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of the classics of of MSS. of the Holy may notice one or two other points. I fancy few elaborate History of English Criminal Lave, Scriptures. The Altst glance that showed a persons can read in the recital of the Institu- while contrasting it with the Roman, GerChurch Service-book (if it did not happen to tion, as it now appears in the Liturgy of St. man, and French systems, makes only a be a Lectionary) was doubtless in scores of in- Chrysostom, the words tô Vukti i mapedidoro, casual, and that a misleading, reference to stances followed by the immediate replacing Matlov Sè avtòy rapedidov without feeling the criminal procedure of a country under the of the volume on the shelf. We may hope that the four concluding words, thus added, same Crown and within a day's journey of for better times; and when, not travellers and as one might at first sight think, by way of London. Yet it may be safely anticipated that plunderers from the West, but the native emendation, ill accord in this position with if England adopts a system of public prosecuclergy begin to take an interest in the subject, the solemn devotional formula in which tion it will be, not, indeed, the same, but we may confidently look for important results. they occur.

And on

a reference to the more like the Irish or the Scottish than Bryennius cannot long stand quite alone, or Barberini MS. we find the words ran simply either the German or the French plans ; and leave no successor.

Vukti Ō Tapedidov éautóv; nor does the Pauline the former would have been more fruitful Dr. Swainson's handsome volume contains form appear in the Rossano MS. of Chrysostom, subjects of comparison. The other circum-1) The Liturgy of Alexandria, exhibiting, but we find it and the earlier liturgical form stance to which we allude is the recent in four parallel columns, the text of the combined, as at present, in the eleventh movement in Scotland for a fuller repreCod. Rossanensis (saec. xi.); a Vatican Roll century MS. of the Baroness Burdett-Coutts. sentation of its interests in Parliament and (saec. xiii.); and in parts the Canon Univer- We might have fancied that the scriptural form the Government. The discussion to which salis Aethiopum, Coptic St. Basil, and Coptic was first in the Liturgies and the others this movement has given rise has necesSt. Cyril, printed in the Latin of Renaudot, subsequently added; but facts, as shown in sarily led to an examination of the political together with fragments from the Messina the Barberini Basil and Barberini Chrysostom, functions of the Lord Advocates — a subRoll (saec. xii.). And here we may refer to so far as our present information goes, make ject imperfectly understood from the absence the fact that there is an Appendix with the the other way. It is no doubt conceivable that of accurate historical information. On both Coptic text of the Ordinary Canon from two the liturgist's correction of the words of St. topics Mr. Omond's work throws much light

. Magdala MSS. (of the seventeenth and Paul came, in the type represented by this MS., In a series of well-written Lives of the Lords eighteenth centuries) in the British Museum, to be substituted for them ; but, if so, it took Advocate—from Ross of Montgrennan, who edited and translated by Dr. Bezold. (2) The place before the curtain lifts upon the formed first held the office in the fifteenth century

, Liturgy of St. Basil from the Barberini MS. Liturgies. This last supposition will find to Jeffrey, the Edinburgh Reviewer—it shows (saec. viii.) and a Roll in the British Museum support if we can accept the text of the how the criminal law has been practically (saec. xii.). (3) The Liturgy of St. Chry- Liturgy of St. James, as we possess it in its administered, and what part the Lord Adro. sostom from the Barberini and Rossano MSS. earliest form, as the basis upon which St. cate has taken in the general government of (4) The Liturgy of the Presanctified from Basil worked. The willingness of the Saviour's Scotland. Chrysostom from an eleventh-century ms: I notice, as interesting, that in the words of been clearly traced, but Mr. Omond adopts the property of the Baroness Burdett-Coutts, Institution in the Barberini (eighth century) the no doubt correct conjecture of former and the same from the printed text of Ducas Chrysostom we read Toût' čotiv owuá uov, to writers that its title proves it to have come (1526). (6) The Liturgy of St. Basil from Tèp pôr (without klápevov), as in the text from France. That country had an Avocat da the Burdett-Coutts Ms. and the text of Ducas. adopted by Lachmann, Tischendorf, Tregelles, Roi as early as Philip the Bel, in 1301, as (7) The Liturgy of the Presanctified accord- Westcott and Hort, and the Revisers; but England, a few years later, had an Attorney ing to the authorities last named. (8) The Kdóuevov appears in the eleventh-century Ms. of the King, though, as the King's Serjeant Liturgy of St. Peter from the Rossano MS., Again, even allowing for the general Eastern for long took precedence, the Attorney, perwith variant readings from a Paris MS. (saec. tendency to amplification and redundancy, it haps, at first more nearly resembled the xiv.) (9) As an introduction to the Liturgy is scarcely possible to believe that there is no Procureur du Roi, or Agent, than his Counsel, of St. James Dr. Swainson prints, perhaps artificial multiplication of words in the opening or Advocate. Mediaeval Scotland was generunnecessarily in a volume not intended for of the “Preface" to the Triumphal Hymn in ally more than a century behind the larger beginners, the well-known chapters on the the modern Greek Liturgy; and on turning to kingdom in the development of its instituEucharistic service in Justin Martyr's First the Barberini Chrysostom we find a simpler tions ; and it is not till 1483, in a summons Apology, and familiar passages from St. form, and our conjecture verified. One could for treason against John Duke of Albans, Cyril's κατηχήσεις μυσταγωγικαί. . (10) The multiply further examples indefinitely. A that the title of King's Advocate first appears. Liturgy of St. James from the Messina Roll, fruitful harvest may, I believe, be reaped The existence of such an office was a necessary the Rossano Codex, and two fourteenth-cen- when students have had Dr. Swainson's volume consequence of the Courts becoming sedentary tury Paris MSS. (11) Syriac St. James from before them sufficiently long to allow a careful and their practice settled, a change attempted Renaudot. Nor should we omit to mention examination of its contents.

by the first four Jameses, but only finally that Dr. Swainson has printed the chapters on

John DOWDEN. accomplished by James V., so stout was the baptism and the Eucharist from Bryennius's

resistance of the feudal barons and clergy. recently published Διδαχή των αποστόλων (to

The steps in the progress of the King's gether with corresponding passages from the The Lord Advocates of Scotland. By George Advocate are marked by his being made a seventh book of the Apostolic Constitutions).

W. T. Omond. (Edinburgh: David Judge at the institution of the Court of But profoundly interesting as are these early

Douglas.)

Session in 1532; one of the Officers of State notices of the Church's worship, they con- The singularity of the title of Lord Advocate, (the King's Ministry) in 1540; Publie tribute nothing, or next to nothing, towards and the presence of its holder in London Prosecutor for Crimes, although the partics the illustration of the elaborate "liturgical during the parliamentary session, give an be silent,” along with the Treasurer, in 1587; offices of a later age.

interest to the subject of this work which and dignified by the title of Lord in 1598. From the description now given it will be matters peculiarly Scottish do not always Between the personal and real Union his seen that Dr. Swainson has done here a have for English readers. Two special cir- position altered little, but the prevalence of valuable piece of work. It is true we seem cumstances—one English, the other Scottish State trials for treason gave an ill-omened still a long way off from being able to deter

--make its publication well timed. The in- prominence to the criminal and inquisitorial mine the successive stages in the history of convenience of prosecutions by private persons, department of his office. After the Union the Church's forms of worship in her younger and the inadequacy of the experiment of his importance was increased by the abolidays, but yet much that is of value and the Director of Public Prosecutions to tion of the Scottish Privy Council in 1709, interest may be derived from a comparison remedy this inconvenience, have suggested to by the final abolition of the Secretary of even of the earlier and later forms of the some English statesmen and lawyers that it stato for Scotland in 1746, and reached Liturgies as exhibited in the work before us. might be worth while to examine the work- its culminating point in 1782, when Henry Dr. Swainson, in his Introduction, notices ing of the organised office for criminal prosecu- Dundas, afterwards Lord Melville, was en some interesting examples of accretion, tions which has for a long time existed in trusted with the whole administration and formerly regarded as conjecturally probable

, Scotland. How recent is this discovery is patronage of Scotland. No Lord Adrocate has now shown as matters of fact to be such. 1 shown by the fact that Sir J. Stephen's been quite so independent, and certainly none

so absolute, as Dundas. The theory, at other further examination or for trial proceeds, was In the person of Sir Thomas Hamilton, aftertimes, has always been that he is subordinate conducted before the sheriffs or burgh magis- wards Earl of Haddington, who held the to the Home Secretary; but that Minister, trates, by their officers, called Procurators- office from 1596 to 1612, they first step to being generally overburdened with other Fiscal (an office probably copied from the the front. This acute lawyer and astute business and ignorant of Scotch affairs, hasi ecclesiastical courts, with some modifications statesman was the confidential and too pliant left them, to a large extent, in the hands of due to the French procedure). The precog- counsellor of James in the measures with the Lord Advocate, and the attempts occa- nition was henceforth transmitted direct to reference to the Scottish Church which sowed sionally made by the Home Office to interfere the Lord Advocate, by whose deputes the the seeds of revolution, though his prudent more actively in Scotch business have not indictments were prepared, and the prosecu- conduct concealed for a time their effect. By been satisfactory in their results. These dates tions in all cases before the Justiciary Court a singular turn of events his successor, Sir indicate that the position of the Lord Advo- or its circuits conducted. The changes above Thomas Hope, was & supporter of the eate's office as the department for public prose- noticed were not due to any particular Lord Covenant; but although he first rose to cutions had its origin in the sixteenth cen- Advocate.

eminence as defender of the six ministers tury, and is peculiarly Scottish; while its great The Act of 1587, introducing the system of when Hamilton brought them to trial, political importance really belongs to a later public prosecution, was one of the many and risked his office by taking the side date, and is due chiefly to the arrangements for fruits of the reforming energy of the first of the Church, he was too serviceable the conduct of Scottish business in the Ministry Parliament after James VI. came of age. The to Charles to be dismissed. Johnston and Parliament of the United Kingdom. Act of Anne, which placed the system on its of Warriston, his successor, was also a CoveThey do not tell exclusively or conclusively present basis, was passed chiefly owing to the nanter. His lot was cast in stormier times, either way in the controversy as to the best energy of Cockburn of Ormiston, then Lord and he expiated his principles on the scaffold form of Scottish administration, but it is well Justice Clerk. But the practical efficacy and after the Restoration. A vigorous but premain this, as in other matters of history, that the working arrangements of the criminal branch of ture effort to reform the Scotch courts and law facts should be ascertained.

the Lord Advocate's office is only partially due upon the English model was made by Although the Act of 1587 laid the founda. to legislation. It rather belongs to the class of Cromwell, which had some indirect beneficial tion of criminal prosecution by the Lord institutions whose progress escapes the atten- results. The Scotch lawyers between the ResAdvocate, with whom the Treasurer was tion of the legislator, being the growth toration and the Revolution were among the joined because of his interest in the recovery of administrative influence adapting itself to ablest representatives of their class ; but of fines, prosecutions at the instance of private the circumstances with which it has to deal. Fletcher, Nisbet, and Mackenzie, unfortuparties continued to be common. Nor was it In moulding the results of this influence nately for their permanent fame, lent themuntil a later period that the preliminary pro- into a working system successive Lord Advo- selves as ready instruments to the arbitrary cedure was wholly committed to the Lord cates have had a considerable share, but a still and offensive measures of the two last Stewart Advocate and his deputes. In trials where greater influence has probably been exercised kings. Their State prosecutions brought an the interest of the King or State was imme- by the permanent officials, the Justice Clerk evil repute upon the Advocate's office, from diately concerned, he conducted the enquiry and his deputes, prior to the Union, and by the which it required the purifying influence of a too often, during the sixteenth and seventeenth Crown Office, the Sheriffs, and Fiscals since. It century and a half of improved administration centuries, in a way inconsistent with justice. is now a consistent and simple system, by which to shake itself free. But the preparation for trial of the charges crime is detected and punished with as much It might seem an untoward fortune, of against ordinary criminals belonged to the certainty and as little cost as in any other which party rancour made the most, that Clerk of the Justiciary Court or his deputes, country. But it has often been attacked by the name of Dalrymple, the son of Stair, the who made up a roll, called the Portuous, admirers of the English procedure, chiefly on first Lord Advocate after the Revolution, is with the names of the accused, and another, the ground of the secrecy of its preliminary indelibly connected with the Massacre of called the Traistis, with the charges or indict- enquiries, the disadvantage to which persons Glencoe. Possibly on a larger view it was ments for the courts, much in the same way accused are put through the absence of any well that both parties were henceforth comas the clerks of the assize still do in England. right to copies of the depositions, and the mitted to the reprobation of deeds of treachery After the chief clerk of the Justiciary Court greater delay which sometimes takes place in and blood, even for what seemed to each a became a Judge in 1663, with the title of bringing prisoners to trial. To examine justifying cause. It was as Secretary rather Lord Justice Clerk, the duty of preparing whether its merits outweigh its defects, or than Lord Advocate that Dalrymple proved indictments was discharged by his deputes, whether it is not susceptible of improvement his statesmanship; and the Union was in great called Portuous Clerks, who transmitted them without sacrificing these merits, would carry measure his work, though he died before it to the justiciary office, from which they were us too far from the subject of the present was actually carried out. After the Union sent to the Advocate Deputes to conduct the review.

of the Parliaments, and the abolition of the prosecution. Between the Restoration and When we turn to the political side of the Scottish Privy Council, the Lord Advocate the Union the whole course of criminal justice Lord Advocate's functions, individual holders became the sole permanent and necessary had been perverted, and for a considerable of the office naturally play a more prominent representative of Scotland in the Government period the holding of courts had ceased. part; and Mr. Omond's work is largely devoted and of the Government in Scotland. The Shortly after the Union the old practice of to showing what that part has been. Before appointment of a separate Secretary of State holding circuits twice a year was renewed, and James VI. went to London, the Lord Advocate for Scotland between 1707 and 1725, between the benefits of the Habeas Corpus Act were was only one member of the King's Council, 1731 and 1739, and 1742 and 1746, when it extended to Scotland by an Act in 1701, though a member of considerable importance. was finally abolished, was not a success. It which continues to regulate the law of trial He was not only consulted on all matters of was avowedly based on the incomplete settlein a manner unfortunately quite inappropriate legislation, as well as the administration of ment of the northern part of the United to the circumstances of modern times. By a the law, but was sometimes employed in Kingdom, so that its abolition was a natural later statute, in 1709, the mode of exhibiting embassies. Sir Adam Otterburn was sent to consequence of the failure of the Rebellion. informations by the Portuous and Traistis rolls discuss the project of marriage between Mary Its prior discontinuance by Walpole in 1726, was abolished; and it was provided that this Stuart and Prince Edward of England, and when Forbes of Culloden was Lord Advocate, should be done either by presentments made by Sir John Skene took part in the negotiation of had already paved the way for the change. the justices at quarter sessions or upon infor- the marriage of James with Anne of Denmark. Forbes and his followers in the office-Erskine mations taken by the sheriffs or other local The removal of the Court to London, and the of Tinwald, Craigie of Glendoick, Grant of magistrates. The first alternative was never high notions of the Royal prerogative in Scot- Prestongrange, the first Robert Dundas of practically adopted, for the imitation of the land which-unfortunately for his descendants Arniston, Miller of Glenlee, and Montgomery English institutions of sessions and justices of - James held, increased rather than dimin- of Stanhope-were all able lawyers, who found the peace, though often attempted, has never ished the importance of the official who was their natural home, like the English Attorneytaken root in Scotland; and the taking of the most direct representative of the preroga- General, on the bench, and did not aspire to depositions, or the precognition, as it is called tive during the King's absence. The earlier so great a share of political power as their in Scotland, of witnesses, upon which the Lord Advocates are but shadowy and minor position might have given them. The great commitment of accused persons either for characters on the stage of Scottish history. Lord Advocate of the cighteenth century was Henry Dundas, afterwards Lord Melville, whose would be out of place in a notice intended for the beauties of nature; and his descriptenure of office marks the greatest height to merely to direct attention to the historical tions, especially of animal and vegetable forms, which it attained. His eminent Parliamentary facts to express an opinion upon either side of and of the boundless pampas, rolling away talents were sufficient to enable him to measure this controversy. Nor has space allowed more beyond the horizon, with alternating tracts of swords with Fox, and his friendship with Pitt than an allusion here and there to the lives of a soft rich green, or of purple or bright led to the whole government and patronage the Lord Advocates. They are told in a brief, crimson, according as the various shades of of Scotland being left in his hands. When but not too brief, and very interesting manner the lovely verbena predominate, are often exhe retired from the Lord Advocateship, to in Mr. Omond's volumes. He has skilfully pressed in correct and appropriate language. enter upon a long career of employment in interwoven his biographies with the thread of A specialist could have scarcely given us a other departments, he continued to exercise a general history, so that his work, which is better account of the curious little Biscacha dominant influence on Scotch affairs, which was based throughout on original research, is not (Lagostomus trichodactylus), which in appearscarcely interrupted by his impeachment, and merely a series of biographies, but also a ance and habits so closely resembles the North which continued in his family, his nephew, the valuable contribution to the legal and political American prairie-dog. second Robert Dundas, being Lord Advocate history of Scotland. Æ. J. G. MACKAY. “The body is about two feet long, and the from 1789 to 1801, and his son, the second

tail, which measures from ten to twelve inches, Lord Melville, though holding other offices,

ends with a tuft of coarse black hair. The fur having the leading management of Scotch Across the Pampas and the Andes. By Robert is of an ashy-gray colour upon the back, and business till his death in 1827. The tenure Crawford. (Longmans.)

pure white on the throat, breast, and

under part of the office under the Coalition Ministry in As engineer-in-chief of an expedition sent of the body; large, coarse, black bristling 1783, and again in 1806 under the Ministry from England in 1871 to explore and survey ears are short, and the eyes large and black. of “All the Talents,” by Henry Erskine, the the route of a proposed Transandian railway The toes of the hind-foot are three in number, most brilliant orator of the Scottish, as his on behalf of the Buenos Ayres Government, while the fore-foot possesses one more. The brother was of the English, Bar, was too brief Mr. Crawford had abundant opportunities of biscacha has four very sharp, curved, and bevelto break the long period of Tory supremacy ; studying a region before and since frequently edged gnawing teeth in the front of its mouth, and the respectable, but inferior men, who visited, but always presenting fresh sources hollow at the base, and firmly embedded in the held the post after the promotion of Ilay of interest to the careful observer. Hence, jaw to a depth of one inch, while they project Campbell to the Bench in 1789—Montgomery, notwithstanding the great delay in publishing an inch and three-quarters above the socket..... Colquhoun, and Raeowed it entirely to their his experiences, the work in which he now They live together in families like

rabbits, but party connexion. The last of these, however, embodies them can hardly be described as out terms of strange intimacy with their lodgers

, devoted himself with assiduity to the criminal of date. Much of the information is, in fact, the little burrowing owls" (Athene cunicularia), department, and was the author of some use- quite recent, being collected from the latest the one inhabiting the house by day, the other ful improvements in the forms of procedure. official reports, from the periodical press of by night, after a somewhat similar arrangement

With the triumph of the Whigs, Jeffrey, Buenos Ayres, and other trustworthy sources. to that of Box and Cox in the play. Biscachas the leader of their party in Scotland, both in literature and at the Bar, came into office. of the Argentine States, the peaks and passes in their rambles, and depositing them around

These materials, dealing with the geography have a singular habit of collecting all the old

bones and miscellaneous articles they can find With an

account of his life Mr. Omond of the Cordilleras, and the various trans- the entrance to their burrows, probably with prudently concludes his work. It is well continental railway projects, are thrown into the desire of gradually raising them above the known that Jeffrey did not succeed in politics the form of an Appendix occupying nearly level of the ground alongside as a protection in a manner to correspond with the expecta- one-fourth of the whole work, and imparting against inundation during heavy rains" (p. 66). tions derived from his versatile talents or the to it a curiously composite air of learning and Similar graphic descriptions occur of the hopes of his friends.

Mr. Omond adopts literature. The learned or scientific part cerLord Cockburn's opinion that this was due tainly contains features of considerable value

Chajà, or crested screamer; of the Tero-tero

, to the too great strain put upon the holder to political economists, to traders, and specu- ostriche” (Struthea Rhea); of the agouti, or

or spur-winged plover; of the so-called of the office into which circumstances had lators in " Argentines.” The literary section, Patagonian bare; of the guanaco, and other concentrated the management of Scottish dealing with the incidents of the expedition, animals peculiar to these regions. business generally, as well as the administra- would be improved by the elimination of, say, tion of the criminal department and the one-half of the epithets, by recasting numerous artistic skill, illustrating the text with several

Mr. Crawford turns to good account bis function of advising the Government on all rambling sentences, and by a general process striking pictures of South American scenes questions of Scottish law. Something must, of severe condensation. The trivial occur. and scenery. Noteworthy among these are however, be allowed for a constitution which rences recorded in a diary might be overlooked was not robust, and something, also, for the in a work published at the time. But to be snowy Tupungato, as seen from the river feeling in political life against professional told, thirteen years after the event, that on Morros highlands, with guanacos in the fore

Lujan; the Straits of Magellan; the Los lawyers which has been fostered by, pro- one occasion a toad was found in a canteen- ground ; and the descent into the Carraizalito fessional politicians. When Kennedy of bucket, that on another a deer was shot, or a Valley, 'where the foremost in a long line of Dunure—who, as Scotch Lord of the Trea- “low ridge of sand-hills sighted,” and so on, loaded' mules is seen rolling over and over sury, had assisted Jeffrey-resigned, Cock- is apt to try the patience of the most indulgent down the almost rertical incline. burn wrote to him : reader. Here is a characteristic long-winded

Besides a full Index there is a large map “I hope to God that your seat at the Treasury paragraph, referring to "a most forbidding- showing the route of the surveying expediis to be supplied by some worthy Scotchman, looking ruffian,” which contains as many as tion, and all the railways already opened or or at least by some man whose peculiar business six finite verbs, besides sundry participial in progress in Chili

and the Argentine States. shall be Scotland. Now that our public busi-clauses :ness is all done in London, this is not convenient

Of the two chief interoceanic projects, the alone, but absolutely necessary. *He had evidently a natural taste for blood- Planchon and Uspallata, the author

, who shed, which no doubt had been cultivated on speaks with great authority on this point, " There can be little doubt,” Mr. Omond adds, that this opinion was perfectly sound. Since propensity, it may here be stated, we thought evidently prefers the latter, although it is then the machinery of government has become it prudent to divert into a more harmless channel probable that both will ultimately be conmore and more complicated, and almost the than exercising it upon his fellow-men, by structed. The Uspallata crosses the Corwhole management of Scottish affairs has been appointing him to be the butcher of the party dillera at an altitude of 10,568 feet above sea thrown upon the Lord Advocate. The result when any oxen had to be killed for food, an level, with an absolute gradient of one in four has been that, not by the fault of the Advocates, office the duties of which he performed not only between Mendoza, in the Argentine, and but by force of circumstances, these affairs have with alacrity and skill, but with manifest good- Santa Rosa, above Valparaiso, in the Chilian been to a great extent neglected.” will and pleasure.

Republic. These two points are already conThis represents a view now widely held in But, apart from these blemishes of style, nected by rail with the Atlantic and Pacific Scotland, but the opposite opinion that little the work

really contains much valuable infor? respectively, leaving only a distance of about or no change is required in Scottish adminis- mation regarding the natural history, social one hundred and sixty miles to complete the tration will be found ably stated in the condition, and prospects

of the great Argentine interoceanic system of South America. January number of Blackwood's Magazine. It Republic. Mr. Crawford has a sensitive eye

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A. H. KEANE. .

The_Principles of Logic. By F. H. Bradley. the flash of agreement is a flash in the pan ing series” of pleasure will not weigh much (Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co.)

which fails to explode the barrel of contiguity.” with anyone who is capable of considering that There is no acknowledged relationship between Or making fun of Mill's Methods,

they are equally applicable to the sums of Mr. Bradley's Logic and Hegelianism, but “We enquire of “Residues' where we are to energy as of pleasure; and that it would be there is an unmistakeable family likeness. begin, and she says, “I do not know; you had equally possible by a parity of Hegelian reasonThere is the same reversion to the verbal better ask “Difference." We anxiously turn ing to quibble away the first principles of subtlety of Greek metaphysics, the same con

to consider 'Difference,' and are staggered at Physics or of Morals. It is not to be expected trast to the modern inductive utilitarian type. once by, the distressing extent of the family that logical speculations can all be brought

." As even in those passages of Greek phil.

to the touchstone of physical science. But it osophy which have lost their interest for most And so on... Occasionally the gleam of wit may be strongly suspected—and examples

from of us, even among Megarians and Neo-Platon- warms into the glow of poctry, as in a striking Greek and German metaphysics corroborate ists,

we seldom meet with pure nonsense, and passage at the conclusion, where perhaps we the presumption—that he who is conspicuously we wonder how the ancients could have’been may detect a secret sense of the insufficiency deficient in what Pascal calls netteté d'esprit at once so wise and so puerile ; so in these of metaphysics, a suppressed yearning after in dealing with subjects admitting of precision, pages, amid much that is incomprehensible to the philosophy of pleasure.

will be much more egregiously incompetent the uninitiated, there emerge many acute

“It may come from a failure in my meta- to analyse the blurred phenomena of the remarks, especially on the questions connected physics, or from a weakness of the flesh which inner world. It would therefore be no matter with Formal Logic.

continues to blind me, but the notion that of surprise if the prolonged polemic against On the nature of

existence could be the same as understanding the Association theory were merely a strife of Singular Terms, through the haze of the strikes as cold and ghostlike as the dreariest words. What if the Experience school does mysterious doctrine of “thisness," we may materialism. That the glory of this world in perhaps discern the view of Dr. Bain that the end is appearance leaves the world more

not attach importance to the point which proper names are general terms with minimum glorious, if we feel it is a show of some fuller Mr. Bradley fastens on and labours at—that denotation. As to the import of propositions splendour; but the sensuous curtain is a decep-particular images are recalled by, and unite there are dark sayings, such as ** Judgment tion and a cheat, if it hides some colourless with, particular images ; “ the ideas which proper is the act which refers an ideal content movement of atoms, some spectral woof of are recalled according to these laws are par(recognised as such) to a reality beyond the bloodless categories. Though dragged to such units of association.”

Individual atoms are the act;" “All truth, if really true, is true of conclusions, we cannot embrace them. the ultimate non-phenomenal fact.” But Mr. principles may

be true, but they are not reality. It is thus that at another point he seeks to Bradley is nearly as clear as Mill himself They no more make the whole which commands win a cheap triumph over the Inductive Logic when he refutes the doctrine

our devotion than some shredded dissection of by attacking a position which nobody is con“ that in ' dogs are mammals’ no attribute is beauty of flesh which our hearts found as the strictest syllogism, surrender themselves

human tatters is that warm and breathing cerned to defend—that “its processes, exact really affirmed of dogs : the assertion is that

delightful." the things called dogs are included within the

to the direction of Canons reputed no less class of mammals ; "that “the mammals range These intellectual virtues are overbalanced severe than Barbara." That such is not the over a mental park, and all the dogs are on this by great defects-petulance in controversy, a accredited interpretation of Mill's methods is side of the paling.'

“cocksureness" inappropriate to the subject, sufficiently evidenced by the able exposition of It is an ingenious remark that

a constant bias towards the unmeaning, á Mr. Alfred Sidgwick. That the methods are

We if the judgment affirms a spatial relation to positive aversion to the useful.

not cut and dry “their author himself,” as some of those individuals, or the area they all safely leave to the reader the amusing task of Mr. Sidgwick says, "expended labour in occupy, or the fence that confines them, then verifying our first imputation. As to the showing." Mr. Bradley has expended labour what the judgment really affirms is an attri- second point, in addition to what we have to in fighting with shadows. bute."

say under another heading, we may instance To conclude, if talking about words and With reference to the nature of in the writer's ruling, in the matter of disjunctive thinking about thought is the end of life, this ference, it is shown how inadequate propositions, that the alternatives are rigidly is indeed a golden volume. But if use and a the syllogism is to account for argu- exclusive, and his dictum that hypotheticals reference to happiness should direct even our ments such as the following:-"A is due cannot be reduced to categoricals. In support studies, if transcendental metaphysics are to be north of B, B due west of C, therefore of the sweeping condemnation contained in valued as a sort of poetry, then this work will A is north-west of C;" "A is in tune with our last counts, we will adduce our author's rank, not high among contributions to science, B, and B with C, therefore A with C,” and treatment of Probabilities. He himself pro- not low in that species of literature which is three-premissed inferences of the same descrip- vokes comparison with an eminent English dear to the utilitarian “ both for its grace and

F. Y. EDGEWORTH. tion. We are reminded of the relational logic logician who has recently handled the same for its mystery.” which De Morgan formulated, and which he subject. We venture to predict that the used to say he would consent to give up as comparison will redound to the honour of the soon as he should find anyone who could pame

Material Logic in the opinion of anyone who offhand “the non-descendants of the

has studied the subject. He who reads Mr. Miss Vandeleur. By John Saunders. In 3 ancestors of X.Venn after the older authorities will find,

vols. (White.) But, if Mr. Bradley has rarely the not, of course, the mathematical physics of a advantage of priority over De Morgan and Laplace, yet something of the grain and fibre The Violinist of the Quartier Latin. By G. other English writers, he has often an of the solid sciences, something tangible which Curzon. In 3 vols. (Sampson Low.) advantage in point of expression. The Attic can be seized by the imagination and built An Open Foe. By Adeline Sergeant. charm of his style detains the unmetaphysical into the memory, and become the basis of 3 vols. (Bentley.) reader fascinated, though unconvinced.

. But has Bradley is especially brilliant in attack; and and Mr. Venn will find in Mr. Bradley Quintus Claudius. By Ernst Eckstein. From

the German, by Clara Bell. (Trübner.) he is generally attacking.

He showers his nothing, absolutely nothing, to lay hold upon gleaming metaphors upon the dazzled adver- Everything melts away, except, indeed, what Newport. By George Parsons Lathrop. sary. Thus, referring to Prof. Jevons's theory all the text-books have copied from Laplace or (Sampson Low.) that in " A is north of C,” or “ B follows what has been originally observed by Mr. Alter Ego. By Austen Pember. (Maxwell.) D,” what we really mean is a relation of

Venn. Mr. Bradley on the Petersburgh The Leavenworth Case. By Anna Catherine equality or identity, he says, problem and the implicated conception of

Green. (Strahan.) infinity may remind us of Hegel's memorable torture of the witness goes to such lengths criticism of the Newtonian astronomy. Yet it is Mr. Saunders is a practised and vigorous that the general public is not trusted to beħold this notion of infinity, the " spurious infinite" writer, whose books it is a pleasure to read.

if we indulged in retaliation, we should Miss Vandeleur introduces us to personages And hitting off Dr. Bain's theory of Associa-term it, that the writer has elsewhere opposed with some character in them, if the plot is tion,

to the principle of maximum utility. Cer- not very striking or intricate. The hero is ** The hammer of similarity comes down, but tainly his difficulties about "realising a perish- the scion of a noble house. Through a dis

may

NEW NOVELS.

non

In

it."

appointment in love he enlists as a private, her powers of recovery, that we are glad to monious formalist, who was in the habit of and buries in oblivion the fact that he is the find the breeze from the garden soon fanned 'hailing the Almighty as if He were a cab son of an earl, with a direct claim to the in- a cheek as rounded as Hebe's." This is a most or an omnibus.” When she discovers Ouida's heritance himself. He goes through some astonishing book. Let Mr. Curzon console Two Flags among her stepson's books, she rough service in Ireland in connexion with himself with this admission when he hears the writes angrily to him, I have read it, and the Fenian rising and other matters, and works of George Eliot and others praised for consider it a most dangerous book; I have secures promotion by his conspicuous bravery. qualities different from his own.

therefore burnt it.” It is, perhaps, not surBut jealousy accomplishes his downfall; a

The only fault to be found with An Open prising that the young man does not take superior officer purposely goads him into com- Foe is its extraordinary complexity of interests. kindly to the religion of his home when he mitting an assault by the use of epithets The reader who is determined to master the in- is prayed for as “ a worm,” “a lost pearl," which no man can bear unmoved. The court- trigues of the plot, as well as the multiplicity and other epithets which prove his hardened martial finds him guilty of striking his superior of the characters and the relations they bear to and reprobate condition. Mr. Pember cerofficer, and condemns him to fifty lashes and each other, had better take a note-book (and we tainly possesses vivacity, and after his trial imprisonment for a year with hard labour. should recommend that it be not too small), efforts he should produce something unusually Although his family discover him in time to wherein he could take stock of what has been good. procure a pardon from the Queen, they would done in each division of the work. Otherwise, The Leavenworth Case is an exciting story have been too late to save him from the more

we fear that he will not be able to give a of a murder of which any one of four persons ignominious part of his punishment had not satisfactory account of the narrative when he may be suspected from the outset. The secret a technical error been discovered in the pro- comes to the close of the third volume. The is kept well in hand, except, perhaps, in one ceedings, which vitiates the finding. One of plot is in many respects interesting when place, which almost led us on the right track, England's "gilded youth" is said to have fairly mastered, but many will regard it as but the writer recovered herself and deepened passed through some of these experiences, an

an objection that the real hero does not make the mystery. The only objection to the book officer of rank having furnished Mr. Saunders his appearance early enough. It may be, from the point of view of narrative is that it is with the details. How the hero comes safely however, that the author holds a different concerned wholly with a crime and its deterthrough his troubles, and how, for love of opinion from ourselves as to who should be tion. It would have been better to give the Miss Vandeleur, he relinquishes his right to regarded as the hero. The literary merit of reader something more by way of a relief. The the earldom, and thus saves the honour of the An Open Foe is much beyond the average, and scene of the murder is laid in New York, and family by leaving his foster-brother in posses-affords hope of excellent work from the the author's American phrases are objectionsion, the reader must discover for himself. writer. With a less crowded canvas, she able now and then. More than once the word Notwithstanding some minor faults of con- will be able to bring into play important as is used when that is intended—“I do not struction, the novel

, as a whole, shows to qualities which are here only foreshadowed. know as I was greatly surprised," &c. advantage beside many of its contemporaries. : The graphic pen of Dr. Eckstein never

G. BARNETT SMITH. By-the-way, as the author is apparently a passionate lover of flowers, and writes with showed to greater advantage than in his real eloquence about them, it is a pity that Quintus Claudius, a romance of Imperial

RECENT VERSE. the printer has misspelt the names of the Rome. The glory and the shame of the only two species of French roses mentioned.

Eternal City in her period of decadence Poems. By John Sibree. (Trübner.) This

are drawn with a vivid pencil. Domitian, little volume is apparently a reprint, with Cease, liars, murderers, or I shall tear out the infamous Emperor, and Domitia, bis some additions, of poems that appeared in your vile tongues by the roots."

"Give us voluptuous wife, are portraits as strongly two lesser volumes published a year or two thunders of hell I'll cut your throat.” These with in fiction. Lore, glory, enterprise, merit, and in thought and imagination they no more of your damned snivelling, or by the individualised as any we have recently met ago What we said of the poems then is fully

hare sentences will show that Mr. Curzon has a religion, are the themes which the author are superior to much minor poetry. Faney very fair command of what sailors call “lan- handles with power and skill, passing from a quasi-mystical embodiment of the poetie guage.” The first is spoken by an English one to the other with

a masterly rapidity. genius-is, perhaps, the best thing

in the book. baronet, who, when somewhat angry with two The sufferings of the Nazarenes, whose faith if it suffers from a defect it is inaccuracy in of the villains of the story, intimates also that is espoused by the noble hero of the book, philosophy. Fancy is the mystic lady who he should “scatter their brains

upon
the

are related in a moving manner. Dr. Eckstein's alone represents the genius of poetry. ImaginaHoor” did he not know that they were mad. style is realistic, without being spasmodic ; and tion is unrecognised, save as synonymous with The second sentence is spoken by the rascal- his notes are almost as valuable as they are made so much of the radical distinction between in-chief, and when the reader learns how many voluminous. The merit of Mdme. Clara Bell these two would also have made short work of rascals there are he will understand the dis

a translator is so well known that she Mr. Sibree's classification of the authors of tinction in villainy achieved by the speaker. needs no commendation.

“Faustus” and “Childe Harold,” “ The Sky The novel generally is almost beyond criticism, and certainly reveals more than its fair share

Fashionable American life at Newport may

lark” and “Endymion ” and “The Ancient

Mariner." “Unto One of the Least" is a of crudity and inexperience. Although the not deeply interest English readers, but Mr.

quasi-mystical embodiment of the principle of heroine is kept on the stage pretty well all Lathrop's book has some excellent situations,

charity. It lacks definiteness and conclusivethrough, there is nothing about her as the which are well managed. It also contains a ness, but is otherwise somewhat beautiful

. violinist of the Quartier Latin" until some tragic love-story with certain novel elements being pathetic where it is realistic.

"Ellen way into the third volume. She is a remark- in it—a thing praiseworthy in itself, con- Carew," described as a legend of the West

, is able being, however, and might turn "Õuida” sidering the paucity of new incidents in a story of a supernatural appearance interand others speechless with envy. Her real fiction nowadays. Altogether, the reader is woven with disappointed love. This also lacks name is Adrienne St. Clair

, but she goes out tolerably certain to feel drawn towards at definiteness. In short, Mr. Sibree seems not to to the East to personate the dead daughter

of least three of the characters in Mr. Lathrop's has the fancy which he apotheosises, but he Sir Arthur Hildyard, Governor of the Straits latest composition.

lacks imagination of that higher order which is Settlement. She comes with him to Europe, The writer of Alter Ego exhibits a capacity essential to the invention of symbol and to and in Paris gets engaged to a Russian prince for both humour and pathos. The only tales resting on supernatural machinery. He The reader must learn for himself how the danger is lest his humour should degenerate has a philosophical poem entitled to the bubble bursts, and she flies from Sir Arthur's into flippancy. The life of the hero of the Age. We have no love of a poem of which home. Besides being the violinist of the present sketch is exceedingly well depicted; Clusively poetic. Each of the arts has some

the subject itself is not peculiarly and exQuartier Latin, she writes an opera, and plays he is just one of those erring mortals, more thing that it can do better than its sister arts

, the chief character in it herself

. At another sinned against than sinning, dear to the heart though every art may borrow from all the time we find her as an artist," putting the of Thackeray. The surface moralists of the others. In the same way, each of the departfinishing touches to a large painting of the world niisunderstand them, and cannot trace ments of literature has its special function, interior of San Giovanni Laterano." "She had the noble aspiration and charity which move though it may, without offence, sometimes only just before been at death's door from a them. Some of the characters are amusingly trespass upon the functions of its neighbours. very serious illness, but so marvellous were sketched, notably the Vicar's wife, a sancti, Mr. Sibree wishes to defend optimistic views,

as

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