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RECENT WORKS ON CICERO.

Light, and gives philological reasons. Prof.

SCIENCE.

and there, of great value from Mr. Roby ; Sayce, when noticing Brinton's account of this

the etymology of important words and names myth, says, “Michabo had his home on the

is well treated, and the text, in some places verge of the east [cf. the abode of the lunar M. Tullii Ciceronis De Natura Deorum Libri sadly corrupt, is judiciously handled. OccaKirko at the αντολαί 'Ηελίοιο], whence he sent Tres. With Introduction and Commentary sionally, Mr. Mayor offers an emendation of forth the luminaries on their daily journey,

by Joseph B. Mayor. Vol. II.

“Šis nåme is just as Kirkê sent Odysseus.

(Cam- his own which is a real contribution to the

bridge : University Press.) derived from michi, 'great,' and wabos, which,

settlement of the text (of., e.g., sec. 47). though it means 'hare' [as the white animal], M. Tulli Ciceronis de Finibus Bonorum et On the whole, this volume well keeps up properly signifies 'white.'”. Michaboz, there- Malorum Libri Quinque. The Text Revised the promise of the first, and must be regarded fore, equals “the Great White One," a title

and Explained by James S. Reid. In 3 as one of the most valuable contributions excellently suited to Selênê Leukothee; and this

vols. Vol. III., containing the Translation. made for many years past by any English White Hare reminds us of the lunar White Cat

(Cambridge: University Press.)

scholar to the study of Cicero. of the fairy tale.

Mr. Lang adds that “When mythopoeic man M. Tulli Ciceronis Pro Publio Sestio Oratio ad A few points may be noted for consideration. spoke of a Hare, he probably meant a Hare Judices. With Notes, &c., by the Rev. H. The note on augury on sec. 9 is misleading pins phrase." But, in this case, how was man A. Holden. (Macmillan.)

without a reference forwards to that on augurs mythopoeic ? The animal, too, must have

and haruspices on sec. 10, and that on Cynosura strangely changed its habits from the days The second volume of Prof. Mayor's edition (sec. 105) is hardly intelligible without that when it was w to dance when the Lion of the De Natura Deorum does not complete on Phoenices (sec. 106). In the story about Ti. died, spit on the Bear's cubs, laugh at the dying the work, as the editor had intended that it Gracchus (secs. 10, 11) the point seems to Eagle, guard the cave of the wild beasts (cf. should, but only contains the text of the turn on the double meaning of rogator, which Kirke), and defend the Lambs (Stars) from the Second Book, with a critical and explanatory is recognised by the editor but not applied. Wolf (Darkness). ROBERT BROWN, JUN.

Commentary. The increase in the scale of The authority for the Semitic origin of the his notes is due to the fullness with which it name Mopsus, which is not generally accepted,

has been necessary to discuss the scientific APPOINTMENTS FOR NEXT WEEK.

might as well have been quoted. Vaniček is views of the ancients, so far as these MONDAY, March 3, 3p.m. Royal Institution: "Scenery furnish the basis for Cicero's arguments. derivations which he only gives as propounded

perhaps too often cited as the authority for of the British Isles," VI., by Dr. A. Geikie. 5 p.m. Royal' Institution: General Monthly

Few students are likely to find Meeting. Ep.m. London Institution : “ Beach Studies," with the editor for the scale on which he by others. The number of the augurs, accord

ing to Sulla's constitution, has no bearing on has planned this portion of his commentary: the collegium to whom Ti. Gracchus wrote Sp.m. Royal Academy : Lecture on Sculpture, It may be said, indeed, that it is just the sp.m. Aristotelian : “ Perceptional Conception : lack of trustworthy assistance on such points is not a very clear explanation of a usage

(sec. 11). “The qualitative force of omnis" vindication of Idealism,” by the Rev. E. P. which has stood in the way of the more which might have been illustrated more fully

sp.m. Society of Arts : Cantor Lecture, Build- general reading of a treatise which yields to from Cicero (cf. Halm on Cat., iï. 2, 5). ing of London Houses,” III., by Mr. R. W. Eddis.

none of Cicero's philosophical works in his. The "Homa-drink of the early Aryans 8p.m. Victoria Institute. TUESDAY, March 4, 3 p.m. Royal Institution :“ Animal toric interest. Great as are the merits of should have been mentioned by its original

5pm: Society of Biblical Archaeology: “Handi- Schömann's edition in many respects, it left and more familiar name of Soma rather than crafts and Artisans mentioned in Talmudical Writ- much to be desired ; and even if his notes had

by the Persian form of the word. On anfractus s pom. Civil Engineers : "Hydraulic Propul- been put within reach of the large, but (sec. 47) the remarks of Corssen (i 397)

dents 6.30 p.m. Zoological : "A Revision of the Fishes happily diminishing, class of

might have been taken into account; on of the Genera Sicydium and Lentipes, with Descrip- universities who cannot use a German com

Saturnus 0. Meyer's view, preferred by Grantos Descriptioncies Now Asiatic Diurnal mentary, they would have needed great Nettleship, is at least worth discussing (ib.

That underMuseum," by Mr. F. Moore; "Note on Anas expansion in this direction.

418). The slight character of these suggesgraduates should be encouraged to study for tions may be taken as TEDXESDAY, March 5,8 p.m. Society of Arts . The themselves at first hand the Greek writers on the singular fullness and accuracy of a

some evidence of Preece.

ese. m. Geological : « The Structure and Forma- physics, astronomy, and physiology, as Prof. commentary which, though containing, as tion on Coal," by Mr. E. Wethered; "Strain in Mayor desires, is a counsel of perfection not Conington used to say, some thousands of Connexion with Crystallisation and the Develop: very likely to be realised under present or propositions on the most various subjects, * Sketches of South-African Geology, 1.-A Sketch immediately future circumstances. Hearty affords so little scope for correction or suppleof the High-level Coal-fields of South Africa,” by thanks are therefore due for the thoroughness

ment. 8 p.m. British Archaeological: “Finger Nail with which Prof. Mayor has worked these

Mr. Reid's translation of the De Finibus is TEESDAY, March 6, 3 p.m. Royal Institution : "The indispensable sources for the benefit of his Older Electricity," II., by Prof. Tyndall.

readers, and for the fullness with which he published in advance of his text and com7 p.m. London Institutiou: “The Aurora Borealis," by Prof. Schuster.

has quoted the most important passages, in- mentary, because his plan required him to sp.m. Chemical Studies on Sulphonic Acids, stead of amassing, after the fashion of some complete the translation before writing out Acids,” by Dr. Armstrong and Dri, Miller; The will be probably unable, and certainly unRecovery of the Benzines from their Sulphonic editors, a pile of references which the student the commentary, and there seemed to be no

reason why students should not be able to use tive Distillation and a Comparison of the Amount willing, to consult for himself. But the the former even before the latter was issued. of Nitrogen left in Cokes of Various Origin,” by wide limits which the editor has allowed him. It would be a signal advantage if more commine the value of Ensilage as a Milk- and Butter- self (about four pages of explanatory notes to mentators would follow Mr. Reid's plan, and

p.m. Linnean: The Relations between In- one of text) have rarely, if ever, led him into complete a translation, whether intended for stinct and other Vital Processes.". by Prof. St. G. discursiveness. The only instance which I publication or not, before issuing a body of * Metamorphosis of Filarin sanguinis hominis in have noted is almost, but not quite, laudable. notes; we should then have far fewer of those

the mosquito;" by Dr. Rih Manson ; “ Afghanistan The ludicrous nonsense quoted from Moses pretentious guides, who are profuse of their FRIDAY, March 7. 8 p.m. Philological : “Personal and and Geology, the production of a gentleman assistance where the path is perfectly straight

Sm, Society of Arts : - The New Bengal who has recently been appointed, under high forward, and fail the reader only when he is Rent Bill," by Mr. W. Seton-Karr.

patronage, as a quasi-official demolisher of likely to find himself in a difficulty. As to 9 pm. Royal Institution : “Bicycles and Tricyles," by Mr. C. V. Boys.

“modern scepticism," well deserves to be Mr. Reid's translation, it is likely to find SATERDAY, March 8, 3p.m. Royal Institution : “ Photo- pilloried ; but a fitter place for the pillory little favour with those critics who think that

3p.m. Physical Experiments illustrating an might perhaps have been found than in the the success of a version is to be measured by Birlwell; “ Note on Hall's Phenomena,"" by Pror. pages of what will long be recognised as the the extent of its departure from the form of S. P. Thompson and Mr. Colman C. Starling. standard edition of a great literary work. the original. Cicero's syntax is followed as

But Prof. Mayor's attention has not been closely as the English language permits, and concentrated on the substance of his author's the student is nowhere left in doubt as to the thought to the neglect of the language. way of taking any passage. This is the aim Questions of syntactical construction are which the translator has set before him, and carefully discussed, with contributions, here he has attained it with remarkable success,

our

sup

felt a

now

56 B.C.

The closer any passage is examined, the doubtful, though Addison uses “complacency” Pandit Bhagvanlâl, to whose careful researches clearer it is seen how the force of every word for facilitas. In iii. 57 bene audire a parent- we owe already so many useful discoveries, has and of every collocation in the original is pre- ibus can hardly be " to be of good report in brought new and important evidence in served. At the same time, this is done with the eyes of his parents ; " in iv. 25 nosmet port of my opinion that the date 486 (A.D. 430

)

in the Kâvî grant ought not to be reckoned out any unnecessary stiffness ; and an English 1psos commendatos esse 'nobis seems much

from the Vikrama era (see India, what can it reader may go through the book, not, indeed, stranger than “ that we look with favour on

teach us ? p. 285). I had read Mr. Fleet's without feeling it to be a translation—a

our own existence,” and denotes rather what objections to my theory, or, to speak more delusive ideal, which has to answer for 80 is brought out in the next clause, that the correctly, to Mr. J. Fergusson's theory, in the much reckless travesty--but without once tendency to self-preservation is implanted in pages of the Indian Antiquary (November 1883, pausing at any forced or obscure construction. us by nature; in v. 27 enodatius is perhaps p: 293), but I thought it better not to answer It might appear hardly possible that the somewhat simply," rather than in great his criticisms for the present. I have always vigilance of the most accurate scholar should detail.” On one point Mr. Reid has some- very high regard for Mr. Fleet's ex out a task which must often have been

weari- knows very well that the school-boy's render- remarks seemed to me not quite fair, I did not not have failed him occasionally in carrying times pushed a good principle too far. He tremely important contributions to Indian some, and only at rare intervals very inspiring. ing of enim by “for," while absolutely in think that they called for an immediate reply. But a careful comparison of every line of this correct for earlier Latin, is often unsatisfactory Mr. Fleet says that the only substantial objecversion with the original has only brought to for Cicero ; but he carries his aversion to it tion which I brought forward against the date light one solitary passage where the trans- so far that he often avoids using it where it which he had assigned to the Kávî inscription lator's words do not appear to be a fairly is quite the most natural expression ; and in was that it would be destructive of my owa defensible rendering of the original. Unless the same way frequently replaces

theory that the Vikrama era was only invented Mr. Reid is translating from an emended text, “for” as a rendering of nam, not always to But surely this is hardly a fair statement. It

by Harsha-Vikrama of Uggayinî in A.D. 544. his version of se texit in i. 35 seems due to an the advantage of the argument. In ii. 117 the might be fair, if coming from a lawyer, who unlucky reminiscence of ii. 73. There are, force of the nec enim ... neque is thus obscured, cares for victory only, but not as coming of course, more instances than this where it is to the unquestionable injury of the sense. from a scholar, who cares for truth. Mr. open to doubt whether the happiest English But again I must apologise for the notice Fleet holds that the era of Vikramaditya began equivalent has been chosen. The most im- given to such trifles. There are not many

I hold that it was invented in A.D. 544. portant of these is the formula prima naturae, translations which would repay the minute We are both looking out for inscriptions either which Mr. Reid renders “primary endow- study needed to observe such points, and still to confirm or to refute our respective theories. ments of nature." which Cicero, as Madvig showed, uses this they have been mentioned at all must be without the name of Vikrama, before A.D. 5,

Now the confused way in fewer which would stand the scrutiny. That Mr. Fleet thinks he has at last discovered one phrase is enough to baffle any translator, and taken as a tribute to the remarkable excel- thus completely upsetting my theory. I should doubtless Mr. Reid in his commentary will lence of a version which will be widely have been delighted if it were so ; but I pointed point out the misleading results of this con- accepted as a model of the style to which, at out that it would seem strange that, between fusion. But his rendering brings out almost least, one great university endeavours to train 56 B.C. and A.D. 544, this Kâvî inscription too sharply the want of lucidity in Cicero's its alumni.

should be the only one dated according to language in passages like the following :

an era which we are asked to believe was in

It is, perhaps, almost sufficient to record troduced nearly 500 years before, without ever “And this purpose . . . must be laid down to the appearance of Dr. Holden's edition of the occurring on any inscription whatsoever

. I consist in the attainment of as many as possible oration Pro Sestio. All interested in the therefore recommended caution. I never vinfrom among the most important of those primary study of Cicero know by this time just what tured to refer the date of the Kâvî inscription endowments which harmonise with nature's they have to expect from a commentary by to the Saka era ; but I looked forward to some plan" (iv. 25; cf. v. 18). In iv. 8, Mr. Reid's rendering of ad genera on the same lines as his edition of the speech is, just 300 years before the date when the Dr. Holden. The present work is constructed such terminus a quo as Pandit Bhagvanlál has

now discovered-namely, about A.D. 245–that formasque generum by “ to the species and the pro Plancio. There is the same fullness of

Vikrama era classes which contain the species”. may, per grammatical explanation, the same careful after the date from which it was calculated

.

was calculated, and 300 yean haps, admit of defence; but it is in such use of the most recent German editions, the The fact remains, therefore, that, so far as startling contrast to Ciceronian usage that it same liberal supply of close and often happy we know at present, the Vikrama era has will need defence in the commentary, especially renderings. By a curious oversight, the never been found on any inscription before when it has been immediately preceded by editor has omitted to mention that his intro- A.D. 544, the translation of ut res in partes dividatur by duction is a literal translation of that by It is always well, in researches which depend “ the division of a class into species.” Natu- Halm, which, though excellent as usual

, on discoveries that may spring upon us from rally, a few inconsistencies have not been might have been with advantage supplemented to be in too great a hurry. It is now more avoided : “ those who are subject to death " and recast for English students

. An ordinary than twenty-five

years ago that, in my mista is used in one sense in i. 49, in quite a school-boy will certainly be puzzled when he tory of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, I laboured different, and a more correct, sense in ii. 40; reads of the regent of the Commonwealth,” very hard to establish the date 477 B.C. as the "recalcitrant,” in i. 59, does not express and will not find it easier to identify “the real date of Buddha's death. Owing to the pugnantibus, which must

three regents” unless he is familiar with uncertainty of Kandragupta's reign, I allowed with each other;" "perspicuous,” in ii

. 15, Mommsen to a degree which would render a latitude of about ten years, but adopted is a better rendering for illustris than “daz- the whole introduction superfluous.

The A.D. 477 as the best working hypothesis. Some ing” may be suggested in the place of " lend though not of such a nature as to make it arguments against it. I still hold to it, though zling ” in i. 71; in this last section catch- oration is one which has many difficulties, scholars have accepted that date, others have ing his ear to," and magistra ac duce natura unfit for reading in schools; and Dr. Holden not with such unreasoning pertinacity as to are surely taken in the wrong place; in ii. 21, has done good service in issuing so useful an consider any modification of it impossible. " the most authoritative” from its position edition of it. Its value is considerably en- Nay, I feel so conscious of the purely tentative would not be understood by the English hanced by the numerous notes which Mr. character of all dates before Alexander's inreader to be the explanation of κύριαι; in Reid has contributed. ii . 67 , is the tense of nominari consistent with who can give to so many of his friends

the Bunyiu Nanjio brought me the following the rendering given to schola, which certainly gleaning of the grapes of Ephraim, while he extract, which, in the most startling manner is not the only alternative? In ji. 82, more presses for himself the vintage of Abi-ezer.

seems to confirm the date which I assigned to cultured” is ugly in itself, and doubtful from

Buddha's death, I said to myself, what I now

A. S. WILKINS. the context as a rendering of humanius ;

say publicly, that it is almost too good to be for “morals,” in iii. 1, "morality” would be

true. However, Mr. Bunyiu Nanjio's translamore natural; in iii. 52, it would have been

CORRESPONDENCE.

tion ought to be published, and everyone may

then form his own opinion. better to render promota by “promoted,” re- THE TRUE DATE OF BUDDHA'S DEATH.

Mr. Bunyiu Nanjio writes :serving “advanced" for praeposita, for which

“In A.D. 664, or a few years later, under the great it is used in sec. 53. Whether" complacent " I was much pleased to see in Prof. Peterson's Thân dynasty (A.D. 618-907), Tâo-süen (Dô-sen), is now legitimate English for faciles (ib.) is (letter, published in to-day's ACADEMY, that a Chinese priest and a contemporary of the famous

mean

Oxford: Feb. 16, 1884.

com

*60 397 B.C.

or

Hiouen-thsang, compiled the Tâthân-nei-tien-lu the Liân (Riô) dynasty, A.D. 502-556, and obtained worth. Whatever their conclusions may be, (Dai-tô-nai-ten-roku), or Catalogue of the Bud- the total number of 1,028 years.'

they will all be grateful to Mr. Bunyiu Nanjio dhist Books, in sixteen fasciculi (see No. 1483 in * Following this number counted by Poh-hsiu for having brought this curious tradition to my Oxford Catalogue). In fasc. 4a, fol. 20a 8q., (Haku-kiu), Khân-fârm counted it from the 9th their knowledge. For the present, and till we nder the notice of a work on the Vinaya, he year of the Tâ-thun (Dâi-dô) period,, 4.D. 543, get new materials, I feel inclined to agree with ha--hâ-ritsu, or Sudarsana-vibhâsha-vinaya, No. the Khai-hwân (Kâi-kw) period, A.D. 597, the my friend Prof. Bühler, when in his Three 1125), a work in eighteen fasciculi, was trans- cycle of which was Tin-82" (Tei-shi), and obtained New Edicts of Asoka (1877, pp. 19-20) he says: lated by the foreign Sramana Sanghabhadra, whose the total number of 1,082 years."

“For all practical purposes, the date for the vame is translated Kun-hsien (Shu-ken, lit.

"If so, (only a little more than) a thousand Nirvana, 477-78 B.C., fixed by Prof. Max Müller, pay-wise”), in the reign of the Emperor Wu years have just elapsed since the Tathagata's by Gen. Cunningham, and others, is perfectly (Ba), A.D. 483-493, of the former Tshi (Sei) dynasty, Nirvana. We are (therefore) not yet very remote sufficient. The new inscriptions show that it A n479-502.'

from the time of the Sage (lit. still near to the cannot be very far wrong. The two outside termini “ He then continues : 'There is a tradition, Sage), so that we should heartily be glad and for the beginning of Kandragupta's reign are handed down from teachers to pupils, that after rejoiced. May we altogether diligently and sin- 321 B.C. on the one side, and 310 B.C. on the other. Baddha's Nirvana, Yiu-po-li (U-ha-ri, i.e., Upâli) cerely promulgate the Law left (by the Sage)!' For this reason, and because the Ceylonese dato collected the Vinaya-pitaka. Then on the 15th day of the 7th month of that year, when he is added after each Chinese name, whether it is a

"• The Japanese sound of the Chinese characters for the beginning of the Mauryas, 163 A.B., must

now be considered to be genuine, the Nirvana had received the Tsz’-tsz' (Zi-shi, lit. self. transliteration or an original.

must fall between 483-82 B.C. and 472-71 B.C. If, throwing off restraint," i.e., Pravârana or Pavâ

"Pavâranâ ... the festival held at the termi. therefore, the date 477-78 for the Nirvana should ranâ, or Invitation)," he worshipped the (MS. of nation of the Buddhist vassa or Lent. —Childers' eventually be proved to be wrong, the fault cannot added one dot at the beginning of the Vinaya-pitaka. (Eng.

trans.), P. 374. the) Vinaya-pitaka with flowers and incense, and Pali Dictionary, p. 374 ; of. Oldenberg's Buddha be more than five or six years one way or tho Thus he did every year in the same way. When "¢ 447 B.C. - Sacred Books of the East,' vol. x.,

F. MAX MÜLLER, Upali was going to enter Nirvana he handed it fe, the Vinaya-pitaka) over to his disciple Tho- part i., p. xliv.

• 353 B.O.

' 300} B.C. • 233 B.C. siê-kü (Da-sha-ku, i.e., Dâsaka). When Dasaka "n The name of this teacher is not given, but he

THE ORIGIN OF CHINESE CIVILISATION. was going to enter Nirvâna d he handed it over to his disciple Sü-kü (Shu-ku, i.e., Saunaka was evidently the teacher of Sanghabhadra, as seen

Louvain : Feb. 20, 1884. below.

The remarkable researches of M. Terrien de Sonaka). When Saunaka was going to enter Nirrâna e he handed it over to his disciple Sikiê- Shin-shiu, and also some other sects, in Japan many obscure points in the history of Chinese

"I This name is still used by the priests of the La Couperie have cast an unexpected light on pho (Shitsu-ga-ba, i.e., Siggava). When. Siggava for the summer term in the theological colleges. mythology. It is scarcely possible any longer was going to enter Nirvâna' he handed it over to This term corresponds to the rainy season in India, to doubt that a large number of the traditions his disciple Mu-kien-lien-tsz' Ti-sü-mu (Moku- when Buddha and his disciples are said to have which we find in the historians of the Celestial ken-ren-shi Tai-shu-moku, 1.c., Maudgalyâyanî: lived or stayed together in one place, and dis- Empire had their origin in the land of Accad, putra Tishya, or Moggaliputta Tissa (see õîpa

cussed the law. vamsa). When Maudgalyayani-putra Tishya was going to enter Nirvana che handed

it over to his must be changed into the 7th and 8th year (i.e., ingenious comparisons made by M. de La

"* The 6th and 7th year (i.e., A.D. 488 and 489) or at least to the west of the Hindu Kush. The disciple Kân-tho-pho-shö (Sen-da-batsu-sia, i.o., A.D. 489 and 490), not only because the cycle of Couperie will have carried conviction to most Kandavaggî) (see Dîpavamsa). Thus these teachers handed it over succes

the latter year, given in the text, corresponds to minds. But from the manifest analogies can sively till the present teacher of the Law of the 8th year or A.D. 490, instead of the 7th year we conclude that the primitive civilisation and the Tripitaka." This teacher of the Law of the distance between two later dates, given in the text scarcely admit this conclusion, and that for two

or A.D. 489, as the text reads, but also because the religion of China had this sanie origin? I can Tripitaka brought (the MS. of) the Vinaya-pitaka below, is exactly in accordance with this emendato wai-keu, or the province Kwang (i.e., Canton). tion.

reasons—(1) The historians who relate these When he was embarking homewards from there,

legends date from a late epoch. Some of them,

II.e., 975 (A.D. 490) + 53 (A.D. 543) 1028.
he handed (the MS. of) the Vinaya-pitaka over to
his disciple, San-kiê-pho-tho-loo (San-ga-batsu- of the Buddhist books in a.d. 597 (see No. 14 in century AD,

".mn
Khân-fân was the compiler of a Catalogue such as Lopi and Lieu-ja, wrote in the twelfth

The creation and propagation of da-ra, i.e., Sanghabhadra).

these myths is usually attributed to the "In the 6th (read 7th] year of the Yun-min Appendix ii. of my Catalogue).

In This word present seems to have been degenerate disciples of Laou-tse. The orthodox Tei-mei) period, A. D. 489, Sanghabhadra, together taken from Khân-fan's writing, because Dão-süen Chinese and the ancient historians inveigh with translated this Sudarsana - vibhasha -vinaya), Catalogue was completed not earlier than A.D. 664. of the Taouists, whom they charge with cor

was only about four years old in a. D. 597, and his energy against the products of the imagination in the Ku-lin-sz? (Kiku-rin-zi, lit. “Bamboo

1.e., 1028 (A.D. 543) +54 (A.D. 597) = 1082.” rupting the true and ancient doctrine. (2) The grove monastery," i.e., Venuvana-vihâra), in the province Kwang (i.e., Canton). He stayed there

authentic histories and the most ancient canoni

It would follow from these statements, as keeping the An-kü (An-go, lit.“ easy-living"); translated by my friend, Mr. Bunyiu Nanjio, that cal books, such as the Shu-king and the ShiIn the middle (.e., the 15th day) of the 7th there was a MS. of the Vinaya-pitaka in existence king, make no allusion to these myths, and even month of the 7th (read 8th]* year of the Yun-min at the time of Sanghabhadra, say A.D. 490, which teach a doctrine which excludes them. Above Yei-mei) period, A.D. 490, the

cycle of which was contained 975 dots, and that each of these dots man there is only Shan-ts, the Sovereign Lord, Kan-wu (Kô-go), when he had received the Toz'.

was believed to mark one year. This would the Lord of Heaven (in Manchu Bergi-Bi, toz' (21-shi, or Pravậrana), he worshipped the MS. give the year 485 as the year in which the MS. Abka-i-Han), Sovereign Master of the World of) the , sccording to the law or rules of his preceding

was written by Upâli, immediately after the and of the Empires; and, besides, very inferior teachers, and added one dot (to the Ms.). In that death of Buddha. The dots were counted by spirits whom man has to reverence, for they year, A.D. 490, there were 975 dots in all, one dot Kao Poh hsiu in A.D. 535, by Khân fan in may to a certain degree be useful to him. representing one year.

A.D. 597, not very long, therefore, before A.D. Beyond this, there is nothing supernatural. **In the first year of the Tâ-thun (Dai-dô) 664, when the story was written down.

I intend shortly to discuss this question. Does period, A.D. 535, under the Liân (Riô) dynasty, The objections to this statement, as written it not result from these facts that, if the Chinese A.D: 502-556, Kâo Poh-hsiu (Kio Haku-kiu, á down in A.D. 664, are palpable. First of all

, myths were borrowed from the West, especially Chinese) met Hun-tu (Gu-do), a teacher of the we do not know that Upali actually wrote a from the land of Accad, this borrowing only Vinaya who was practising painfully at the Lu- MS., and we read in the Mahavamsa that the took place at a recent epoch, and that the From him he obtained this record of the dots down before the reign of King Vattagâmani, source ? shản (Ro-san, or the Lu mountain, in China). Pitakattaya and the Atthakatha were not written original civilisation of China comes from another

Such is my conviction. I submit having been added by holy, men successively after 88-76 B.C. (see my Introduction to the Dhamma- these reflections to the distinguished scholar the dots) ended in the 7th (read 8th] year of the pada, Sacred Books of the East,” vol. x., whom University College has just called to Yun-min (Yei-mei) period, A.D. 490, under the p. xii.).. Secondly, even if Upâli wrote a copy occupy so important a chair.

C. DE HARLEZ. Tshi (Sei) dynasty. Then Poh-hsiu (Haku-kiu) of the Vinaya-pitaka, it is not likely that that asked Hun-tu (Gu-do), saying: Why do we see identical copy should have been carried to China. no more dots added after the 7th (read 8th] year Thirdly, the process of adding one dot at the of the Yun-min (Yei-mei) period?” Hun-tu (Gu. end of every year during 975 years is extremely

SCIENCE NOTES. do) answered: “Before that (year) there were holy precarious.

THE Clarendon Press will shortly publish men who entered on the path, and who added Still

, on the other hand, there was nothing to Memoirs, Addresses, and Fragments of the late these dots with their own hands; but I, who am induce a Chinese Buddhist to invent so modern Prof. Rolleston, arranged and edited by Prof. deprived of the path, being an ignorant person, a date as 485 B.C. for the council held imme- William Turner, with a biographical memoir might only take hold of and worship it (the MS. diately after Buddha's death. It runs counter by Dr. E. B. Tylor. These two volumes conof the Vinaya-pitaka), and should never dare to to all their own chronological theories, and tain a selection of the most important essays adi a dot.”

"* Pob-hsia (Ha'su-kiu) (afterwards) counted even the writer himself seems to express sur- contributed by Prof. Rolleston to the Transacthe number following these old dots down to the prise that he should find himself so much nearer tions of various learned societies and to scientific Sth year of the Ta-thun (Dai-do) period, A.D. 543, to the age of Buddha than he imagined. Let journals, together with several addresses dethe cycle of which was Kwêi-hái* (Ki-gai), under scholars accept the tradition for what it is livered before the British Association and

A, H, MARSH.-The "ART JOURNAL" for MARCH contains an Etching of "HOMELESS," painted by A. H. MARSH.

FREDERICK SANDYS.-The ART JOURNAL" for MARCH contains a
Facsimile of a Drawing by F. SANDYS, entitled "TEARS."

JOURNAL" (29. 60.) for MARCH,

other learned bodies. The contents have been same time, demand further study and reflec- subscriptions of the vicar and parishioners to the arranged in the following sections :-I. Ana- tion. Thus he traces back to an event in the life Solemn League and Covenant, and the appointment tomy and Physiology, in which are included a of Buddha the first germ of the famous “Open of a committee to decide on the fitness of those number of important Anthropological Memoirs; Sesame " incantation in the story of the Forty desirous of partaking of the Communion. Mr. II. Zoology, including the author's contribu- ! Thieves of the Arabian Nights, and also the Freshfield referred to several of the vicars, one of tions to Archaeo-zoology; III. Archaeology; Western legend of King Arthur and the Cappado- whom, Mr. Davenport

, left England to take charge IV. Addresses, and Miscellaneous Papers.

of a church in Newhaven, America; and also to cian one of St. George and the Dragon. list of Prof. Rolleston's published writings,

two distinguished parishioners—Isaac Pennington

and Owen Roe, who, assisted at the trial of arranged in chronological order, is prefixed ; EDUCATION SOCIETY.-(Monday, Feb. 18.) Charles I. Some of the church plate was also and the work is illustrated with a portrait of E. BLAIR, Esq., in the Chair.-A paper was read exhibited, bearing, as a sort of crest, a cock in a the author, and various plates and wood-cuts. by Mr. Fleay, entitled “A Few Thoughts as to the hoop.

A SECOND series of six penny science lectures Relations of Theory to Practice in Education." will be delivered at the Royal Victoria Coffee Mr. Fleay criticised modern methods of education Hall, beginning on. Tuesday, March 4, under allowed, had great value, but they contributed as involving too much bookwork. Precepts, he

FINE ART. the auspices of the Gilchrist Educational Trust. nothing to the formation of good habits, which can The lectures will be as follows:-Prof. H. G. be obtained by exercise in right doing, and in that Seeley, on " Ancient English Dragons ; Mr. way only. Objection was taken to the fondness

F. W. W. TOPHAM.-The Picture, “A MESSENGER of GOOD TIDINGS" W. Lant Carpenter, on“ Air, and Why We of teachers for grammar. Knowledge of grammar by w: TopHax, eneravod by F. JOUBERT in the “* ABT Breathe;" Dr. P. H. Carpenter, on “Fossils, is not knowledge of a language. The value of unand What They Teach Us;” Mr. Edward conscious work was dwelt upon, for the best art, it Clodd, on “The Working Man 100,000 Years was asserted, is always unconscious. Education Ago ; ” Mr. E. B. Knobel, on

ART BOOKS. itself, in Mr. Fleay's view, was not a science, but

" The Planets ; Mr. J. W. Groves, on “ The Dangers and Safe

an art to be developed by practice and test.-A The Liber Studiorum. By J. M. W. Turner. guards of Beauty in Animals.” All the lectures discussion followed, in which Mr; H. C. Bowen, Vol. II. (Autotype Company.) Undoubtedly will be illustrated with dissolving views by It was urged that there is a science of education, hitherto effected is that which the Autotype means of the oxy-hydrogen light.

though it is as yet imperfect, and that the best
methods of good teachers have a foundation in Company is slowly bringing to completion.

principle. Exception was also taken to the view The second volume-for they choose to divide
PHILOLOGY NOTES.
that the highest action is unconscious.

it into three volumes-is now before us, accom

panied, like the first was, with notes by Mr. PROF. H. KERN writes to us that the Senate

Stopford Brooke. The third may be expected of the University of Leiden has conferred upon

ROYAL SOCIETY or LITERATURE.-(Wednesday, before the year is out; and then the student Pandit Bhagvânlâl Indraji the degree of Doctor

Feb. 20.)

who cannot afford Liber Studiorum itself will of Letters honoris causa, in acknowledgment of Joseph Haynes, Esq., V.-P., in the Chair.—Sir. P. have within his reach that which, for some his eminent merits as a student of Indian de Colquhoun read a paper on "Pagan Divinities, purposes, is a fairly efficient substitute for it. palaeography and archaeology.

their Origin and Attributes.” He first treated of the modern mechanical processes have made Tue Académie des Inscriptions has nominated closely

the conception of the family
was Bound within the last few years a remarkable advance

, M. Stanislas Guyard, one of the editors of the up with it. Every father of a family was both its but it may be said, pretty confidently, that they Revue critique (perhaps best known in England priest and its judge, and with him the public will never really attain the perfection of the for his ingenious contribution to the decipher- priesthood could not interfere. He also referred prints they reproduce. With Liber Studiorum of the Vannic inscriptions), for the vacant chair to a like domestic religion still existing among the they must, to the very end, have an especial of Arabic at the Collège de France.

Hindus of India, where he presumed it originated, difficulty, or rather a difficulty which presents The sale of Dr. Burnell's collection has been the early connexion, as Aryans, between the but does not yield itself, to reproduction.

these two facts, in his judgment, demonstrating itself whenever a strongly etched line invites, followed at no great interval by that of Prof. Romans and the Indians. He also showed the Rembrandt's plates and Méryon's were not so Macdonall's books. The latter, though a man difference between the domestic deities of the savagely bitten as the plates of Turner. Imof little note outside the Queen's College of Romans and the protecting saints of the Roman pressions from them are not found embossed in Belfast, was a profound philological scholar, Church, the one being founded on ancestral, and the same way; yet Rembrandt is never reand a veritable helluo librorum. As usual, Mr. the other on adoptive, protection. He then passed produced quite satisfactorily, and Méryon is Quaritch's name stands foremost among the on to the general deities of the pagan pantheon, buyers.

to which he attributed an Egyptian origin through never reproduced in a way that approaches The third play of Aristophanes, edited by area antecedent to the Greek immigration, before tions of the greatest serial of Turner

, the the Pelasgic tribes, which inhabited the whole completeness. And in the present reproducthe Rev. W. W. Merry for the “Clarendon Press which time he showed that the Pelasgians adored organic lines, so strong in the originals, are, Series,” is the Frogs, which will be published generally the phenomena of nature.

with hardly any exception, feeble. The facile immediately.

criticism that pronounces the reproductions THE new number of Hermes has a valuable Society of ANTIQUARIES.—(Thursday, Feb. 21.)

equal to the original prints is simply that of an article by Dr. Mommsen on the recruiting of A. W. FRANKS, Esq., V.-P., in the Chair.—ur. eye that is untrained and inexpert. Every the Roman Imperial Legions.

Freshfield exhibited and gave an account of the connoisseur in London knows better, but that The Philologische Rundschau of February parish books of St. Stephen Coleman Street. The is no reason why the reproductions should not 23 contains a review, by Mr. Ellis, of the parish was originally included in that of St. fairly be welcomed by a large class of students Bishop of Lincoln's Conjectural Emendations.

Olave Jewry, and was constituted a separate of the art of Tumer. They display, almost

parish in the reign of Henry VI. At that time the as well as the originals themselves, his secrets The sixth volume of the “ Annales de Musée patronage belonged to the priory of Buckley, of composition; they make evident that rang Guimet” consists of a French translation of the Suffolk, but, by a grant of Elizabeth, the

election of subject which it was one of the objects of Lalita Vistara.

of the vicar was given to the parishioners. The the Liber Studiorum to exhibit; and they oldest of the books commences in the reign of serve as a general introduction to the art of the Henry VI., reciting the constitution under which master. Moreover, it is a pleasure to look

the parish was governed, and giving inventories of MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. the church property in 1466 and in 1542. At the upon the subject of print after print, reading, Royal Asiatic SOCIETY.-(Monday, Feb. 18.)

earlier date the goods consist of plate, jewels, at the same time, the sympathetic and sug;

books, vestments, and hangings; but many of gestive, and sometimes learned, commentary of The Rev. Prof. Beal contributed a paper (which, in these are missing in the later list, the antiphonars Mr. Stopford Brooke. Mr. Brooke's knowledge

of Liber is extraordinary.

His eye is fault"* Further 'Gleanings from the si-yu-ki," the sold. There is also a description of Ra sepulchre less, and his memory exact and capacious. A Chinese name for the account of the Western with angels to be placed round it, and stained further reason why the book of reproductions nations by the Chinese pilgrim and traveller, Hiouen cloths for hangings, with the figures

of the apostles. now under notice may fairly commend itself to Tsang. Mr. Cust stated that this work was trans. The accounts show the expense of setting it up many who are beginning to be interested in lated into f'rench by the late Prof. Stanislas Julien annually. Pews appear to have existed from the Turner is the very high price that the originals

commencement. The parish registers begin in have now for some years commanded. Though ably the excavations at Amravati and Bharhut, 1538; and the first portion is a remarkably fine it is true that good impressions of the second have thrown much light on many passages pre- specimen of caligraphy, the handwriting being and later states may still be got—if people do himself the author of The Romantic Legend of Sakya chronicle than a sixteenth-century business book but possess the necessary eye—at a price cheap Buddha, has, by his Chinese studies and literary The following unusual names occur:-Drynkmylke, out of all proportion to that demanded for a acumen, made many new and satisfactory sug Silvertoppe, Formerbeker, Karkeke, Wanwalmer- “ first state” merely because it is a first state, gestions. In this paper he advanced several becke, Carmatte, Swordebrake, and Farncofre. still the money paid must, in most cases, be hypotheses of great ingenuity, but which, at the The first vestry book, commencing in 1622, has the considerable ; and as for fine first states of very

names

fine subjects £20 and £25 a-piece is not now Art in Devonshire. By George Pycroft. admirable, though we will not deny that it may considered too much for them. Nor are these (Exeter.) The art of a county which boasts also be faulty. He was yachting all last prices likely to decline, for the number of im- such names as Reynolds and Prout, Benjamin autumn, it appears, but did not go farther to sea pressions that can come into the market at any Haydon and Solomon Hart, seems to clamour than about Ramsgate Pier. He loitered off Marone time is extremely small. This, however, is for a historian. Mr. Pycroft's small book gate, again off Sheerness, Gravesend, Tilbury, the commercial side of the question--the occupies, though it does but partly fill, an and Northfleet, and then pursued the Thames practical side, we would rather say. A con- empty place. "By a diligent derangement of to almost the heart of London-having painted sideration of it affords, after all

, the most Redgrave's Dictionary he has made a topo- the tower of Limehouse church and the wharves potent reason for possessing oneself of the re- graphical distribution of all the dead artists thereby. The scenes in which he worked have prodnctions. If the possession of the diamond of England, and is proud to be able to claim artistic interests of their own, which are apmust perforce be denied, good old French paste for Devonshire the honour of having produced, parent to the unprejudiced observer, but to is yet capable of affording a certain measure of after Middlesex, a greater number of painters which the conventionally minded remain blind. pleasure. It is near the rose, if it is not quite than any other county. Out of thirty-three We greatly prefer Mr. Wyllie's work when it the rose. Or, to take a simile that will more artists known to have been born in Devonshire lies near the docks and the wharves than when commend itself to the student–if not to the and found worthy of mention by Redgrave, it is on the more open waters, where there is fair—an electrotype of a Greek coin takes even Mr. Pycroft finds he may claim fifteen as little to draw but wave and sky. To draw or in good collections the place of the original, painters of the first rank. It may be questioned, paint a sky with proper effect, Mr. Wyllie dewhich the collector must pronounce to be however, whether the modern art student is so inands that it shall be just a little smoky. Thus introuvable.

familiar with the

of

Brockedon, the sky of his “Northfleet” is a success; while Some Modern Artists and their Work (Cassells) Gendall, or Crosse as he should be if, indeed, the skies of those scenes of his choosing in which is a collection of articles published sometimes at they deserve this distinction. A fastidious the heavens are clear and the sea blue are comlong intervals in the Magazine of Art, and the taste might demur to James Northcote ; good paratively a failure. He draws waves very illustrations have no doubt also figured in that painters, but not surely the best, were the dexterously, and yet is not altogether without publication. Mr. Wilfrid Meynell has edited landscapists Lee and Ambrose Johns; there error as to wave-form. The sailor population ihe volume—that is, he has, we believe, to some would be objectors to Cosway for his infinite has not engaged him very much, and his gentleextent shortened the contributions. A large littleness, and to poor beaten Haydon because folk on the P. and O. boats are not people with number of artists are considered by various blinded in the light he only upheld; the dis- whom you at once desire to experience the writers; and, while several by no means of the tinguished name of Charles Eastlake could not charms of conversation. But what Mr. Wyllie first eminence have afforded to them the have been earned by the brush ; John Cross does so very well is the shipping itself. We serviceable advertisement of a notice, it is sin- painted no more than one picture

. Subjected doubt if any professedly marine painter ever gular that painters of the rank of Mr. Millais, to a narrow enquiry Mr. Pycroft's list of knew more about the build of a boat, its rigging, M. Albert Moore, Mr. J. D. Linton, and Mr. fifteeen might thus be a little curtailed ; its appearance in troubled or in calm waters. Macbeth should be omitted. In articles which but the record of the Devonshire artists He draws boats in a crowd, as in “Fiddler's do not, as a rule, confine themselves to the would yet be full of interest. The miniature Reach,” where everything seems inclined to critical analysis of artistic work, but take the painters of the sixteenth century, John Shute collide, yet nothing does collide; and he draws reader into the recesses of the private studio, and Nicholas Hilliard; James Gandy, the pupil a boat in the more placid waters of the midand dwell with unction upon its luxuries, the of Vandyck, and favourite artist of Reynolds, stream off Tilbury riding quietly and at ease. tendency, of course, is to be something more than these solid names of the early time, with a And all the buildings-many of them very temcourteons. And in very many of the articles in goodly list in the eighteenth century, suggest porary buildings—that stud the river banks are this book that tendency has not been avoided. ample material for a good book, and have his especial property. He knows the sheds, so that the imagination conjures up a vision of actually been the occasion of one which it is the warehouses, the river-side taverns, the the somewhat artificial relations that are likely convenient to have, and not difficult to read. cement works. Notwithstanding what we must to exist at lunch-time between the accomplished Mr. Pycroft's short biographical sketches are deem to be his deficiencies as a draughtsman of interviewer-he is nowadays not seldom an alphabetically arranged; so far as they refer to changing skies, or of the rolling surges of the art critic of standing, and therefore a writer the dead, they seem all to have been drawn open sea, Mr. Wyllie's work, within his more of note-and the artist who is always modest, from easily accessible sources. Where living especial province, is of admirable vivacity and always agreeable, and always happily garrulous artists are in question, Mr. Pycroft certainly freshness. More, perhaps, than he is himself about those circumstances of his life and work (perhaps, very naturally) does more justice to aware of, he has discovered his own themes, and which the public will most enjoy to believe in. Exeter, his native town, than he does to a yet treated them in his own way. Not only will his Te trace in the book in several of the articles

– more active centre, Plymouth. In this section drawings be popular, but they will deserve to those from the more accepted writers are, of are some serious omissions and seemingly be so. Many of them, we should like to add, worse, exempt from this charge—too facile an

random inclusions. In any account of Ply- are to be reproduced in one of those art volumes enthusiasm for the art that is produced amid mouth art the name of Arthur Shelley should of which the Fine Art Society enjoysthe specialty. Expensive surroundings, and sometimes the appear. For the pleasure of some chance The book will be written by Mr. Grant Allen, very presence of these surroundings appears to western reader, we must quote two lovely and these reproductions will be its most approhave assumed the form of a virtue. We like examples of James Northcote's venomous priate ornament. Wr. W. W. Fenn's account of Mr. Briton speech. Being shown a picture said to be Riviere, for at least it is simple and direct if it by Reynolds, he called out to his sister, is necessarily somewhat slight. But two of the Nancy! look here what he hath brought

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND. borte serious articles in the book are those by me;

what they call Sir Joshua! No MR. W. FLINDERS PETRIE, whose recent work, 2. Monkhouse and Mr. Gosse respectively on Sir Joshua at all, but a copy by that baste The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, at once M. Legros and Mr. Hamo Thornycroft.

Lawrence !" Another time, when Solomon placed him in the front rank of scientific Here, too, the illustrations are singularly good. Hart remarked injudiciously that Lawrence's explorers, has been engaged by the President The admirable wood-cut from the “Repas des

Calmady children” made a perfect picture, he and Committee of the Egypt Exploration Fund Pauvres,” Legros' pathetic picture of the sordid got a reply more curt than courteous :—“What to conduct operations in the Delta. Recoglife of the Communist in Upper Rathbone Place, d'ye mane by a perfect picter? I never saw a nising, as stated in its prospectus, the paraustifies at once to the eye that is unfamiliar perfect_picter in my life. I've been to Rome, mount importance of excavating the rich and with the original the exalted estimate which to the Vatican, and seen Raphel

, and I've never extensive mounds of Zoan or Tanis (the modern Mr. Monkhouse forms of Mr. Legros'austere seen a perfect picter by Raphel ! You talk Sân), the society, aided by the generous and ut; while the particular view of Mr. Thorny- like a fule! A perfect picter by Lawrence, warm co-operation of Prof. Maspero, has sucpoft's Artemis ” which is here given dis- good God!”

ceeded through the agency of Mr. W. F. Petrie juys that fine quality of vivacious energy

in obtaining on a satisfactory basis the neceswhich is a note of the work, and causes us to

sary concession from the Egyptian Government. mind with all the more pleasure the curiously

MR. WYLLIE'S SKETCHES OF THE

Mr. Petrie (having, in the interests of the 1st sentences in which Mr. Gosse has ex

TILAMES.

Egypt Exploration Fund, just completed a prepressed a well-founded opinion on what must The Fine Art Society has opened a delightful liminary archaeological tour in the Delta) is Mr. Thorycroft's future. Notwithstanding little exhibition of sea and long-shore sketches accordingly now gone to Sān, where by this to less pleasant characteristics we pointed by Mr. W. C. Wyllie. Mr. Wyllie is one of the time he will have begun work with a largo

in the beginning, the volume of Mr. most esteemed juniors at the Institute and, body of excavators. Heynell's editing will be a useful gift-book; doubtless, a future member of the Royal Academy. M. Naville, who opened the society's first

it has, in these days of luxury, when He has gifts of originality along with the campaign, just twelve months ago, with the ans at three guineas a-piece are wont to lie on technical merits that come of a successful train- discovery of Pithom in the Wady Tumilat, is the bookseller's counter as about the most ing. It is, perhaps, true that his method in oil too busily engaged in the completion of his appropriate of trifling Christmas-boxes, the painting is even preferable to his method in great variorum edition of the Livre des Morts agreeable advantage of being a cheap one. water-colour ; but his water-colour is at least to repair at present to the scene of operations ;

a

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