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streams of the River Plate as far as Asuncion cluding this episode, and a diversion to British than when dealing with literary ladies. on the Paraguay, some 1,300 miles from the Guiana and Barbados, where the yacht was Opportunities to do so were few, and were as coast. In these wild sub-tropical regions, laid up, the cruise and land journey, extend- Welcome as a holiday. To him, as to most never before visited by an English yachtsman, ing over a period of twenty months, from men of the age, it was a surprise that women some novel experiences are met with, as in August 1880 to April 1881, covered altogether should write so well; and he expressed his Gran Chaco while navigating a large lagoon a distance of some 22,000 miles, a sufficiently surprise, not in Johnsonian style, to the effect near Paraguay, when the vessel became, noteworthy performance for a yawl of eighteen that the marvel lay not in their writing so not ice-bound, but “lily bound.” As it tons register, manned by a crew of four well, but in their writing at all, but with the lay at anchor during a calm, the camelotas amateurs and a cabin-boy. A. H. KEANE. charming extravagance of a a school-girl. floating down in myriads got foul of the

From the choral tribute of contemporary chains, and gradually accumulating, formed round about the yacht

Maria Edgeworth. By Helen Zimmern. hyperbole it is well to turn to Byron's judg" Eminent Women" Series.

(W. H.

ment of these works, expressed with his " one great island of beautiful lilies in leaf, in Allen.)

usual searching insight : "they excite no feelflower and fruit. Finding that these were

ing, and they leave no love--except for some causing us to drag our anchors, we left off Few literary women have possessed more Irish steward or postillion. However, the hanging over the bows, ' living up to the pre- genuine pretensions to eminence than Maria impression of intellect and prudence is procious things, and, waxing unaesthetic, com- Edgeworth, and her right to a place in Mr. found, and may be useful.” The value of menced to ruthlessly cut them away with cut- Ingram's series may not be disputed. For the moral tales is discussed with much keen lasses and hatchets, a long and tedious process.” many years of her long life she was indeed sense by Miss Zimmern. Her final remark Here also an opportunity was afforded of pre-eminent. From nearly, all her contem- on their popularity contains an excellent verifying the statement that the curious pavo poraries her works received unmeasured aperçu :birds will remain quietly perched on a tree to applause, while she herself was prodigiously be shot in detail, if the sportsman is fortunate caressed by society. This success was owing Like all Miss Edgeworth’s writings, they enough to knock one over before the flock in no slight degree to her social gifts, her found instant favour, and were translated into takes wingpowers of observation and conversation, her from their merits, we cannot avoid the inference

French and German. With no desire to detract An interesting account is given of the admirable good sense and serene geniality. that this circumstance points to a great lack of present social and political state of Paraguay The story of her life has never before been contemporary foreign fiction of a pure and and its heroic Guarani inhabitants, who appear told with such completeness. Miss Zimmern's attractive kind.” to show no signs of recovery from the style is in accord with her subject; and her disastrous_war waged by Lopez against his work is commendably free from digressions, Miss Zimmern is a little prone to exaggerate powerful Brazilian and Argentine neighbours

. skilfully arranged, and well-proportioned the importance of women's work in literature. But, although the country seems to have no There is much that is interesting, even more It is difficult to restrain a smile when we are future, “her people dance and sing and weave that is attractive, in Maria Edgeworth's life. told that, “When the literary history of the garlands of flowers in the sunshine ; like the Her strong life-long affection for her father is nineteenth century is written, its historians practical epicureans that they are."

very charming. It is something even deeper will be amazed to find how important a part the Several well-written chapters are devoted and more pathetic than the love Mdme. de contributions of women have played therein ; to a graphic account of a long ride across the Staël bore towards her father. Miss Zimmern and this is observed à propos of Maria EdgeArgentine States to the remote province of instinctively recognises in this ruling passion worth and her contemporaries. Surely the Tucuman, the "Eden of South America,” a biographical fact of primary importance, the fact that they played a part is more important over 1,100 miles from the coast. During this key-stone of a life not less exemplary in itself than the part they played, and the amazeexpedition good opportunities were afforded than fruitful in influencing others. The right ment of the future historian will be duly of studying the present condition of the estimation of this fact may seem a slight tempered with the proverbial justice of posPampas lands and their wild Gaucho inhabit- matter, yet it is on some such fundamental terity. Miss Zimmern's natural appreciation ants. But it requires no small amount of truth that all biography, worthy of the title, of nineteenth-century literature is combined credulity to accept some of the astounding rests. To it may be traced all that is valuable with a little injustice towards the eighteenth instances of the preternatural sagacity of in Miss Zimmern's book, its consistency and century. In allusion to the worldliness and these semi-nomad children of the prairie. unity and truth.

somewhat low morale of Maria Edgeworth's Two Englishmen, we are told, were once It is to be feared that the present genera- heroines, who are ever looking out “ “ for sleeping in a lone hut, when one of them, tion does not read Maria Edgeworth. There good establishment," Miss Zimmern remarks: bearing a noise in the bush, hurriedly put on is, perhaps, little cause to regret that her

“But, after all, she was teaching only in the wrong boots in the dark, and went out fashionable novels and prolix moralities are accordance with the superficial philosophy of with his gun in the hope of getting a shot at now relegated to the limbo of fossil fiction. the last century, which led people to found some nightly prowler. In the morning his It is greatly to be deplored, on the other their doctrines entirely upon self-interest.” Gaucho servant said to him, “What did you hand, that her delightful stories for children, In what respect, it may be asked, did they think there was in the bush when you went so full of happy, artless grace and exquisite differ from the practice of the present century? oat last night, Señor?” “How do you know fancy, should give place to writings in every In another place we read of "the crude I went out ?” “I saw the marks of boots in sense inferior. One would hope, too, that the mechanical school of Rousseau," and feel it the ground, not your boots, but your friend's; humour of Castle Rackrent was as evergreen hard that Rousseau's theories should be inbut it was your tread!”

as the shamrock, that the fame of the one yolved in Mr. Edgeworth's and Thomas Day's But space will allow no more than the work of Maria Edgeworth that has never been clumsy application of them. triefest allusion to the venal judges, dis- overrated would last beyond our time, and

These little blemishes, however, do not reputable clergy, visiting saints, mediaeval that it was still read. Yet it is not easy to affect the general excellence of Miss Zimsystems of torture still in vogue, the meet with this admirable book, and few novel- mern's book, which will do good service to teeming insect life, the “Colorado bichos” readers can give much account of it. Perhaps literature if it only assist in a revival of Maria and locusts, the weird forests of giant cacti, both it and the children's stories are suffering Edgeworth's writings and a reconsideration of the Quichua-speaking Spanish communities, their unmerited share of the retribution of her place in literature. It also furnishes some the clever Bolivian "collas" or medicine- time and the reaction from the extreme capital little pictures of the home-circle at men, the concave roads, crazy ferry-boats, laudation of Almeria and Mancurring. It Edgeworthstown and the interesting Lichfield and other varied sights and scenes of this must be confessed that Miss Zimmern's criti

society presided over by the amiable and strange borderland between civilisation and cism of those works is not so sound as her accomplished Anna Seward. barbarism. excellent estimate of the juvenile series.

J. ARTHUR BLAIKIE. On the return voyage, a visit was paid to She quotes Macaulay's well-known commendathe almost unknown islet of Trinidad east tion of The Absentee with the remark, “No from Rio de Janeiro, abounding in tame fish, mean authority and no mean praise !" and till tamer water-fowl, and horrible land-crabs, without the faintest reprehension. Like most but destitute of all other animal life. In literary men, Macaulay was never less critical

a a

THREE BOOKS ON JURISPRUDENCE. has been gradually becoming more and more Of Mr. Sheldon Amos's Roman Civil Law The Institutes of the Law of Nations :

clearly defined, but now the fog threatens to we cannot speak very warmly. His aim,

To Treatise of the Jural Relations of Separate settle down once more. say that juris- indeed, is excellent. Before the study of Political Communities. By James Lorimer. prudence should be confined to the study of Roman law can become of real service in Vol. I. (Blackwood.)

existing laws, argues Mr. Lightwood, seems legal education, we must be ready to go The Nature of Positive Law. By John Light-seek to improve the current text-books in direction was made by the publication of

equivalent to saying that we may, indeed, beyond the Institutes. A step in the right vood. (Macmillan.)

dynamics, but must not seek to alter their Holland and Shadwell's Select Titles from The History and Principles of the Civil Law of substance." The analogy is sound on neither the Digest. But there is still need of

Rome : an Aid to the Study of Scientific side. There are hidden phenomena in existing “a trustworthy guide to those who proand Comparative Jurisprudence. By Sheldon systems of law, as there may be hidden forces pose to study the Corpus Juris, or parts of

Amos. (Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co.) in nature; to discover them, or to give a it, exhaustively." Mr. Amos, however, The first volume of Prof. Lorimer's Institutes new true explanation of known phenomena, does not play the part of Blackstone very is devoted to international recognition and to is within the province of the jurist, as it is well. It is in the study of such titles as the normal, or peace, relations of States; the within that of the physical philosopher to dis- Possession that the student has real need of second will treat of their abnormal relations, cover existing but unknown facts, or to give preliminary guidance; but as to the nature of belligerency and neutrality. The portion a new and true explanation of known facts; of Possession and the growth of the concepof the work which has already appeared has but beyond this neither may go.

We cannot tion Mr. Amos has not made up his own mind, all the merits of his former books : it is allow a jurist finally to decide whether the and he gives an account of it which is both written in a clear and vigorous style, it dis- rules of succession to personal property and to hazy and incorrect. But the most serious deplays a wide knowledge of his subject, and it real property should be made identical, any fecť of the book is its failure to fulfil the is full of bold and independent thought. If more than we should take the opinion of a promise of its title. We have a sketch of the he could only convert us to his own sturdy professor of applied mathematics on the ques- external history of the law before Justinian, belief in the law of nature—of which he tion whether steam engines have benefited the and a sketch of its external history in modern holds all true and valid laws to be the realisa- human race. Of a hundred things which times; and between these sketches is sandtion—we should feel that he had swept away must be considered in deciding whether a law wiched a summary of the principles of the law half the difficulties of the subject. His aim is good or bad, such as the temper of the as it existed in Justinian's time. There are is “to place International Law on deeper and people, or the economical effects of the law, the plenty of existing text-books which relate to more stable foundations than comity or con- jurist, as jurist, knows nothing. Mr. Light- external history; but what the student vention.” In his view, recognition is not an wood himself recognises this when he says needs more than this is an introduction to the act of courtesy or comity, but is a right which that where there is a conflict of interests the history of the principles themselves. Of the cannot be jurally withheld; there is no such source of law must be legislation, not science. history of contract or of the rules of succesthing as purely conventional law; unnatural He ignores the fact that in the making of new sion Mr. Amos has little to say. The student, laws are not laws, extradition is a natural laws, which is not merely formal, whether it moreover, will have to read with some duty. The point of view from which Prof. is made directly by Parliament or indirectly suspicion such history as Mr. Amos is content Lorimer regards law is in many ways so by judges, there is always a conflict of in- to give. The account of the jus gentium is so remarkable that we must defer a fuller con- terests.

obviously unsatisfactory that perhaps it will sideration of his book till the appearance of

In other respects Mr. Lightwood's book is lead nobody astray; but he perpetuates a the second volume. We refer to it at pre- full of interest. It is an attempt to arrive mischievous error when he says that Roman sent in connexion with a book of a very at such a conception of law as recent his- law preponderates in Bracton. We must not, different character-Mr. Lightwood's Nature torical research demands; and both he and however, do Mr. Amos's work injustice. His of Positive Law. At the outset Mr. Lightwood Prof. Clark, working independently, have aim, as we have said, is excellent; and, in and Prof. Lorimer are as far apart as two arrived at nearly the some result. What is default of a more scientific work, the student thinkers can well be. The former criticises the true characteristic of law ? It is not the will find that a summary of the whole law, Austin by the light which Sir Henry Maine sanctioning force, though that may exception such as is given him here, will be of very has furnished; in the eyes of the latter the ally be the only support; it is rather public considerable service. G. P. MACDONELL. progress of the historical method is the rising opinion. And he defines a law as “a rule of the tide of empiricism. Yet, travelling by explanatory of a rule of morality, ascertained different roads, they both arrive at very nearly by proper authority, and resting upon the the same conception of jurisprudence. Mr. assent of the community.”. The terms of the Juan de Valdés' Commentary upon St. Paul" Lightwood defines it as a science which has definition may be improved; but probably no

First Epistle to the Church at Corinth for its ultimate aim the ascertainment of rules more precise statement would apply to all

Now first Translated by John T. Betts which shall regulate human relations in ac- societies. (It may be observed, in passing, that

(Trübner.) cordance with the common sense of Right;" by his own definition Mr. Lightwood is guilty the Law of Nations, according to Prof. of an illegal act in publishing a book without Golden Thoughts from the Spiritual Guide o Lorimer, is “ the law of nature realised in the an index.) He is less successful in the dis- Miguel Molinos. With Preface by J. Henry relations of separate nations.” Both agree

tinction which he draws between law and Shorthouse. (Glasgow: Bryce; London that it is within the province of jurisprudence morality. He says that “all the rules of

Fisher Unwin.) to determine the goodness or the badness of morality may be assumed to be known, and TIE“ Considerations" of Juan de Valdés an laws. And their tests are alike. Mr. Light- yet that the best disposed individual may the works of Miguel Molinos found Englisl wood's test is public opinion, or, where this often be in doubt as to how he is to observe admirers and were translated in the seven opinion cannot be directly ascertained, utility; them ”—and the law gives him the infor- teenth century by men whose general opinion and Prof. Lorimer's law of nature is only a mation. Yet to the natural mind perjury were singularly in contrast with the theo glorified utility. They carry out their prin- is not less obviously immoral than false- logical views of the originals. Valdés, whos ciples, indeed, with unequal boldness. While hood. We do not lose sight of the ability opinions more nearly resemble those of th the one would say that a law which is neither with which Mr. Lightwood supports his Friends or of the Plymouth Brethren of ou popular nor useful is an exceptional pheno- theory of law, when we say that the best day, than those of any other sect, was englishe menon, the other courageously holds that “a parts of his book consist of his sketch of the in 1638 by Nicholas Ferrar, one of the nobles private law founded on . erroneous growth of Roman law (selected as the best of those High Churchmen who have attempte interpretation of natural law, however for example of a system whose development has to graft a modified monastic rule upon th mally enacted, is not a law at all in the sense been little affected by external circumstances), Church of England. The works of Molinos which attaches to law as falling within the and his exposition of the different views of the Quietist, who carries absorption to it scope of the science of jurisprudence.” When the English and the German schools of juris- highest pitch, and sublimates Christianity til so much is being done to improve on Austin, prudence. Is it due to Mr. Lightwood that its essence has well-nigh evaporated, wer it is surely to be regretted that such a back- another English translation of Thering's Der collected, turned into French, and publisher ward step should be made. Jurisprudence Kampf um': Recht has recently appeared ? at Amsterdam in 1688, under the care of thi



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turbulent and intriguing (though The Pastoral Italy and at Rome, it is hardly exact to imply (but by no means engulfed) Society when Care shows that there was another side to his that his condemnation was due to the Jesuits we were all about fifteen years younger, but character) Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury. alone. He was condemned by Bossuet and by as an able and cheerful polemic against most It is interesting to enquire what it was in Fénelon. Burnet's attraction to him can of the worst follies which will pester us, and these Italianised Spaniards of whom the have consisted solely in the fact that he was possibly our children, to the last-recorded one taught at Naples (1530–41), the other at condemned by Rome. Mr. Shorthouse con- not without a good deal of plain-speaking, Rome (1665–96) -- which attracted to them cludes his Preface with a page of rare elo which may yet do something, as it must men of schools of thought in some respects so quence and beauty in praise of the service of have done already, to stem the torrent. opposite to their own.

the Mass; but, though Molinos wrote a trca- Ephemeral in its exaggeration and neryJuan de Valdés, as a commentator, is well- tise on Daily Communion, his followers seem ous striving after effect such writing must nigh unique. His commentaries are the most to have been first remarked, and afterwards be of necessity; but it would be unjust personal and subjective of any that I know. detected, by their abstention from the Mass as and ungenerous to deny that, taken as a whole, Though of considerable scholarship-evidently well as from other external observances. This a rapid review of the book will cause most translating from, and able to think in, the volume is called Golden Thoughts, and beautiful readers to modify very materially their opinion original Greek; showing on every page that some of them are; yet the sense of straining and of its demerits. In fact, we agree in the he was no unworthy friend of Erasmus; not effort after an almost unattainable end con- main with Mrs. Linton's views as she sumunacquainted, as his noble version of the trasts sadly with the deep calm of the De marises them in her Preface. “More than Psalms proves, with the Hebrew-he makes Imitatione; and of the penultimate chapter, ever convinced that I have struck the right no parade of his learning, but sedulously the climax of the whole, the conclusion is, chord of condemnation," she says, depreciates it in comparison with inward “Walk, therefore, in this safe path, and I neither soften nor retract a line of what I light. In textual criticism he is wholly sub- endeavour to overwhelm thyself in this have said. One of the modern phases of jective; thus, he thinks the words, 1 Cor. i. 12, nothing (the italics are not ours); endeavour womanhood-hard, unloving, mercenary, ambi* and I of Cep has, and I of Christ,” an inter- to use thyself

, to seek deep into it, if thou tious, without domestic faculty, and devoid of polation, simply from his exegesis of the hast a mind to be annihilated, united, and healthy natural instincts—is still to me context. As a translator his renderings are transformed.” What is this but Nihilism ? pitiable mistake and a grave national disaster.” often singularly happy. On difficult and Can it be, as Menendez Pelayo has suggested, As in her attack on what she called the disputed points he either says plainly that that the revived study of Molinos marks a "Shrieking Sisterhood," she still disapproves he does not understand them, or gives secret sympathy between his doctrines and of a “public and professional life for women," his opinion as one of many from which those of pessimism and agnosticism? Neither thinking " that the sphere of human action the reader must make his choice. In Juan de Valdés nor Molinos attains the highest is determined by the fact of sex, and that accordance with this, his theory of inspira- rank. Even as mystics, both need the contact there does exist both natural limitation and tion is far removed from the Protestant one with practical life which did so much for natural direction." of verbal inspiration. He does not hesitate to St. François de Sales and for Sta. Teresa. Probably no satirist has ever yet been fair sy, c.9., 1 Cor. v. 9–13, “St. Paul, through. Neither can vie with St. Augustin, who ruled to his victims, for exaggeration is the practical out this passage, speaks so confusedly that it the theological, or with St. Bernard, who difference between satire and history. If is scarcely possible to understand what he swayed the political world of his day, yet something, therefore, is to be conceded to a means." 'Apostolic inspiration differs only in whose mystic writings speak still to the inner Persius or a Churchill, still more may be degree and not in kind from that of every true soul of millions now, as they have done to allowed to a weekly Juvenal who can only Christian. He is free from Bibliolatry, and successive generations of almost every Christian instruct by amusing. In the existence of the says " that the faith which springs from man's tongue and Christian sect in the past. Girl of the Period probably no one report, or from the Scriptures, will never plant One word as to the merits of these transla- seriously believed any more than in the them in the Kingdom of God.” The doctrine tions: that of Mr. Betts is far superior. On possibility of a Mrs. "Gamp; but there can of imputation he holds in its most extreme p. 55, 1. 11, of the Golden Thoughts a word ħardly be much doubt that the monster was form, and also that of election. Assurance must have dropped out. “Interiorising" is compounded of certain well-defined follies and consists in inward peace of conscience. His surely not a gain to English. Why follow vices, which were each sufficiently unmisviews of baptism are high, but on the Eucharist Mr. Bigelow in saying that Molinos was born takeable and prominent at the time in various he is far more reticent. His attitude generally at Minozzi (Minuesa), in Aragon ? This is individuals. The famous article will now be is that of an esoteric teacher speaking to a like stating that an Englishman was born at read with little more than antiquarian interest, select circle of disciples. At times he seems Londres. Nor can Sta. Teresa be truly said to since the monster it attacks has now someconscious of what is lacking in this attitude : be “ of Arila. WENTWORTH WEBSTER. what changed her mien; but we can hardly "Were it permitted to true Christians to live

dismiss as of bygone interest such pas, Christianly, they would not have to hide up

sages, for instance, as the description of a as they do." Yet he does not attain to tolera- The Girl of the Period, and other Social "fair young English girl"_" a creature tion; he would have all the vicious and those Essays. By Mrs. Lynn Linton. In 2 vols. generous, capable, modest, something franker who differ “excommunicated and cast out of (Bentley.)

than a Frenchwoman, more to be trusted than the Christian Church." What, then, is it in CONSIDERABLE interest attaches to the repub- an Italian, as brave as an American but more such a writer which could attract G. Herbert lication of these Essays. In the first place, refined, as domestic as a German and more and Ferrar in the times of the Puritans ? The there was long a doubt as to the identity of graceful,” with much more that is well worth magnet is, I think, his incomparable style. the author, which we were surprised to find an English girl's attention. Taidés saw that beauty of language does not settled in favour of a lady whose novels we The papers on “Modern Mothers”

are, consist in elaboration and affectation, but in so thoroughly dislike. Again, it is curious to perhaps, too severe; but they strike at a natural fitness to the thought. He never be reminded of the fuss and indignation which crying evil, and are scarcely yet out of date. descends to the coarse abuse of opponents were excited by the setting up and demolish. It would be useless to single out for special earrent in his day. To read his works is like ing of that monster of fiction the Girl of the mention a few of the essays, which, indeed, Kistening to the conversation of a high-bred, Period, and to note how far, and to what preserve a pretty uniform level of tone and of courteous gentleman; he says plainly what he good purpose, the world has travelled since ability. Nor do we wish to point out those fhinks, he is not afraid to call a spade a spade, then. Still stranger is it to find that these which, while passing at the time without yet he still preserves all the grace of the most papers

, which, as we used to skim them each reproof, seem now open to the charge of bad refined courtier. This is the charm of Valdés. Bunday, seemed so largely tinctured with taste. There is often in the very titles a It is for this that he will find readers fit, if paradox and clever flippancy, when read in something not quite pleasant, and much also tew; and of those whose religious views are in the light of later controversies are very full on the surface; but, considering the necessity sympathy with his, he must ever remain a of truth and soberness. This, indeed, is the of writing up to the popular craving for zost choice favourite.

legitimate excuse for their re-appearance, and novelty and piquancy, the general impression Kolínos presents us with a more difficult, it is a very sufficient one. The book possesses is one of sound sense and apparent rectitude but not less interesting, problem. Though at a distinct value, not only as a permanent of feeling. Two volumes, and bulky volumes, first his writings were received with favour in record of a bad tidal wave which passed over of light satires on departed follies are rather

ever ance.

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a heavy infliction; but they need not be read a remarkable sobriety and accuracy of judg, was the true title of the work referred to in the all at once.

The collection is quite worth ment. The importance of Beyle in French Preface as a “ Year in a Lancashire Garden" having as a resource against rainy days; and literary history is something of a modern yet the treatment is all the author's own. Mr. such papers as that on "Otherwise Minded” discovery, and M. Bourget has a right to Milner indulged in bountiful quotations from and that on " Womanliness are good reading claim a position as one of its chief expositors, the personal associations she is able to weave for any day.

E. PURCELL. but he is not carried away by." discoverer's round her flowers, her shrubs, her troos, and


Altogether the book is a very good her birds. In addition, she has used with much

one, and may be said definitely to increase offoot for head- and tail-pieces that graceful Essais de Psychologie contemporaine. Par by one the for some time past dwindling list pencil with which the world is already familiar. P. Bourget. (Paris : Lemerre.)

of contemporary French critics of a high class. It must be a grievous thought to some who It is impossible not to regret that M. Bourget

GEORGE SAINTSBURY. were themselves brought up in a garden, that

their children cannot have the same privilege. has deferred, or appeared to defer, to con

Half the pleasures of the country are due to the temporary fashion (unkind folk might call it

revival of old memories. contemporary cant) by calling his book “psy


John Bull and his Island. By Max OʻRell. ehological" essays. Who will deliver us from Red Deer. By Richard Jefferies. (Longmans.) Translated from the French under the superpsychology and physiology and all the rest Everything that Mr. Jefferies writes about vision of the Author. (Field & Tuer.) It is of the pseudo-scientific jargon in matters wild nature is worth reading, for he pos- unnecessary now to recommend this book to literary? M. Bourget would be at least as well sessos both an observant eye and a descriptive anyone. It deserves to have the same sort of qualified as another to attempt this deliver- pon. But we had begun to fear that he had

success as had The Fight in Dame Europa's He has in reality given us five excel- yielded to the temptation that besets every School or The Battle of Dorking. We will only lent literary essays-on Baudelaire, on M. successful man of letters nowadays of repeating remark that the translation has been unusually Renan, on Flaubert, on M. Taine, and on

ad nauseam those effects by which he first won well done, and that the geniality of the satire is Beyle. But his title, or rather the aim which reputation. In the present little volume be attested by the success with which it has breaks new ground for him, though the undergone this process.

John Bull's best prescribed his title, has induced him to dwell ground is not so entirely now as he would have defence is that “Max O'Rell” knows little of the chiefly on the mental peculiarities of his his readers think. He takes us to Exmoor, the inside of an English home, and still loss of authors as displayed in their works, and on one part of England where deer are still found English country life. the effect which these peculiarities exercise wild, and the one part of the United Kingdom

An Infallible Way to Contentment in the Midst on the mental development of their readers. where they are still hunted with hounds and For our part, we frankly own to a preference, horses for the legitimate object of slaughter of Public and Personal Calamities. First pubin matters literary as in others, for dealing

He describes the hunt, though apparently not lished in the year 1638. , (Religious Tract with the ding an sich ; but that is, no doubt, purpose, bowever, is to describe the red deer as one who has taken part in it. His main Society.) This is the third of the society's

Companions for a Quiet Hour.” We have a personal preference and an arguable point. themselves, and the peculiar tract of country read it with much interest

, and can testify that However this may be, M. Bourget has, which is, as it were, consecrated to them. From it is judicious and sober in tone, singularly as a matter of fact, been led very little, the huntsman and the “harbourer” he has free from all trace of sectarianism, uniformly if at all, astray bý his desire to elevate picked up many wrinkles; but he has also well written, and that it attains often to a or to degrade (let us give the fullest choice much to tell from his own keen experience. The considerable degree of eloquence, which is well of terms) literary criticism into a branch of readers of his other books—and who has not sustained, and shows but little tendency to sink experimental science. His five essays are

read them ?-will find the same elaboration of into the bathos that is the pitfall of minor all remarkable pieces of work. The first, on

details that would be tedious if each detail were writers of the seventeenth century. Scattered

not true and expressed in such choice English. through it are interesting historical allusions, Baudelaire, is the shortest, and not, we think, The book, it must be confessed, is a slight one, such as the metaphor from the closing of the the best ; for M. Bourget hardly gives sufficient and somewhat lengthened out with poachers

' Exchequer at p. 109. From the references to expression to Baudelaire's remarkable faculty stories. Still

, it is one not to be overlooked by Hobson, the carrier, Hieron (here spelt Heiron), of irony, and to the strong and sound sense those who love nature and the literature of and Luther, and, among others, the concluding which lay behind his affectations and extrava- nature.

passages referring to "reproaches, oppressions, gances. Unquestionably the critic is aware of Sailors' Language: a Collection of Sea-Terms into prisons, draggings before tribunals,". we

and persecutions ; false accusations, halings these things, and more than one remark of his and their Definitions. By W. Clark Russell. had suspected that the author was a Cambridge suggests his knowledge. But a reader of his (Sampson Low.) Mr. Clark Russell, like Mr.

man, and a Nonconformist of the school of essay who did not know Baudelaire's own work, Jefferies, has got the ear of the public; and, in Baxter. But we are indebted to the courtesy and had not corrected the Fleurs du Mal by La a matter of this kind the public are never of the secretary of the Religious Tract Society Fanfarlo and the critical essays, might go off entirely

wrong. In this book be provides us for the information that the original edition, to with the same entirely erroneous notion of the from the attraction the sea will always exercise by the author of The Devout Communicant. ... poet which has deceived not merely the com- on Englishmen, there is a special attraction in Abednego Seller, then rector of a parish in mon herd of Philistia, but even such a writer sea-slang, which is not so entirely unintelligible Devonshire, and afterwards a non-juror. Paras Mr. Henry James. On M. Renan M. to landsmen as Mr. Clark Russell seems to ticulars of his life and works are given in Bourget is copious and extremely interesting; imply. There are, of course, a large number of Wood's Athenae ; and Hearne makes mention of as a characterisation of the man, his paper purely technical terms which can only be ex- him

in 1705 as' recently dead, and as having is the best critical study yet published. plained by experience, or, perhaps, by illustra- supplied Cave with materials for his Historia That on Flaubert is also very good, and M. tion; a. But most of the metaphors and proverbs Literaria. Perhaps the attribution may be Bourget does yeoman's service in showing how would, wo venture to think, be sufficiently open to some doubt; but there can be no doubt

by all who

and that great novelist was a romantic, and not a ears open. To say (p. ix.) that “ sailors' talk is

on another point-viz., the writer's indebtednaturalist, in creed and method. With the fourth a dialect as distinct from ordinary English as The latter's Art of Contentment was published

ness to the author of The Whole Duty of Man essay, that on M. Taine, we confess somewhat Hindustanee is,

or Chinese," is certainly a gross in 1675, and a comparison of the two shows that less satisfaction ; not that it does not contain exaggeration. Still, we are far from wishing to the later author was indebted to the earlier not much good literary criticism, and, like that on grumble (nautice "growl”) at what

Mr. Clark only for the general scheme of his treatise, but M. Renan, some acute analysis of character. Russell has here given us. It is undoubtedly also for many illustrative details. It may be But M. Bourget seems to us to put the bril- the best

modern sailor's distionary in existence added that Foll, at the end of his Preface to liant author of Thomas Graindorge a little of the many matters in it that have arrested the anonymous author's collected works

, oom. too high in the scale. To most English crankum whales "=those that can't be cotched; published in the form of an Appendix to it readers the last essay, that on “Stendhal," and, with much deference, ask Mr. Clark and entitled The Art of Patience under all will contain most that is new, for the author Russell to reconsider whether “ on the beam"

Afflictions. of the Chartreuse de Parme is anything but is satisfactorily defined as "said of an object BO well known here as he ought to be. right abreast."

The Marriage Ring. By the Right Rev Besides this accidental attraction, the paper

Jeremy Taylor, D.D., Bishop of Down and

Days and Hours in a Garden. By E. V. B. Connor, and of Dromore. A Reprint from the (which, though its length is considerable, we (Elliot Stock.), A beautiful book in a beautiful Fourth Edition of his ENIATTOZ published in 1678 could wish longer and increased by a detailed dress. Though the idea is admittedly taken Edited, with

a Preface, Appendix, and Notes notice of all Beyle's work) is distinguished by from Mr. Milner's Country Pleasures-for that by Francis Burdett Money Coutts.' (Boll.) A


an accurate and carefully annotated reprint of weights and measures, and on the general Ellicott, will be published at the end of the one of the choicest masterpieces of English properties of matter. Very youthful and in- present month by Messrs. Cassell & Co. It rhetorical prose this book is very acceptable, experienced teachers of infants may per- extends from Job to Isaiah inclusive; and the though perhaps the Parchmont Series might haps gain a few useful hints from it. But contributors are the Rev. Stanley Leathes, the have suggested a more desirable format. But neither in the subjects chosen nor in the Rev. A. S. Aglen, the Rev. J. W. Nutt, Prof. it claims to be more than this, and is, in fact, an method of treatment is there anything original Salmon, and Dean Plumptre. The fifth volume, édition de luxe with a purpose. The Appendix, or specially deserving of praise. The author is completing the work, is in active preparation. 80 modestly indicated on the title-page, occupies unable to divest himself of the pedantry which considerably more space than Jeremy Taylor's regards it as the highest triumph of an "object nearly ready The

Touch of Fate, by Mrs. Posnett;

MESSRS. J. & R. MAXWELL announce as discourse"; and we are invited to regard it lesson” to explain the meaning of such abstract Cherry, in three volumes, by Mrs. C. Reade; as “an essay, in which it is sought to terms as perpendicular, oblique, opaque, porous, Madeline's Mystery, edited by Miss Braddon; develop the ideas of marriage, suggested in malleable, ductile, tenacious, granular, and absorb, A True Woman, by Mr. Percy B. St. John; The Marriage Ring, with reference to social ent ---words which have no proper place at all Under the Will,' by Miss M. C. Hay; and a problems of the present day; While doing full in the vocabulary of little children. justice to the author's intentions, to the delicacy apparently unaware that it is through their cheap edition of "Rita’s” novels, commencing

with Dame Durden. of his thought and expression, to the catholicity slavery to formulae of this kind that so many of his literary taste, to the wide range of his teachers in infant schools have allowed their MR. ELLIOT STOCK will shortly publish a reading, we cannot help expressing a doubt lessons to fall into a mechanical routine; have volume of Epirote Folk Songs, translated by whether this “ethical Appendix ” is not an substituted mere verbiage for mental training; Miss Garnett, with an historical Introduction excrescence on a work of the apparent character and have failed altogether to fulfil the proper by Mr. J. Stuart Glennie. of that before us. The editor's practical con- purpose of an object lesson, which is to awaken

A SECOND edition of Mr. T. Wemyss Reid's clusion is to be found in his closing words :- an observant interest in familiar things, and to novel, Gladys Fane, has already been called for, “It is a solemn thought for the pure of the elementary facts of nature which may form the Fisher Unwin, who will at the same time bring

teach in an untechnical way some of those and will be issued next Monday by Mr. T. that, after all, some of the roots of vice may be best foundation for the future study of physical out a third edition of Arminius Vambéry: his in themselves, in their own false and inadequate science. The somewhat pretentious and super- Life and Adventures. ideas. They cannot keep their children's hearts ficial attempt to explain the philosophy of the empty, swept, and garnished." Let them, there whole subject which is made in the Preface Series" will be the state and Education, by Mr.

THE next volume in the óó English Citizen fore, people them with those ideas of love and will hardly

atone, with readers who possess any Henry Craik, author of the recent Life of Swift, marriage which religion inculcates and the moral practical knowledge of infant discipline, for sense approves."

their disappointment on finding that the book and general editor of the series. This is no doubt a problem of vast importance itself does so little to enlarge the range of that We learn that Mr. Griggs is making progress to society, but it is scarcəly one to be treated in knowledge, or to suggest any better methods of with his invaluable series of facsimiles of the an édition de luxe of an English classic.

training, interrogation, or mental development original editions of Shakspere. The Passionate

than are already in daily use in ordinary infant Pilgrim is now finished on stone, and will be An Illustrated Manual of Object Lessons. Con- schools.

printed off next week. Richard III. will follow taining Hints for Lessons in Thinking and Speaking. Edited from the work of F. Wieder- Purchases, and

Mortgages of Land. By Edwd.
The Duties of Solicitor to Client as to Sales,

MR. KARL BLIND will have a paper in the mann by Henrietta and Wilhelmina Rooper. (Sonnenschein.) This book is evidently the F. Turner. (Stevens & Sons.) This is a Antiquary of February on the famous Hawick product of actual experience in the teaching of reproduction of the author's recent course of war-cry, Teribus ye Teri Odin,” which he little children, and differs materially from the lectures at the Incorporated Law Society, and is explains from German mythology. ordinary manuals of object lessons, in which primarily addressed to students entering the

John Bull and his Island has been reprinted lists of " qualities," "parts,” and “uses

profession. It is, however, so well written and by Messrs. Chas. Scribner's Sons, of New York, arranged in a more or less scientific order

, with arranged, and so free from unnecessary techni- to whom Messrs. Field & Tuer' sent advance a great array of technical terms. Familiar

calities, that we doubt not it will be acceptable to sheets. objects, such as a chair, a knife, a stocking, and those laymon who are interested in watching

A SECOND edition of Voice, Song, and Speech, a window, are taken one after another and the effect of recent legislation on the transfer of land.

by Messrs. Lennox Browne and Emil Behnke, is made the subject of little conversational

already announced, the first having sold out exercises, beginning with something very

within a month of publication, familiar and within the range of an infant's


By a clerical error the title of Mr. H. Schützexperience, and carrying him on to some facts which lie a little way beyond it. The book will MESSRS. KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, & Co. will Wilson's forthcoming book has been announced strike most teachers as needlessly bulky in publish in the course of the next ten days a Storiesin History, Legend, and Literature, proportion to the amount of material or sug- will be Social Problems, and it will deal with Literature.

new work by Mr. Henry George. The title instead of “ Studiesin History, Legend, and gestion which it contains. questions and answers are printed at lengtń the questions raised in his previous book, Pro

THE date of the Bewick sale, referred to in which will seem to many readers to be either gress and Poverty.

the ACADEMY of last week, has been altered. trivial or redundant. It is rather in regard to MR. ELLIOT STOCK announces an edition of It is now fixed for Tuesday, February 5, and the method than to the substance of these ele- Gray's “Elegy," with illustrations taken prin- the two following days. The auctioneers are mentary lessons on common things that the cipally from the scenery round Stoke Pogis, Messrs. Davison & Šon, of Blackett Street, book is likely to prove helpful to young and with facsimiles of the author's early Ms. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. teachers. By insisting on the necessity of copies of the poem.

DR. KLUGE, of Strassburg, is to re-edit, for obtaining from children, in answer to questions,

In the edition of Dr. Bucke's Walt Whitman the Early-English Text Society, the Lives of entire sentences instead of single words, the about to be published by Messrs. Wilson & Saint Margaret first edited by the late Oswald authors make their object lessons, from the first, M'Cormick, of Glasgow, some additional matter Cockayne, and issued by the society in 1866. a discipline in expression and in the right use will be introduced giving a fuller record of the of language-a point of considerable import- history of opinion in England with reference to

The ordinary lecture season at the Royal ance too generally overlooked by teachers of Whitman. These Addenda, compiled by Prof. Stuart Poole is to give the first of two lectures

Institution will begin next week. Mr. R. infants. And by regarding the object lesson, E. Dowden, will include the testimonies, among not as a lecture, but as a sort of Socratic col; others, of George Eliot, Ruskin, Tennyson,

The Interest and Usefulness of the Study loquy, in which the children themselves shall Swinburne, Prof. Clifford, Archbishop Trench, of coins and Medals," on Tuesday, January 15; take an active part, the book shows how R. H. Horne, J. A. Symonds, and w. M: Prof. Ernst Pauer will, on Thursday, January the faculties of observation and reflection may Rossetti.

17, give the first of a course of six lectures on be effectively called forth in dealing with the

"The History and Development of the Music most familiar experience of common life. The

UNDER the title of The Revelation of the for the Pianoforte and its Predecessors ;” and slever little blackboard diagrams which accom- Father, Prof. Westcott will shortly publish a

on Saturday, January 19, Prof. Henry Morley pany the lessons are not the least useful and voluine of lectures on the Titles of the Lord in will give the first of a course of six lectures on aovel features of a very suggestive book. the Gospel of St. John.

“Life and Literature under Charles I.The Object Lessons and How to Give Them. Ву

MESSRS. MACMILLAN announce a new Ameri- Friday evening meetings begin on January 18, George Ricks. (Isbister.) This book has the same can novel, to be called Bethesda; and also a when Prof. Tyndall will give a discourse on

“ Rainbows.” general aim, and contains notes and hints for school edition of the Greek text of Profs. Westiessons on a greater variety of topics. It includes cott and Hort's New Testament.

At the meeting of the Clifton Shakspere scourse of lessons on simple geometrical forms, The fourth volume of the Old Testament Com- Society held on December 29 the following un colours, on common household objects, on mentary for English Readers, edited by Bishop communications were road :-" The Writers of




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