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THE prize of £80 offered by the Académie des Birch looks upon the house-shaped urns dis- | a parallel drawn between the ornamentation of Inscriptions for a work on "The Rabbinical covered in Germany as “ distinctly Teutonic.” the urns of Alba Longa and that of the whorls Geography of Europe during the Middle Ages.” They occur, he says, in the graves of the of Hissarlik found by Dr. Schliemann in his has just been awarded to Ďr. Neubauer. The period when bronze weapons were used, and famous excavations. It may be remembered and minute acquaintance, not only with such before the predominance of Roman art. A that Asia Minor, in ancient times, was largely well-known travellers as Benjamin of Tudela, very curious specimen of this kind, supposed occupied by a Thrakian race, closely akin to but with mediaeval Rabbinical literature to represent a lake-dwelling, is in the the Germans. Now, in the earlier strata of generally, not excluding even the colophons of Museum at Munich. It is—Dr. Birch remarks the Etruscan nation, which is known to have

The sixteenth century is regarded as formed of seven cylindrical huts and a porch, gradually arisen from a mixture of altogether marking the close of the middle ages. The and is ornamented in front with a spiral different races, we find a Lydian (that is, work is a fresh proof of the importance of device of the character of the bronze and even Thrakian) element. May, then, the similarity Rabbinical Hebrew, not only for . Biblical iron period. Prof. Virchow mentions a fact of the hut-urns traceable between Northern now appear, for geography also. It will be which, considering how persistent popular Germany and Italy perhaps be explained by remembered that Dr. Neubauer's volume on traditions and customs are, even when their the branching off, in remote antiquity, of two La Géographie du Talmud was crowned by cause and reason have long passed away, may tribes of the same blood, one of which went the Institut nearly twenty years ago.

help to throw some light on the question at from Asia Minor, by sea, into the peninsula A NEW edition of Prof. Sayce's book, Fresh issue. He points out that the money boxes south of the Alps, while the other made its Light from the Monuments, published by the made of clay, which are “even now in use in way to the north? So far as we know at Religious Tract Society last November, is about many places of Northern Germany,” are often present, the hut-urns do not occur in the to appear; and a German translation of it, by exactly of the same form as the hut-shaped territory between Northern and North-eastern Dr. Bezold, will be brought out at Leipzig by fire-burial urns. I, too, remember these clay Germany on the one hand, and Italy on Messrs. Schulze in a few weeks.

boxes in South-western Germany. Some of the other. This, again, might be explained

them were house-shaped in the usual form; by the fact of a Keltic nation having once FINE ART.

others were globular, like the huts of various occupied the intermediate ground. Kindred

aboriginal tribes. With the eminent Berlin tribes of Thrako-Teutonic affinity, though ITALIAN AND GERMAN BURIAL-URNS.

Professor, I believe that the oldest German separated territorially, would thus have Ueber die Zeitbestimmung der italischen und house-form must not—as Weinhold seems to preserved a common tradition in sepulchral deutschen Haus- Urnen. Von Rudolf Vir- think-exclusively be sought in the imitation structure.

KARL BLIND. chow. (Berlin: Dümmler.)

of a waggon. The tribal development of the Tas journey recently made into Italy by vast Teutonic race has been very diverse from

MASPERO IN UPPER EGYPT. Prof. Virchow has given occasion for a valuable the earliest times. There are house-forms even treatise by him on those strange, hut-shaped now in the Black Forest and in Switzerland THOUGH he started late this year for his official

Westbury-on-Trym: April 21, 1881. burial-urns which are found both on Italian which suddenly seem to transplant us to Nile trip, and has returned early, M. Maspero and North-German ground. In the Etruscan farther Asia, and the models of which, for has had a most successful campaign. He comes Room of the British Museum two of them aught we know, are of most ancient tradition- back rich in new acquisitions for the Boolak may be seen. They have the form of cot- ary inheritance.

Museum, and richer still in the yet untold tages, with a high, raftered roof, the slanting As to the urns discovered in Italy, they wealth of one of the most extraordinary disfront of which is so ornamented as to repre have been held by some to be Etruscan, by coveries ever made on Egyptian soil. . To find sent a garret. There is a door-once secured others pre-Etruscan, or archaic. Giuseppe

an inviolate sepulchre, or a group of inviolate by a metal pin passing through two rings at Tambroni, however, had already, in 1817, sepulchres, of any value is much in these days its sides—which served for the introduction attributed them to the invasion of Germanic time M. Maspero has discovered 'an entire of the ashes of the dead after cremation. tribes during the Great Migrations... A pas- necropolis, the mere existence of which has The whole looks remarkably like a miniature sage in Prokopios'. Gothic War (ii.), re- remained unsuspected by tomb-breakers and of many a modern peasants’ hut; yet it is ferring to King Totila's army, is appealed to depredators, both ancient and modern. This undoubtedly of great antiquity. As to the as a partial confirmation. The controversy new field of research is close to Ekhmeem, a garret-windows of these hut-urns, Dr. Schlie- about the origin of these peculiar urns has busy provincial town of Upper Egypt, on the mann (Troja, p. 126) holds a different view. been a lively and interesting one. Some of right bank of the Nile, about 129 miles below In his opinion, the marks in question are those who maintain the Teutonic theory the ancient Rhemnis oor Khemmis, a

Thebes. The present town occupies the site of rather a mystic sign, like the svastika. To my point to the fact of German coloni and which in Coptic became Chmim, and which is mind, the hut-urns I have seen appear to be prisoners of war having been settled in the perpetuated to this day in the Arabic Ekhmeem. provided

with windows; and this is the view provinces, and even in the very heart of the identifying Khem, or " Min” (the tutelar deity held by Pigorini and Sir John Lubbock, as Roman Empire, ever since the time of Marcus of Khemnis), with their own Pan, the Greeks quoted by the discoverer of Troy himself. Aurelius.

called the town Panopolis, and the province the I will observe here that one of the hut- In the Zeitschrift für Ethnologie of 1880 Panopolite Nome. The necropolis discovered urns in the British Museum—that presented (vol. xii.) Prof. Virchow gave a short descrip- by M. Maspero appears thus far to belong to by Mr. W. R. Hamilton-has five roof tion of the German hut-shaped burial- the Greek period, though it is reasonable to beams; the other three. Prof. Virchow's urns. He regarded them, at that time, as a will disclose a substratum of earlier interments. statement, founded on the drawing he had

contribution, after all, to our knowledge of The funerary riches of the spot are well-nigh seen, attributes three beams to each of the ancient Germanic house.". At most, he incalculable. The sepulchres seem to be of the the urns.

His description, therefore, is concluded, they were of the third or fourth nature of great family vaults, or catacombs, so far to be modified, though the point century before the Christian era. As to rather than isolated tombs, as elsewhere. Five is not of any importance. One of the the assumed Teutonic origin of the urns of these vaults, opened under M. Maspero's

immies, all peruras still shows a gable-end of beams laid found in Italy, he pronounces, in the supervision, contained 120 mum cross-wise, with a kind of horn-like termina- treatise before us, against that view, as Tisch fect; and, in the course of only three hours tion. On the other gable-ends these horns and others have also done.

survey, he discovered the position of a hundred “ If,” says

more such vaults, every one intact. These are broken off. It may be useful in this con- Prof. Virchow,

particulars, derived from a private letter to nexion to refer to a passage in Beowulf.

any direct connexion had existed at all, it myself, I give in M. Maspero's own words :There Hrodgar builds a hall named Hcorot- would be easier, and more in agreement with " Je n'ai pu voir par moi-même que cinq puits that is, Hart. It is called “the house rich facts, to look upon the models for the German renfermant environ cent-vingt momies intactes ; in horns," on account of its being adorned hut-urns as Italian articles of import

, than to mais j'ai reconnu en trois heures l'existence d'une with stags' horns, or because of the battlements assume the contrary. The models for the centaine d'autres puits encore vierges. Un calcul being horn-shaped. A similar custom exists as Italian hut-urns I would be inclined to seek for rapide me permet de penser qu'il doit y avoir là cinq far as Madagascar and Siam. So I gather in Asia Minor. There, the house-form was from a recent article in the Antananarivo already introduced at an early time for the moins que les parties de la nécropole que je n'ai Annual. structure of graves."

pas eu le temps d'examiner n'aient été violées

jadis." In his History of Ancient Pottery, Dr. Samuel | This view Prof. Virchow seeks to strengthen by In an ancient Egyptian cemetery, as in a

name

modern European cemetery, there are naturally on, two pictures of children by two ladies have secured the loan of over a hundred exmore poor burials than rich ones; and of these special attraction. These are Mrs. Alma- amples of the artist. They will be glad to five of six thousand mummies it is not to be Tadema's "Naughty Child,” nicely painted, correspond with any gentleman possessing picsupposed that more than fifteen or twenty per and very Dutch, and Miss Dorothy Tennant's tures by Richardson whom they have not been cent. will prove to be of value, either as speci- “A Weight of Care," a little girl carrying a able to communicate with. mens or for the objects buried with them. But, big baby, well drawn, and very English. even so, the necropolis of Ekhmeem may be Fronting us, as we turn the corner, we come Alfred P. Newton, already announced in the

THE sale of the remaining works of the late expected to yield more treasures in the upon a masterly study of a Venetian girl, “La ACADEMY, has been postponed from April 16 to way of papyri, amulets, and jewels than have Bella Mora,” by one of the most promising of ever before been discovered. It is in tombs young artists, Mr. S. Melton Fisher. It is so

April 29. of this period, be it remembered, that papyri pure and fine in colour, so fully felt and firmly

THE Congrés archéologique de France visits containing fragments (some hitherto unknown) realised, that it puts its surroundings into the the Ariège this year. The centres for excursions of Sappho Anacreon, Pindar, Alcman, and shade. It must not, however, blind the visitor are Pamiers, May 23 to 25; Foix, May 25 to 28; even of Homer have been found. Here, then, to the near presence of a capital piece of St-Girons, May 28 to 30. The programme, if anywhere, besides Egyptian writings of a humorous character, by Mr. W. F. Calderon, which is very complete, invites studies of the for the discovery of some of the lost works of Great Price,” where we see two boys clubbing art of the Middle Ages and

of the Renaissance

; religious and historical character, we may hope the young son of the Academician, “A Pearl prehistoric archaeology of the district, of the of the cyclic and other Greek poets. Khemnis" was a favourite resort of Greek attitudes and expressions of the boys and the while ethnology, dialects, folk-lore, geography, settlers, and that the Egyptians of Khemnis, dealer and the dogs are natural and freshly and topography also receive attention. The according to Herodotus, were more tolerant of studied. Passing by a good deal that is subscription is 10 frs., and demands of "adGreek customs than the natives of other cities, mediocre and a good deal that, though worthy

hésion" are to be addressed to M. Lafont are facts in favour of this interesting possibility of the artists, does not call for comment, we find de Sentenac, trésorier du Congrès, à Foix.

But M. Maspero's discoveries do not nearly a work of Mr. John Collier which has all his By a stupid mistake we ante-dated by a week end here. Some inviolate sepulchres of the usual force with something more than his usual the exhibitions of the two water-colour societies

. pyramid period have rewarded his explorations refinement. This is "Psyche bound in the They both open to the public next Monday, in the inexhaustible burial-fields of Sakkarah House of Venus,” an illustration of the Epic April 28. and Dashoor. An inviolate tomb of the time of Hades. The face, though scarcely representof Pepi I. (VIth Dynasty), discovered on ing the Psyche of our imagination, is beautiful

MUSIC April 6, was found to contain three sarco- and fine in expression, and the bust is firmly phagi, two in wood and one in limestone. The but delicately modelled. Of the rest of the oil STANFORD'S SAVONAROLA." brick vaulting unfortunately fell in during paintings none more deserves to be singled out THREE years ago, when Mr. C. V. Stanford's the process of excavation, and one of the two for notice than Mr. T. B. W. Forster's view of “Veiled Prophet of Khorassan was produced wooden sarcophagi, with its mummied occu- a “brimming river,” called “A Cloudy Day on at Hanover, the work was recognised as show. pant, was entirely crushed. The two others the Seine." This artist is, we believe, the ing signs of remarkable promise in a young

and escaped. The limestone sarcophagus is covered father of Miss Mary Forster, one of the late comparatively inexperienced composer. Since externally with paintings, and with religious acquisitions of the Royal Society of Painters in then the progress which Mr. Stanford has made texts written in a fine hieratic hand. The tomb Water-Colours, and we recognise much the same has been one of continuous development. His contained, among other funerary objects, seven tender atmospheric quality in her drawing of Orchestral Serenade, performed at Birmingham little model-boats, five of which are perfect. “Villequier, Seine Inférieure,” which is one of in 1882, has been heard in most of the musical In one of these boats, a miniature Ka-statue the gems of the other room. This is devoted centres of Europe and America; and next weeks of the deceased receives offerings and worship; to water-colours, the beauties of which we must Mr. Carl Rosa, by bringing out "The Canterbury in another, a tiny model of his mummy is seen leave the visitor to discover, warning him only Pilgrims, lying on a funeral couch. From amid the not to leave unseen Mr. H. G. Hine's “Corfe audience to judge of the capability of the young

” will at length enable a London débris of the crushed mummy-case M. Mas. Castle" or Miss Mary L. Gow's “ A Letter for pero recovered a fine necklace, or collar, of You,' a very tender and beautiful study of given to every composer to have two new and

composer in the sphere of Opera. It is not gold, with clasps formed of hawk's-heads, of childish expression. which he remarks that it is the only specimen

important works produced within ten days of

one another, but this is what has fallen to the of this pattern that he has ever seen. Con

lot of Mr. Stanford. And, if his “Canterbury tinuing the latest work of Mariette, he has also NOTES ON ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY. opened some twenty more mastaba-tombs, one We understand that Mr. W. M. Conway,

Pilgrims" achieves anything like the success of which has yielded an inscription showing having recently discovered a number of por- narola” at Hamburg on April 18, his position

which attended the production of his “ Savothat the pyramid of King Seneferoo is one of traits and miniatures of the Penn family in a among operatic composers will be, if not un the Dashoor group. This epigraphic discovery country house in Ireland, intends

to leave precedented, at all events extremely remarkable, Meydoom, generally attributed to that very for the purpose of studying

the Penn collections garding him as the mainstay of the Opera of

and the musical public will be justified in reearly monarch; but it must not be forgotten there.

the future. that M. Maspero's latest utterance on the

PROF. C. T. Newton will begin, on May 2, a fortunate in finding in Mr. Gilbert à Beckett :

In “Savonarola" Mr. Stanford has been subject of Meydoom, its pyramid, and its necropolis assigned the whole group (including course of lectures on Greek Myths, as illusthe tomb and statues of Rahotep and Nefer-t) trated by Vases," at University College, London. librettist who combines a considerable amount to the period of the XIIth Dynasty.

The first lecture is open to the public without dramatist to enable him to surmount the AMELIA B. EDWARDS. payment or ticket.

difficulties which beset the choice of subject. MR. HENRY LASSALLE announces an Illus- Founding his book on the youthful love of

trated Catalogue to the forthcoming exhibition THE FINE ART SOCIETY.

Savonarola for a rich member of the del Sarto of the Royal Academy. Sketches of their pic- family, Mr. à Beckett has divided the work into An exhibition, suggested probably by the tures made by the artists will be reproduced in a Prologue and three acts, the scene of the famous cent chefs-d'auvre which ‘M. Petit facsimile by the Lefman photo-etching process. former being laid at Ferrara in the

year gathered last year in his gallery at Paris, is the

THE dispersed

and of the latter at Florence in 1498. The story present attraction of the pretty little rooms at last Tuesday at Christie's sale-rooms realised is shortly this :- Savonarola, a young student

, 3 hundred artists is an alluring title ; and Sipriani, went for £12 13. ed. men Nymphs A mutual passion is the result, but Sa wanamlike though they are all of small size, and some are Bathing” (set of four), £10; “Lady Heathcote, not by any means fine specimens of the painters, in colours, £6 16s. 68. ; and a beautiful

is betrothed to Giovanni di Rucello, a Florentine the collection is a pleasant one. We are first

portrait of Miss Farren, £26 58.

nobleman. The lovers meet at night for a met—that is to say, if we go round with the

farewell interview, in the midst of which they Catalogue in orthodox fashion-by a sweet face The centenary of the birth of T. M. Richard are surprised by Rucello. An encounters of an English girl, crowned with primroses, to son, sen., the most eminent landscape painter imminent, when a procession of Dominican which Mr. Frank Dicksee has given the name the North of England has produced, will be monks crosses the stage, singing their solemn landscapes here—one of Mr. Leslie Thompson's opening of an exhibition of his works in oil and to Savonarola never to become the wife of charming views of English scenery with blue water-colour. The exhibition will be held in Rucello, and he in return promises to save Mr. Adrian Stokes

' vivid
and luminous
bits of cent room with ample top lights and its pro- passionate

" farewell, Savonarola is left alone France, The Last Mill at Pont Aven." Farther moters, Messrs. Barkas & Son,' have already on the

stage. At first he repents his promise

1475,

to Clarice; but, as the Dominican hymn bibits no leanings. Of the performance it may have been effected in the second act. The

peris faintly heard in the distance, he breaks his be said that it was, on the whole, satisfactory. formers were nearly the same as last year,

and sword, and devotes himself and his love to The title-part was sustained by Herr Ernst, a the principals—Mdme. Georgina Burns, Miss Heaven. During the twenty-three years which young tenor with a fine voice and possessing Clara Perry, and Messrs. Barton McGuckin, elapse between the Prologue and act I., Clarice considerable dramatic power. The dual part of Ludwig, and Leslie Crotty—again received has married a member of the Strozzi family and Clarice and Francesca was filled by Frau Sucber, much applause ; Phoebus's song, “O vision died, leaving an only daughter, Francesca, who who sang in London two seasons ago; and the entrancing,” in the second act, did not escape has been brought up under the influence parts of Rucello and Sebastiano were taken by the encore. The orchestral accompaniments were of Rucello to hate the Piagnoni and their Herren Krauss and Landau, who are also known at times not altogether satisfactory. Mr. Thomas leader, Savonarola, who has now become Prior to English audiences. All these artists acquitted has reason to be proud of the success of his of St. Mark. Rucello, plotting vengeance, themselves well, though Mr. Stanford's music Opera at home and abroad, and we hope that sends Francesca on a secret embassy to the demands more power of cantabile singing his next piece will prove that “Esmeralda " Medici, who head the faction against the Prior. than is possessed by the modern German was but a stepping-stone to higher things. Francesca is seized and brought before Savona- declamatory school. The orchestra, led by rola as he is engaged in quelling a tumult Herr Sucher, seemed deficient in the tone and which had arisen from the procession of his power of its strings, so that much of the

RECENT CONCERTS. boy-messengers collecting" vanities” to be instrumentation, and notably the short overture The last Saturday Concert at the Palace was destroyed by fire. Savonarola at first orders between the Prologue and act I., failed to make given on April 19. The programme included her to prison, but, as she is being taken away, their due effect. The very important choruses Liszt's Symphonic Poen, "Les Préludes," and asks her name; Rucello replies that she is were, on the whole, well sung, though if a little it was well performed ; also Beethoven's “ PasClarice's child. Overcome for a moment, the more spirit had been infused into the acting of toral Symphony.” The latter work has often Prior orders her release; but, stung by the the stage crowds the result would have been been played with greater effect at the Palace. taunts of Rucello, he recovers himself, and better.

The noise of the workmen outside the concertFrancesca is led to prison as the curtain Savonarola” was received by a full house, hall preparing for the International Exhibition falls.

The second act takes place in the with every mark of success. The composer had proved a source of annoyance to the concloister of St. Mark, where the monks are be- and the principal performers were called ductor during the first part of the concert, sieged by the fickle populace. Francesca, set before the curtain repeatedly after each act; though he left his desk and obtained silence free by Rucello, is struck with repentance, and and, at the end of the Opera, Mr. Stanford shared before commencing the Symphony. The vocalhastens to the monastery to aid Savonarola. with Herr Sucher (for whose benefit the per- ists were Miss Elly Warnots and Herr Max But the doors are broken down, the leader of formance took place) the usual German tribute Friedländer. The latter sang two songs by the Piagnoni, Sebastiano Maraffi—who cherishes of floral crowns and wreaths.

Schubert and a ballad by Carl Loewe. This an unrequited affection for Francesca—is killed,

W. BARCLAY SQUIRE. composer's music is little known in England, and Savonarola gives himself up to his enemies.

but if his other songs are all as long and as The last act opens in the prison. After a touch

dreary as the “ Archibald Douglas” it is not ing scene with Francesca, curtains fall from CARL ROSA OPERA AT DRURY LANE: surprising that they have been neglected. Herr both sides of the stage, while the orchestra on last Thursday week (April 17) Mr. Carl Friedländer's voice is not of very good quality plays a solemn march. When the curtains are Rosa reproduced " Colomba,” and the composer or of great power, and his singing was theredrawn again the scene represents a street lead- came expressly to London to conduct his work. fore not very attractive. The season just coning to the Piazza della Signoria at Florence. The marked attention of the audience and the cluded has been singularly uneventful, and it is The procession leading Savonarola to execution calls at the end of each act gave all the appear- to be hoped that Mr. Manns will discover some is met by Rucello, who triumphantly insults his ance of a first night. The success of “Colomba” “ new treasures" for the next series. It can no conquered foe; but the populace heap terrible on this evening-and it was a genuine one—is longer be said that novelties frighten the people maledictions on his head, and he slinks off as an encouraging sign of the times: Mr. Mac- away. The history of the last two or three Savonarola is led away, leaving Francesca alone kenzie's first Opera shows real signs of life. We seasons tells a different tale, and the concerts on the stage. As the light of the flames from would not for a moment imply that it was in any have never been so thinly attended as since last the place of execution illumines the scene, way a failure last year; but then there was the Christmas. Francesca falls lifeless to the ground.

first enthusiasm of friends and well-wishers, The first Richter Concert was given at St. In setting this picturesque and dramatic story and especially the charm of novelty. The work James's Hall last Monday evening. The attendMr. Stanford has not been slow to avail himself of now stands more on its own merits, and danger | ance was not up to the usual mark. Good the opportunities it affords for the display of threatens it from only one quarter. The com- orchestral concerts in London are rare things, his talent. It is impossible to judge of so import- poser is himself at work on a second Opera which and one naturally expected to find every seat ant a work from a single hearing; but, though probably will prove a formidable rival. Mr. occupied. The prices of admission are high; all was good, certain scenes were conspicuous at Mackenzie has made cuts and alterations in the and, therefore, the concerts have been frequented the first performance by the effect they pro- score of “Colomba ” which seem to us in almost hitherto by persons who take real interest in duced. In particular, the whole of the Prologue, every case improvements. The performance musical art. We

may
be wrong,

but we fancy Francesca's apostrophe to Florence, Sebastiano's was a good one, though not quite cqual to the that Herr Richter somewhat disappointed the prayer, Rucello's denunciation of Savonarola, representations of last season. Máme. Marie public who would support him by the proand the splendid scene in the first act, Roze as the heroine showed herself a clever and gramme of the first concert. The Wagner where Savonarola first appears as a monk, the graceful artist; but Mdme. Valleria, who took selection was not particularly interesting. The address to Florence and the ensemble in the the part last season, gave a more powerful and “Huldigungs-Marsch” is not very attractive second act, and march and concluding scene characteristic picture of the maiden thirsting in a concert-room; the “Faust” Overture is of the third act created a deep impression on for revenge. Malle. Baldi, Miss Clara Perry, not one of Wagner's most characteristic coman audience not usually remarkable for enthu- Mr. Ludwig, and Mr. Barton McGuckin were positions; and the Vorspiel “Parsifal” appeals siasm. An examination of the score would again the Lydia, Chilina, Giuseppe, and Orso, and more especially to the few who have made the probably reveal beauties which passed un- ali acted and sang exceedingly well. A word pilgrimage to Bayreuth. And then, again, observed at the first performance; but, as the of praise is also due to Mr. Pope as the Count the “Hungarian Rhapsody” No. 1 in F of work is announced for production at Covent de Nevers, and especially to Mr. Barrington Liszt is not a piece of sufficient importance for Garden by Herr Franke's Company in June, Foote as Savelli the brigand.

an opening night. It is a clever composition, an opportunity will soon be afforded of be- On Friday evening there was an excellent and brilliantly scored, and one can hear it coming better acquainted with it. The general performance of Ambroise Thomas's charming once, or even twice, with pleasure; but the impression produced at Hamburg was that Mr. Opera, Mignon.” Miss Clara Perry as the success which Herr Richter obtained with its Stanford had treated his subject in a style heroine did full justice to herself. Mdme. two seasons ago was a passing, not a permanent, marked by great earnestness of purpose and in- Georgina Burns (Filma) and Mr. Barton one. We are speaking of its failure to draw the tensity of feeling. There is not a note throughout McGuckin (Wilhelm) well deserved the applause public, but we must also protest against the the work which panders to a vulgar taste ; there bestowed on them. The Opera was conducted place it occupied in the programme: the merry is no “ear-tickling" or mere writing for effect, with skill by Mr. Goossens.

Gipsy tunes came immediately after the solemn but the melody which is to be found on every Mr. A. Goring Thomas's “Esmeralda” was “Grail” music. The concert terminated with page of the score never intrudes itself for the given for the first time this season on Tuesday the “Eroica.” The performances were exsake of mere tune. The dramatic action is evening. When the work was produced in 1883, cellent, and we frankly discuss the programme never retarded by the musical form, but the we thought the merry chorus forming the con- scheme because the Richter Concerts deserve, balance between drama and music is consistently clusion of the fourth and last act an artistic and should command, success. maintained throughout; indeed, the whole work mistake. The composer has taken it away, and A new work by Sir G. A. Macfarren was permight fitly be classed as a "Music-drama," if music and words as they now stand are far formed at the concert given at the Crystal that term had not been appropriated by Wagner, more in accordance with the dramatic situation; Palace last Wednesday afternoon on the occato whose style, by-the-way, Mr. Stanford ex- some changes, too (though of less importance), sion of the opening of the London International

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MATTHAET PARISIENSIS MONACHI

SATURDAY, MAY 3, 1884.

book. With knowledge in the place of ignor- made his life's history other than that of

ance, with delicacy of touch in the place of Turgot; but it is to bring those defects into No. 626, Nero Series.

coarseness of handling, he gives us once more greater prominence than they deserve if no The Editor cannot undertake to return, or Macaulay's view of Bacon's life. Once more notice is taken of the Cassandra-like knowto correspond with the writers of, rejected we hear of the great thinker who was turned ledge of the future combined with the most

aside from his work of laying the foundations un-Cassandra-like power of providing a remedy. manuscript.

of science to become the mere hanger-on of The desire to rise in the world, consciously It is particularly requested that all business men like Buckingham and James. Unfor- or unconsciously, went for much with Bacon ;

letters regarding the supply of the paper, tunately, it is impossible to meet the charge by but the knowledge that his country could be &c., may be addressed to the PUBLISHER, and a direct negative. Yet there are some con- saved, and that he was the man to save it, not to the EDITOR.

siderations which may be alleged in pallia- worked in the same direction.

tion, if nothing can be said in excuse, of Bacon, in fact, had no real element of sucLITERATURE. Bacon's offence.

cess provided for him, and he was therefore In the first place, Bacon has led his critics all the more ready to clutch at what seeming " ENGLISH MEN OF LETTERS.”

somewhat astray. It was perfectly natural elements there were. The House of Commons Bacon. By R. W. Church, Dean of St. that he should think of his scientific work as was no more tolerant of his great schemes Paul's. (Macmillan.)

the true element of his life, and of all his an was Coke or Cecil. James, with all his The immensity of Bacon's genius is a sore weaving of ropes out of sand. But it does help Bacon. He had an ear open to large and

political toil, as indeed it was, as a mere faults, was probably the most likely man to trouble to his biographers. It is hardly pos- not follow that we are to take all Bacon's tolerant ideas, though in practice these ideas sible to imagine that any writer will ever be scientific work at Bacon's estimate. We know went for very little with him. At another able to approach him equally prepared from all sides, and it is no blame to Dean Church that he was a prophet of science and not a stage of our national progress Bacon might

scientific man; and, before we regret the have published speeches and written pamto say that, with all bis varied gifts, he is no interruptions to which his life was subjected, phlets, as Burke did, and have been known exception to the rule. He brings with him all that might be expected from the biographer ceivable direction he could have carried on political progress. The thing was impossible

we should first ask ourselves in what con- by future generations as the prophet of of Anselm, and the author of that thoughtful his studies with profit to the world. The in the beginning of the seventeenth century ; sketch of Andrewes which is unfortunately work which he could do he did, and his political work could only be done in one way, buried amid the work of other writers in a mental equipment would only have led him and that way was not the best. series of lectures delivered at King's College, into error if he had been enabled, through Such considerations are not alleged in arrest and published under the title of Masters of forty additional years of work, to elaborate in of judgment; but they may be allowed to English Theology. But it is evident that he detail the principles which he, once for all, modify the sentence which Dean Church has does not take any great interest in political laid down.

pronounced—if, at least, it be admitted that history, and yet it was in an attempt to shape

If, however, Dean Church over-estimates to turn aside a coming revolution, with all political history that the greater part of the duty which he assumes to have called its moral and material horrors, is as great a As might have been expected, the book is Bacon away . to science, he under-estimates service to mankind as to enlarge a scientific

SAMUEL R. GARDINER. one long protest against Mr. Spedding's view the duty which called him to politics. In one scheme. of Bacon's character. Mr. Spedding was too

luminous passage, indeed (p. 12), on Bacon's

Controversies in the Church, for Baconian himself, too apt to ask whether the which every

student of Bacon must

be grateful The Greek Liturgies ;, chiefly from Original thing done was right rather than whether it to him, he is able to show us something of

Authorities. Edited by C. A. Swainson. was done in the right spirit, to appreciate the what Bacon was; but the moment he has to

With an Appendix containing the Coptic feelings which Bacon's words and actions deal with purely political topics we get the

Ordinary Canon of the Mass from two arouse in men of another stamp. The objec- impression that Bacon was a large-minded

MSS. in the British Museum, Edited and tions to Bacon's conduct have probably never

Translated by Dr. C. Bezold. (Cambridge: been better put than in the following words: he took in hand, but who had unhappily man who could not help doing well whatever

University Press.) -"He" (i.e., Bacon)

taken in hand what he had better have left The object aimed at in this work is to exwas one of the men—there are many of them alone. Strange as it may sound, Dean Church hibit the text of the Greek Liturgies from who are unable to release their imagination has probably been helped by Mr. Spedding to the earliest sources now available. Dr. from the impression of present and immediate this depreciatory view of Bacon's political Swainson has been successful in tracking to as if he carried into conduct the leading rule of work. Mr. Spedding spent his life too com- their hiding-places and dislodging the is. his philosophy of nature, parendo vincitur. In pletely in wandering round the mountain to authorities for several printed texts, and

has both worlds, moral and physical, he felt himself take an accurate view of its relative size. He also hunted up, and printed for the first time, encompassed by vast forces, irresistible by direct notoriously spoke of all matters after Bacon's the texts of other codices. opposition. Men whom he wanted to bring death as unfamiliar ground to him, and when- The considerable interest that has been round to his purposes were as strange, as refrac- ever he refers to future events at all it is only awakened in the study of the early Liturgies tory, as obstinate, as impenetrable as the phe- to suggest that the ideas of Bacon's opponents in our own day, and has shown itself in the nomena of the natural world. . : : The first cost the country two revolutions and a civil works of Palmer, Bunsen, Neale, Littledale, word of his teaching about nature is that she

As a matter of fact, it is only by Daniel, and, more recently, C. E. Hammond, must be won by observation of her tendencies and demands; the same radical disposition of regarding Bacon's statesmanship from outside has in Dr. Swainson's work taken the shape temper reveals itself in his dealings with man;

that we learn his greatness. Study Eliot and of seeking to determine the texts more they, too, must be won by yielding to them, by Strafford, Pym and Cromwell, and you become accurately than has been done hitherto. adapting himself to their moods and ends, by aware of a one-sidedness in all of them. It Previous editors had been too ready to copy spying into the drift of their humour, by subtly is precisely this one-sidedness which is and reprint, reproducing old errors and addand pliantly falling in with it, by circuitous absent from Bacon. He stands out as the one ing new ones. Dr. Swainson's contribution and indirect processes, the fruit of vigilance and man, except Turgot, who stood at the begin to liturgiology in the volume before us conpatient thought. He thought to direct, while ning of an inevitable revolution with the in- sists mainly in exhibiting, with much accuracy, submitting apparently to be directed. But he telligence which would have"enabled him to the texts in the earliest forms in which he different powers and under different laws. He direct it into peaceful channels. Unhappily, has been able to discover them. Liturgical chose to please man, and not to follow what his the fact that he had the intelligence so early students will with gratitude receive the gift. soul must have told him was the better way. made it impossible that he should have the Yet one can scarcely doubt that the monastic He wanted, in his dealings with men, that power. As it was with him in science, so libraries of Greece and the East, if properly sincerity on which he insisted so strongly in his was it with him in politics. His plaintive examined, would yield MSS. of high value dealings with nature and knowledge. And the appeals to the judgment of a future age on for the purpose in view. When these libraries ruin of a great life was the consequence” (p. 4). his character show that he knew that in both were searched in former years it was generally We have here the key-note of Dean Church's he was before his time. His moral defects with a view to the discovery either of MSS.

war.

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