learnt to associate with the first settlers a poet's slumber. Under the head of poetic horizontal and three vertical columns of in New England. In this popular class of art, painting may be classed Mrs. Stillman's " Luisa hieroglyphed inscriptions fill the spaces abore which may be called dramatic genre, this ex- Strozzi” (823). Portrait or not, it has a dis- and between the heads of the deities. Ptolemy hibition, if not rich, has several examples of tinction of design and a richness of colour has two cartouches, and a small winged globe sterling value. Mr. Frank Dadd has made which separate it from prose life. So separated, hovers over his head. Arsinoë, crowned with considerable advance in the quality of his work, as the poems of Mr. Dobson are separated, are the plumes, horns, and disk of Hathor, is preand shows, as usual, humour of a refined sort. the refined drawings of Mr. Fulleylove and Mr. ceded by one cartouche. The whole of this In the “ Victim of Fashion” (475) we see a Elgood. In a domain somewhere between fancy tableau was originally gilded, and beneath it black poodle submitting with the trembling and reality, these artists have found a new and comes a pattern of striped red and blue. The protest characteristic of his tribe to the hands delightful exercise for their taste and skill. bottom of the tablet is blank. Five other of a barber, who is developing a moustache_by This year they fairly touch poetry of the stelae were attached to the walls of the two sidethe negative process of shaving his nose. The pleasantest if not the deepest kind; and in many recesses-namely, a small rough tablet of a dogs, for he has to undergo the operation in charming drawings full of sunshine and deceased person (who may have been the public, are all well studied and life-like. Mr. sweet colour they show us the terraced founder of the chapel) with a demotic inscripDadd paints in a light, silvery key, with strong gardens and clipped alleys, the little fishponds tion; two small votive tablets to Apis

, with masses of local colour, and his chief fault as a and stately fountains, the level swards and bas-relief representations of the sacred bull

; painter is that he has not always known how flowery borders, in which our fathers delighted. a sculptured tablet representing a king adoring to keep these in subjection to the prevailing It is with regret that I find myself compelled Khem, Horus, Isis, and Buto; and a very well tone. There is something of this defect in this to contract within very narrow space what I executed tablet, of Graeco-Egyptian style

, meaclever drawing, but it is altogether absent in his have to say about the large and varied collection suring fourteen inches by seventeen, with full"Pigtails and Powder” (370), which, origin- of pure landscape. This must either be said in lengtå figures of Ptolemy and Arsinoë in Egypality of design and happy humour considered, many or in very few words. Of such well- tian costume standing face to face; he wearing is perhaps the greatest success of the exhibition, known artists as the Hines and Mr. Wimperis, the Pschent, and she a head-dress composed of Another drawing showing even a more decided Mr. Whymper and Mr. Hargitt, Mr. Frank the helmet of Neith and the plumes and disk advance over previous work is Mr. T. Walter Walton and Mr. Alfred Parsons, can more be of Hathor. The king's left hand, uplifted, Wilson's portrait of the President (22). Mr. said, without a lengthy treatise, than that they grasps an object which apparently represents : J. D. Linton is represented in his studio are above, or below, or on the level of their thunderbolt, but the most curious pöint about painting his Academy picture. The portrait (a usual mark? The task of discriminating justly this stela is the fact that Arsinoë, as well as small full-length) is a characteristic likeness, between the works of younger men cannot be Ptolemy, has two cartouches, thus reproducing and the heterogeneous “ still life” of the studio undertaken in our space. I must therefore be the most novel and remarkable feature in the is painted with great skill and care. In this content to say that, if there is nothing very new great “Stone of Pithom” discovered last year work the artist seems to have entirely got rid or very striking, there is plenty that worthily sup- by M. Naville at Tell-el-Maskhutah. A of that somewhat patchy manner and garish ports the traditions of the school. Of Mr. Thomas statuette of

a king twenty-two inches in colour which interfered with the due enjoy-Collier's fine drawing I have already spok height; the upper half of a tablet dedicated ment of the many good qualities of his last and there is an unusually large and fine disp: in memory of a “royal child,” whose name, as year's work. An artist less known to fame of the skill of Mr. H. G. Hine. This, like th: imperfectly shown in a small photograph, than those already mentioned, Mr. H. R. T. of Mr. Syer, seems to wax rather than wane as seems to be Heri-Amen; two stone crowns: Steer, bids fair to rival the best of them. If years roll on. Mr. Orrock in one or two of his and a foot of a Greek'statue complete the the red coat of his " Captain Absolute(677) smaller drawings seems to me to have gone catalogue of this interesting trouvaille. The has somewhat blinded his eyes, it is an accident beyond his usual best, and, in a very fine draw- sphinxes are similar

in style and treatment

to likely to be often repeated. Nothing spoils raises the hope that he will after all justify the avenue leading to the Serapeum at Sakkarab; the harmony of “An Interesting Volume,” in promise of his earlier work.

but the faces are of a soft Asiatic type. which the artist has treated with great skill a

Cosmo MONKHOUSE.

Among miscellaneous objects of various kinds

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