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THE MYTH OF CRONUS.

It will hence be seen that Keats might Some one said, Rien n'est petit dans les arts. New Zealand it has a perfectly intelligible possibly have become acquainted with the Nothing, at least, is unimportant which con- meaning. Rangi (Heaven, Uranus) was the - Prometheus” while in the publisher's hands, cerns a great poet. I hope that this may be husband of Papa (Gaea, Earth). They were and before he had dropped his own poem. Yet accepted as my excuse for so long a letter. physically united by sinews of flesh; and till Mr. Gosse's conjecture does not seem intrinsi

F. T. PALGRAVE. these were severed their children (Tutenganacally probable. Had Keats really known

hau and the rest) were, like Cronus and his Shelley's great drama, it is in some degree

brethren, kept in darkness. The children unlikely that no record of this, either in his

conspired—Tutenganahau cruelly severed own letters or in the recollection of his friends,

London : Jan. 1, 1884. the sinews;” Tane thrust the wedded pair should have been preserved. Nor, again, is it As my notions about myths seem hard to apart, and apart they remain, and their chilantecedently probable that Keats could have understand, may I be allowed to illustrate them dren attain to light and air. In New Zealand, been anxious to read the “Prometheus.” It is in the myths of Cronus? The main facts in his as in Greece, one of the brethren (Wind in New curious and instructive for us now, when these legendary history are—(1) that he and his Zealand, Ocean in Greece) sided with his two great poets seem to shine like twin stars brothers were oppressed by their father, Uranus, parents. Heaven and Earth are conceived of, in our literature, to remember that Keats who hid them in dark places of the earth. in the usual savage fashion, as human persons apparently cared for Shelley's poetry even less With the aid of their mother, Gaea, they rose in all respects, capable of being mutilated—and than Shelley cared for that of Keats. Shelley against Uranus, and Cronus mutilated him with mutilated, for the purpose of severing their takes considerable credit to himself for having an iron sickle-a rather early use of iron, by- embrace, they were. The anthropologist holds, managed to read through “ Endymion” (1819). the-way. (2) Cronus took to swallowing his then, that the earlier part of the Cronus myth " Hyperion” he, indeed, joined with Byron in own children, till a stone was presented to him is an exact analogue of the Maori myth, and is admiring; yet, on receiving the precious little in place of young Zeus. He swallowed the to be explained in the same way as the exvolume which contained also “Lamia,'

". "Isa- stone, and disgorged his other children alive. pression of a savage theory of the beginning of bella," and the "Eveof St. Agnes,” he calls it in the stone was preserved at Delphi, where it things. The wedding of Heaven and Earth other respects insignificant enough," remarking was duly smeared with oil. Zeus so far is very widely prevalent in other mythologies. afterwards,“ his other poems are worth little. imitated the example of Cronus as to make his As to the meaning of the name Cronus, the To such a degree may two great artists mis own wife, Metis, change herself into a fly, and anthropologist knows nothing, nor do scholars judge each other's art! Whether, had they met he then swallowed her. What, then, has myth- appear to be exactly agreed. The evidence for in Italy, a better understanding would have been ological science to say about these legends ? the Maori myth is doubted by no one; it exists reached, we can now only conjecture ; the sin- Prof. Max Müller regards Cronus as a late in the Maori' hymns printed by Grey, Taylor, gular mis-estimation which existed has, mean- Greek myth, evolved to account for a supposed and Bastian. How Greeks and Maoris came while, been obscured to us through the splendour being named Cronus, who, again, was inferred to have the same myth is, again, beyond the of what, with deference to other judgment, I to exist on the evidence of the words Kpoviwr anthropologist. Did one borrow from the should hold Shelley's greatest achievement in and Kpovídns. These really meant

very other? Was the fable carried from Aryan poetry. “Adonais” has united the two poets, old,” "ancient of days," or the like, The lands to the South Seas? Did early invention to our minds, in a brotherhood which, while our Greeks, taking them for patronymics, supposed happen to hit on the same set of ideas without higher civilisation lasts, is not likely to be them to indicate the existence of a god called borrowing or transmission ? Who knows? sundered.

Cronus, to whom they attributed the mutilation Next for the swallowing and disgorging. It is not, however, needful to seek an origin of his father, and the swallowing and dis- Why this feat was attributed to Cronus and to in Shelley for the names which Mr. Gosse quotes gorging of his progeny. Here, then, we have Zeus, one does not pretend to determine. But as "Shelleyan” from the “ Cap and Bells.” |fully developed Greeks, presumably civilised, the feat itself occurs in the myths of most Keats, having placed the scene of his fantastic inventing, stories which, as Prof. Max Müller savage races. They have not the pure deities poem in the East, has naturally introduced a few says, would seem more in place among savages of Periclean Greece, but they do possess the not uncommon names from Asiatic geography of Africa or America-where, indeed, we find ferocious myths which Periclean Greece was -Hydaspes, Gobi, and Imaus. From the last he them. But why civilised Greeks ascribed such shocked to find herself possessing. We can hardly has formed “Imaian. Not one of these words feats to Cronus we do not leam. If we turn go lower than the Bushmen. They tell the do I find in “ Prometheus.” For “Panthea, to Preller we find that Kpóvos is not connected story of swallowing and disgorging alive, aton the other hand, Keats had no occasion to go with xpóvos, Time, but with spaivw, and that tributing these acts to Kwai Hemm (I omit the to that poem. Whether he had read it or not, he is a god of harvest-time. His child click), the all-devourer. This we know on the he had at least read Spenser; and in the “Faerie swallowing feats may be derived from the evidence of a collector recognised, I believe, as Queene," book ii., canto x., st. 73, he would Semitic Moloch. Schwartz regards Cronus as a scholar—the late Dr. Bleek. A Bushman have found “Panthea" used, as in the “Cap a thunder-god, partly, perhaps, because in the god, the Mantis, is swallowed, with a number of and Bells," of a city, not, as in “ Prometheus," shape of a horse this god wooed his wife in the other beings. Kwai Hemm is slain, and all of a person, while in Spenser's preceding form of a mare, and the cloud-horses, with their the beings he has swallowed come out alive, stanza stands the name “Elfinan," which Keats, thundering hoofs, are familiar to mythologists. like the brethren of Zeus after the stone disagain, has introduced in the next stanza but one His sickle is the rainbow. Böttiger thinks agreed with Cronus. As to the stone, the after that in which his “Panthea" appears. Cronus is Moloch, who rejoiced in sacrifices of practice of worshipping fetish stones and

The employinent of classical names in our children. His flight before Zeus represents daubing them (as the priests did at Delphi, and poetry (to turn briefly to Mr. Gosse's criticisms Phoenician religion driven westwards before as the superstitious man in Theophrastus does) upon the words “Lamia” and “Hyperion”) that of the “. young light-hearted masters of with oil, grease, or paint is confessedly savage. has always been very free or lax-several the oar.” Prof. Sayce does not say that Cronus The swallowing legend occurs among the Zulus, instances of which are given in the Aldine is derived from Moloch, but compares the myth creative god (the Eagle) is swallowed and editor's note to Gray's " * Progress of Poesy,' of Cronus with that of Baal (of whom Moloch disgorged by the Moon, in Australia, after the together with the instances recited by Mr. Gosse is a name), and Baal, again, is derived from an women have beaten the Moon with a stone of the Greek accentuation of “Hyperion” by Accadian source. Baal is the sun-god; perhaps tomahawk. Mr. im Thurn found similar English writers. Hence it would not be Cronus is the sun-god too. In that case, swallowing myths among the Indians of surprising if Keats, who knew Greek, not Cronus is variously regarded as Greek, Phoeni- Guiana. If they refer, as Mr. Tylor thinks, to through scholarship, but “ because he was a cian, Accadian (by ultimate derivation), as con- the swallowing of the world by Night, then Greek," should have slipped in his nomen- nected with Time, as the sun-god, as the har- Night is conceived of in a very savage fashion, clature. Yet I fail to see why " Lamia,” even vest-god of the harvest months, and as the The point is that Greeks and savages have the if strictly only a “ fabulous monster,” should be storm-god, while the blood-drops of Uranus are same mythical incident. It seems natural to less properly used by him as a proper name the rain (Sayce), the lightning (Schwartz). savages. To the Greeks, when they became than, for example, Angela in the "Eve of St.

Clearly, no definite result has been obtained ; civilised and reflective, it seemed unnatural. I Agnes." And in the case of “ Hyperion, do not know why Cronus mutilated conclude that the myth (like human sacrifice ; where the accent has been moved back from the Uranus, why he swallowed his children, why feeding the dead with blood dropped into a i to the e, not only might he have pleaded (had he disgorged them alive (unless that be an tomb; the Athenian bear-dance; the use of he cared) the great example of Gray, whose allegory of the dead and reviving days), or the savage turn-dun in the Bacchic mysteries ; scholarship and taste forbid the belief that he why he was presented with a stone as food. and the like) was a survival from the period accented the word similarly through ignorance, Xow, then, would the anthropologist explain when the ancestors of the Greeks were savages. but Keats might also have appealed to the well, these myths ? He would say that the vein of Nothing but space is needed to show that the known oscillations of quantity in certain Greek invention which they display is savage, and irrational element in other Greek myths is also proper names.

Indeed, if we look to the would regard it as å survival from the well- a savage survival. I do not say that savages derivation anciently assigned to Hyperion, it ascertained conditions of the savage intellect. "have passed through the conditions under may be suspected that the accent was here These he would, illustrate from the myths of which the Aryan races have grown up,” but ixep mainly with a view to hexametric conve

savages. In New Zealand we find the myth that the Aryan races (see Prof. Sayce's review nience.

of the mutilation of Uranus (Rangi), and in of Schrader, ACADEMY, December 8) have

we

8 p.m.

THE EPITAPH ON THE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE.

passed through and out of the physical and

8p.m. Geological: “The Volcanic Group of St. proper names, and involves such incorrect intellectual conditions of savages. It appears coveries of Vertebrate Romains in the Triassic assumptions as that the Aryans passed through to , me that a scientific mythology should Strata of the South Coast of Devonshire,” by Mr. Asia Minor and found Armenia already tenanted

A. T. Metcalte. critically examine the intellectual conditions of

by Semites.

8 pm. Microscopical. savages; should determine whether savage THURSDAY, Jan. 10, 7 p.m. London Institution : "Celtic Armenische Studien. By H. Hübschmann. myths are the result of that condition; should and Roman Britain,” by Mr. Alfred Tylor.

8p.m. Royal Academy: Art as influenced by (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel.) This is the thus ascertain whether they tally with Greek the Men," 11., Primitive or Hieroglyphic Period, by first part of a work in which Dr. Hübschmann myths; and then would be in position to Mr. J. E. Hodgson. ascertain whether the irrational element in 8 p.m. Telegraph Engineers : Inaugural Ad- intends to embody the results of his valuable

dress, by Prof. W. G. Adams.

investigations into Armenian phonetics and Greek myths is a survival from savagery, or is

Mathematical: the result of a disease of language which Electric Currents in Cylindrical and spherical Con" etymology. It is the

first time that Armenian affected civilised men. I have sketched briefly

ductors" by Prof. H. Lamb; "An Exteneion of has been analysed in the light of the recent

Pascal's Theorem to Space of Three Dimensions, discoveries made in regard to primitive Aryan this system in the article “Mythology” for the and the Theory of Screws in Elliptic Space on, by phonology. The author finds that Arinenian is Encyclopaedia Britannica. Whether this be

Problem in Demutations." by Mr H. Foxley. not an Iranian dialect, as has been maintained “no method at all” or not, I leave “to the FRIDAY, Jan. 11, 8 p.m. Now Shakspere: “Love's by Friedrich Müller and others, but, on the world and the ages” to decide. A. LANG, Labour's Lost," by Mr. Sidney L. Lee.

8 p.m. Quekett.

contrary, occupies a place of its own midway between Iranian and Letto-Slayic.

It must, therefore, be connocted with Phrygian, proving SCIENCE.

that the old tradition, reported by Herodotus, London: Dec. 31, 1883. PHILOLOGICAL BOOKS.

was correct which made the Armenians an

offshoot of the Phrygians. Osborn's Memoirs, where this epitaph occurs Eridanus, River and Constellation. By Robert in the form quoted by Mr. Symington in the Brown, Jun. (Longmans.) In this study of Sabäische Denkmäler. By J. H. Mordtmann ACADEMY of last week, was reprinted at Edin- the archaic Southern asterisms," Mr. Brown and D. H. Müller. (Vienna.) Dr. Mordtmann burgh in 1811, and published with other tracts gives us more of that extensive learning and and Dr. D. H. Müller have produced a work of under the title of the Secret History of the Court power of combination which we have come to considerable importance for the ancient dialects of James I. It is generally understood that the expect from him as a matter of right. His new and epigraphy of Southern Arabia. The fifty book was edited by Sir Walter Scott, and the work is a continuation of his monograph on the new Himparitic texts contained in this volume following remark made by the editor on the Law of Cosmic Order, and seeks to trace the are mostly to be found in the Imperial Museum question at issue may be of interest. His words origin of the figures of the constellations. He at Constantinople, and they offer a rich store of are (i. 225):

endeavours to show that the names given to the materials-historical, mythological, and linguis“The first six lines of this celebrated epitaph are stars have been transferred to them from pre- tic--to the student of these interesting memorfound in Ben Jonson's works. It is possible that existing myths which described the immemorial ials of ancient Yemen. As the authors observe, he cancelled the remainder on account of the contest between darkness and light. Assyrian the title Sabaean is hardly applicable to their outrageous false wit with which they disgrace the students will find his remarks on the Gisd hubar inscriptions, since the larger part of them do commencement."

legends and the constellation of Ara especially not come from the actual province of Saba, the Scott's explanation of the difficulty, although interesting. The story of Oriôn and Kedaliôn, modern Ma'rib; but they object to the term simple enough, deserves attention.

to which he alludes on p. 12, may be paralleled Himyaritic as still less appropriate. The volume S. L. LEE. by the legend of St. Christopher. It is always is provided with excellent Indices and eight

a pleasure to read what Mr. Brown writes ; and photo-zincographed plates.

we find it difficult to lay down his book when
A CURIOUS QUOTATION.
once taken up, or to rise from a perusal of it

Die Sprachphilosophischen Werke Wilhelm's without feeling that now vistas have been 1. (Berlin : Dümmler.). Wilhelm von Hum

von Humboldt. Edited by H. Steinthal. Part Cambridge: Dec. 31, 1883. In Hoyt and Ward's excellent Cyclopaedia of opened out before the mind.

boldi's works on the philosophy of language Practical Quotations, there is at least one which Le Yidghat et le Yagnobi. By J. Van den bave a permanent value which no amount of has found its way, with comical effect, into Ghoyn.. (Brussels : Hayez.) This is a very mistaken theory or error in detail will over strange company.

The words of Pistol in interesting monograph oa two of the dialects of diminish. They belong to what has been called "Henry V.” Îv. i.-"Trailst thou the puissant the Pamir-the Yidghab, spoken on the southern the literature of power; and however much pike”-are given under the head of "Angling." slopes of the Hindu Kusb; and the Yagpobi, linguistic science may progress, and the theories WALTER W. SKEAT. spoken in a valley of the Alai. The dialects embodied in them become obsolete, their

well deserve the attention of Indo-European suggestive and stimulating character will

philologists, and will probably help to throw cause them to have as much influence on the WITHOUT GOD."

light on the question of the relation of the Indic philologists of the future as they have had upon

to the Iranian languages. London: Dec. 31, 1883.

the philologists of the past. No better editor I thank you for your very fair and courteous Les Idiomes négro-aryen et maléo-aryen. By for them could be found than Prof. Steinthal, review of my last book. What it says about L. Adam. (Paris: Maisonneuve.) It is only whose studies and sympathies lie in the Buddha is probably correct I know

that sys- recently, that the importance of the so-called shown by his previous writings that he is not tem only at third hand. But the other mistake mixed jargons has been recognised by comis not mine-Vere is not a Catholic priest, but parativo philologists. Nevertheless, the light blind to the faults of the philosophic system of an Anglican. Cleveland says to him, “I don't they throw on the formation and development | edition is accompanied not only by explanatory

the author he has undertaken to edit. The know what right you have to differ from the of languages is considerable, more especially as Church Universal, but-you do.”

regards the vexed question of a mixed grammar.foot-notes, but also by numerous introductions. PERCY GREG.

Every addition, therefore, to our knowledge of Die Schatzhöhle. By Carl Bezold. (Leipzig: them is very acceptable ; and our best thanks Hinrichs.) We would direct the attention of are due to M. Adam for his full and complete scholars to the valuable edition of the Syrian

account of the grammars of two curious "jar-work known as The Caves of Treasure, and APPOINTMENTS FOR NEXT WEEK,

gons," the one used by the negroes of Guiana attributed to St. Epbraom, which is now being MONDAY, Jan. 7,5p.m. London Institution : “Arctic and Trinidad, the other by the coolies of edited by Dr. Bozold. The first part of the Siberia," by Mr. H. Seebohm. 8 p.m. Royal Academy : “Art as influenced by Mauritius.

work, containing an Introduction and translathe Men," I., Introductory, by Mr. J. E. Hodgson. Le Migrazione degli antichi Popoli dell' Asia tion of the book, with additional notes, has

Aristotelian: “Newton's Universal Spirit and Modern Force,” by Mr. Charles Bray.

Minore. By E. Schiaparelli. (Rome: Loescher.) already appeared; the Syriac text may be 8p.m. Victoria Institute : - Cuneiform Inscrip- Prof. Schiaparelli seeks to show by a compari- expected shortly. The translation, now pubtions as illustrative of the Jewish Captivity," by Mr. W. St. Chad Boscawen.

son of ethnic names that the Aryans made their lished for the first time, will greatly interest 8.30 p.m. Geographical : "Recent Explorations way into Europe through Asia Minor, which students_of the history and legends of the in the Southern Alps of New Zealand,” by the Rev. they found already occupied by Libyans; that ancient East. W.8. Green.

The work appeared about the TUESDAY, Jan. 8. Royal Institution : “Alchemy in the Libyans were scattered as far as Illyria and sixth century, and introduces us to several relation to Modern Science," VI., by Prof. Dewar. even Spain, and after a long struggle with the hitherto unknowo legends connected with the

8 p.m. Biblical Archaeology: Anniversary Aryan invaders made their way to Africa ; and Flood, the curse pronounced on Canaan, the Meeting.

8 p.m. Anthropological: “The Ethnology of that their abandoned seats were seized by other descendants of Noah, the kingdom of Nimrod, the Congo and South-western Africa," by Mr. H. tribes from the Caucasus, such as Sardians, the attack of Magog upon Melchizedek, the

$p.m. Civil Engineers: Inaugural Address, by Siculians, and Tuscans, who formed, under the building of Nisibis, Edessa, and Haran as well Sir J. W. Bazalgette. WEDNESDAY, Jan. 9. 7p.m. Society of Arts :,Juvenile of the Hellenic people. The whole theory rests

name of Aeolians and Dorians, the chief nucleus as Jericho, the history of Jacob, and the Lecture. “Crystals and Crystallisation," II., by

punishment of Isaiah. The foundation of Mr. J. Milar Thompson,

on the very deceptive support of similarities in Jerusalem is ascribed to Melchizedek, while

8 p.m.

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Kumros is stated to have built Samosata and Temporum Ratione, mentioned in the ACADEMY tion, by Dr. V. Gross, of a house of the Stone Claudias in the hundredth year of Abraham, of December 29, p. 435. The letters on the age discovered some time ago by M. Frank at niming them after his son Kâlod and his left are the initials of the corresponding Latin the station of Schussenried, in Wurtemberg. daughter Poron.

The floor and parts of the walls are preserved, crios

[κριός] PROF. GARBE, of Köningsberg, has published,

and it is easy to gain from these relics a notion

t tauros [ταύρος] ] under the title Dia indischen Mineralien, ihre

of the original structure. The door was on the

g didimi [δίδυμοι Namen, und die ihren zugeschriebenen Kräfte,

south side, and led into a chamber, having in

[καρκίνος] the Sanskrit text of the thirteenth book of

one corner a quantity of flint on the floor sug1 leon

[λέων) Narahari's medical dictionary—the 80-called

gestive of the former presence of a hearth at

u parthinos [Trap8 évos] Raja-nighantu-with a German translation and

this spot. A passage led from this apartment

1 zichos* [Gugós] notes (Leipzig: Hirzel). The great lexicon of

The most notable

to another and larger room.

scorpeo [sic: σκορπίος] medical technical terms, of which this account

toxatis [τοξότης]

feature of this structure is the presence of of minerals forms a part, was written in Kash

egeaceros [αιγόκερως]

several floors separated by layers of clay. The mir in the reign of Nrisinha (A.D. 1235-50),

a idrochos [υδροχόος]

hut was originally built on boggy ground, and and, like medical works of the same date in the

pichtis
[ίχθύς] ]

the growth of turf rendered it necessary from West, is full of quaint beliefs and curious lore.

xii signa.

time to time to construct a new floor at a The whole medical system is based on the time. The numerous Greek words in the Karlsruhe higher level. honoured theory of the humours, and the Priscian, No. 132 (not“ 223,” as Hertz wrongly particular part of it relating to the minerals on says), the scribe of which was a ninth-century

PHILOLOGY NOTES. the theory that each of them is either “hot” or Irishman, are written in small Greek capitals, M. BRÉAL has been submitting some more "cold” by nature. We are told, in the book and are far more correctly spelt. For instance, Latin etymologies to the Académie des InscripDow published, the names of each mineral or the verb given in fol. 575 as the explana- tions. Ås examples of words whose true derimetal, its different kinds, its taste and appear- tion of consternor is neither FITAPOMAI, as Hertz vation must be sought for in their primitive ance, the preparations made from it, its use in prints it, nor karatahttouai (!), as Zimmer prints and not their later use, he took “ tranquillus relation to the three humours, its natural it (Glossae Hibernicae, p. 222), but plainly and “maturus." The common classical meanqualities, and the results of its administration. NTÈPOMAI (the passive of Tup"), the 9 being ing of tranquillus being, “in repose,” it has Amid much folly (very instructive from the expressed by an Irish uncial U, with its right- generally been connected with quies ; but its folk-lore point of view) as to humours, phylters, hand limb prolonged. elixirs, and charms, there is also much real The present opportunity may be taken to original meaning was “transparent,” and its

original form perhaps transliquillus. Water information as to the meanings of rare or explain the following passage in the Book of when transparent is also in

se. So with doubtful words, and of rare uses of well-known Armagh, fol. lla, col. 2, ancient drugs known only in the East. Thus, et archiclocos et milites Hiberniae, quod odio The former is the more common, but the latter ones, and as to the qualities or preparation of part of the ninth century: "uideo dissertores maturus, which has in classical Latin two con

tradictory meanings—"speedy” and “tardy." for instance, we see from ver. 194 that the habent paruchiam Patricii, quia substraxerunt has passed into French mûr. The primitive traditional meaning of Vaidūrya cannot have ab eo quod ipsius erat.” been anything else than “cat's-eye.The Here, as Prof. Windisch was the first to see,

sense must have been “ in the morning," from number of substances thus treated of includes “ dissertores

some such adverb as matu, from which also

stands for desertores, twelve kinds of metals, thirty kinds of mineral gades,". and “archiclocos” is the acc. pl. order of thought was in the morning,

come matutinus and the goddess Matuta. The earths, and twelve kinds of jewels, some of of archiclocus, a formation from &pxixawy,

I do not venture to decide make" ripe," reacted upon the meaning of the

"early,” these latter, such as quartz, being divided robber-chief.”

'quick.” The verb maturare, “to into sub-sections. In the notes to his transla- whether the second c in -clocus is due to adjective, which ultimately acquired the second tion Prof. Garbe has collected no little addi- assimilation to the anlaut or to the working tional matter on these substances from other of that law which has produced the Irish loan signification of that which is not premature,”

slow.” Spatium is simply the Greek orádlov, treatises on similar topics—more especially words casc, caille, cland, corcur, clúm, cruimfrom the earlier Susruta, from another medi- ther, cuithe, s-cipar, and cuan(éne)

respectively despite the change ,of

two letters; and is for a race.

Poenitet is cal lexicon dating from the sixteenth con- from “pascha," "pallium," planta,

pur; usually written with an "oe," and connected tury A.D., entitled Bbāya-prakāsa, from Uday pura," pluma, "pre(s)byter, puteus,'

with in the sense of “remorse."
poena

But in Chand Dutt's work entitled Materia Medica piper,” and “pugnus,” or, rather, the Low-old Latin, as Aulus Gellius remarked, me poenitet of the Hindus, and from Surindra Mohun Latin "pognus.

WHITLEY STOKES.

means, not "I repent,” but “I regret, Tagure's Mani-mālā. The valuable Indices * The scribe wrote “sichos," and then corrected dissatisfied.” In many inscriptions, such as which close the volume add very greatly to the initial s into z.

that of the Emperor Claudius at Lyons, and its value, and all those who are interested

also in the best MSS., the word is written in the history of ideas on the subject in

SCIENCE NOTES.
with an “ae." It is derived from

paene,

which question will find in it a rich treasure of reliable and accurate information. We hope Steel and Iron is the title of a new work by meant originally “ inwardly,” and is connected the preparation of this edition will not delay Mr. W. H. Greenwood which will be published with penitus, penes, penetro. Thus, me paenitet the publication of the greater work on which in a few days by Messrs. Cassell & Co. in their signifies strictly “it touches me.

» edited by

commodes me.' On the Capitol at Rome, Prof. Garbe is known to be engaged-his series of “Manuals of Technology

before the temple of Minerva, there were three complete edition of the Āpastamba Sūtra of the Prof. Ayrton and Dr. Wormell. Black Yajur Veda. Dr. Burnell (who was not

M. GIRARD has bequeathed to the French Nici Di, and probably representing Caryatids.

statues in a kneeling attitude, known as the Font to be daunted by large and difficult under: Association for the advancement of Science a By a popular derivation they came to be takings) once ventured to record his opinion capital sum of 100,000 frs. (£4,000), the

regarded as the gods who preside over childthat there was very little chance of an edition interest of which is to be devoted every five birth (nicus). But really they were only “ the of the whole of this immense Sūtra being years to the encouragement of researches into kneeling gods,” for the primitive meaning of brought out. But the rapid progress of the antiquity of man, with special reference to nitor is to kneel;” cf. genu, yvút, and the old publications in Indian matters has taught us geological time.

form gnictor preserved in Festus. that in this field also it is the unexpected that is THE Rev. A. Irving, of Wellington College,

We have received the first number of the moet possible; and the scholarship and accuracy has contributed to the Proceedings of the Ge- Zeitschrift für Keilschriftforschung which is issued of the smaller book now under review afford a ologists' Association a paper descriptive of the by Otto Schulze, the active Oriental publisher efficient proof of the solid work that may Bagshot beds of the London basin, with special of Leipzig. It is edited by Dr. Cari Bezold reasonably be looked for from its) author in reference to his own neighbourhood. It appears and Dr. Fritz Hommel, with the co-operation greater things.

that the college stands on the lower part of the in England of Mr. Theo. G. Pinches. The con-
Upper Bagshot series. The writer insists on
the

tributors to this number include many of the colour of some of the sands being due foremost names in Assyriology. Prof. Sayce

green CORRESPONDENCE.

to the action of vegetable matter, and not to writes in English, and M. Jules Oppert and M. HIBERNO-GREEK.

glauconite, as generally supposed. The “Sar- St-Guyard in French. The fount of cuneiform Queen Anne's Ma ions: Dec. 31, 1883.

sen stones,” occurring as scattered blocks in characters is by far the finest we have seen. Those who care for the history of Greek in these the neighbourhood, appear to be concretionary islands during the Dark and Middle Ages will be masses

of sandstone, or quartzite, or even chert, glad to have the following piece of documentary derived from the youngest members of the Bag- MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. vidence, though it is only a list of the names tsho strata, though similar stones elsewhere may

ROYAL SOCIETY or LITERATURE.—(Wednesday, 4 the zodiacal signs. The original, in an Irish be referred to the Woolwich and Reading series.

Dec. 19.) band of the ninth century, I lately found on A RECENT number of M. Cartailhac's Matériaux SIR P. DE COLQUHOUN, V.-P., in the Chair.-Mr, 11:16b of the Karlsruhe codex of Beda's De pour l'Histoire de l'Homme contains a descrip- R. N. Cust gave a narrative, chiefly oral, and

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illustrated by maps, of a recent tour he had made climbing); “nut, " "sleeper," "snail" (in cotton- follows; and an important section on
to the Black and Caspian Seas, the route he took spinning); “ soul”. (French åme, German, sehle); and titre," and a hundred pages on records of
being by Berlin, Warsaw, Kief, and Odessa.

« tilt - hammer,
"tail - hammer ; “ tire ;

exchange, which will be prized as much by During a stay of several days at Sebastopol Mr. washer;"

tap;" “muff of a governor ; Cust had the opportunity of visiting the battle- “ rolly," or trolly.

the mediaeval as by the Criental numismatist, fields of the Alma and Inkerman, and seeing what

together with some interesting details of a religious care is being taken by the Russians of

miscellaneous character, bring the volume to

FINE ART. English military memorials. Thence the beautiful

a close. valley of Baidar leading to Galta was explored ; ALBERT MOORE'S PICTURE, COMPANIONS." A Photo-opgraving.

No more important contribution to the In progress. Same size as original-164 by 84. while the new Russian steamer Pushkin conveyed

"An exquisite picture."--Times.

science of Oriental numismatics has been him onwards to Theodosia, Kaffa, Kertch, Sukham, "Mr. Moore exhibits one picture-than which he never painted a Kali, and the Caucasian coast. Arriving at Batum,

"A new and exquisite picture."-Stanlard.

made for many years. M. Sauvaire deserves the railway to Tiflis was found just completed for

“Remarkable for its refinement of line and delicate harmony of colour."

the gratitude of all who are interested in the passenger traffic, and in fifteen hours he reached "Mr.

Moore's pracolul - Sampanlone forms an excellent bonne bouche subject for the industry and research he has the capital; twenty-one hours more landed him 0..9 attractive chibition. "Daily News

** The gem of this varied and delightful exhibition."- Academy. devoted to it, and for the accuracy and method at Baku on the Caspian. On his return Mr. Cust

DOWDESWELLS, 133, New Bond-street. visited Trebizond, Sinope, Samsun, and Constan

he has shown in the arrangement of his tinople, taking Varna, Bucharest, and Vienna on

“THE PRINCEA in the TOWER." by J. E. MILLAIS, RA.

materials. It is a pity that the rules of the his way home. Everywhere he found the Russian Serbian Serie A TIANUARYKA.Pd.j

. forms the Frontiepłoco to Journal asiatique did not permit him to make Government and the Russian people civil and

JE MILLAIS, R. 4-Tho Palating by Millais, THE PRINCES in the his work complete by including the already courteous, and the arrangements of the steamers and railways above all praise. sparretely printed places in the JANUARY ' Number of the ABT published tract of El-Makrizy translated by

De Sacy, for it would have given the student ROYAL HISTORICAL SOCIETY.-(Thursday, Dec. 20.)

one volume to master instead of two; but JAMES Heywood, Esq., in the Chair.—Mr. Oscar

MOHAMMADAN METROLOGY.

beyond this omission, for which the author is Browning reades paper on The Triple Alliance Matériaux pour servir à l'Histoire de la Numis- not responsible, there is little fault to be

The defects of the Prussia." He sketched the position of England

matique et de la Métrologie musulmanes. Oriental method, which M. Sauvaire was with regard to foreign Powers after the Peace of (Paris: Imprimerie nationale.) Versailles, her desire to form alliances, her wish to For some time past M. H. Sauvaire has busied the volume needs more study than if the

obliged to retain, are, of course, patent; and placed and exaggerated jealousy of France. The himself with collecting all the statements he results, instead of the original statements

, paper was mainly occupied with an account of the can find in the Arab historians bearing upon were given. But M. Sauvaire was quite right means by which Holland was changed from a close Mohammadan coins and metrology. Some to keep his authorities' actual words at the ally of France into a firm friend of England, special treatises which he discovered in the expense of a little extra trouble to the reader. of Sir James Harris, afterwards Lord Malmesbury: course of his search have been published in

The matters treated in the volume Nothing could be accomplished towards this end French in the Journal of our Royal Asiatic much too technical to be discussed in any but during the lifetime of Frederick the Great, and the Society, while the numismatic and metrological a journal devoted to numismatics; but one Stadtholder was gradually deprived of his power. extracts he has made from historical works of section, that on the origin of the coinage, A defensive alliance concluded between Holland and France; but when France threatened

a more general character have appeared in the bears in an interesting manner upon the letter to collect troops on the Dutch frontier, and the Journal asiatique. A series of papers so con- which Rogers Bey lately contributed to the party of the Stadtholder was at its lowest point, tributed have now been republished under the ACADEMY on the phenomenal dirhems which the English Government began to stir itself. above title.

the Paris Cabinet of Coins has recently purStrong remonstrances were addressed by England This substantial volume of 367 pages, chased from Subhi Pasha's collection. M. to France, the Prince of Orange joined the army, the Princess set out for the Hague, but was inter? | however, deals only with the first part Sauvaire's section shows that, though there cepted. The King of Prussia marched troops into of the subjects mentioned in the title; is a very general consensus of opinion on the Holland to avenge the insult offered to his sister, it is wholly concerned with the numismatic subject of 'Abd-El-Melik's share in the reform and met with no resistance. The French were records of the native historians, though these of the coinage, there is also a well-established non-interference. The Prince and Princess of are of course cssentially metrological. The tradition that El-Hejjaj, the Governor of Orange returned to the Hague, and a treaty of

records are methodically arranged under El-'Irâk, previously struck dirhems, while it alliance with England was concluded. Shortly appropriate headings. First, the origin of is generally reported that the rival Khalif afterwards Sir James Harris met the King of the Mohammadan coinage is described in the Ibn-Ez-Zubeyr had dirhems coined at a still Prussia at Loo, and negotiated a treaty with him words of a dozen historians, each of whom earlier period—meaning in every case dirhems the law to Europe for several years, and checked quotes many other authorities, and establishes of the recognised Mohammadan type. It is the ambitious designs of Austria and Russia. It his statements in the Arabian manner by the true that none of these statements exactly may, however, be questioned whether it did not usual scrupulous record of the names of the accounts for the Paris dirhems, but they involve England in difficult complications on the traditionists through whom the statements all show that the general testimony of Continent, and lead ultimately to the revolutionary have been transmitted. M. Sauvaire gives Arab historians points to attempts to issue a war of 1793, and the peace of Bâle in 1795. The facts of the paper were drawn chiefly from minute references to the original texts, so purely Muslim coinage before the Khalif 'Abdunpublished documents preserved in the English that anyone who is hardy enough to doubt El-Melik finally carried the idea into successful Record Office.-A discussion followed, in which the accuracy of his French translation can execution. At the same time it cannot be Messrs. Hyde Clarke and T. Pagliardini and Drs. easily lay his doubts at rest; while the notes, concealed that the native annalists seem so J. Foster, Palmer, and Zerfi took part.

in which the translator appends the dates of strangely ignorant of the very appearance and PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY.-(Friday, Dec. 21.)

the writers and traditionists quoted in the inscriptions of their own early coinage that A. J. Ellis, Esq., V.-P., in the Chair.-The first text, add greatly to the usefulness of the their testimony may not, after all, be worth paper read was Titin : : a study of Child Lan- work. Indeed, no such work has ever before

Very

much. guage, " by Señor D. Machado y Alvarez, of been attempted; for the subjects here boldly The extreme slightness of the section on the Madrid, englished by the Rev. Walter Gregor. assailed by M. Sauvaire positively bristle standard or titre of the coins makes M. "Titin” was the writer's boy's version of his with difficulties and confusions. name, Joaquin; his earliest sounds from the age the origin of the coinage has been treated assay-trials the more pointed.

After Sauvaire's note on the desirability of further

If our own and commented on, as well as those of a younger from the historians' data, the Mithkal, national collection and those of Paris and of brother. –The second paper was by Mr. Walter R. the basis of the Muslim monetary system, is St. Petersburg would sacrifice a small number Browne, on." Some Technical Terms, chiefly those explained according to the statements of the of their duplicates in order to ascertain the used in Engineering,” part 2.. The words, treated native annalists, and in a similar manner the precise system of alloying in use at different up to) ; " frog" "(in America, at the point where Dinâr and Dirhem, and their subdivisions the periods of the Muslim currency, a real service two railway lines cross), from the frog of a horse's Dânik, Kirât, Tassûj, Kharrûbeh, Habbeh, would be rendered to a particularly complihoof, and that from the shape of a frog;"gally” and Aruzzeh; and then the Fels, or copper cated branch of numismatic study, at an of type (a long punt);, "gab” (a projection); coin, receives an interesting notice. A long almost nominal expense.

(in mining); "hade," heading" (in mining);"" jack" (1. a small boy or thing; 2. a

list of the names and qualifications of Moham- We shall look forward with interest to the servant, a rough implement);

" mitred

(at

madan coins, to the number of 179, replete completion of M. Sauvaire's difficult under45 degrees, then any angle); "monkey" (from its with curious and valuable information, next taking.

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SIR JOSHUA AT THE GROSVENOR.

Lely and Kneller to paint overybody (especially its painful expression and mutilated fingers.

ladies) as somebody else, and somebody classical Time and the picture-cleaners have dealt vory The productiveness of Sir Joshua Reynolds was for choice. In this " fancy-ball style Sir capriciously with Reynolds's pictures. Not far so great that the difficulty of providing suf- Joshua found a great field for his fertile in- from the Doctor is Mrs. Pelham feeding her ficient wall-space would alone be an insuperable vention. One of the best of such pictures, always Chickens"- pitiable example of thorough obstacle to anything like an exhaustive oxbi- too artificial to be satisfactory, is his “Mrs. restoration, shining like an oleograph, while bition of his pictures; and, unfortunately, a Nesbitt as Circo” (11), lent by the Dowager between them is"Warren Hastings" in blue coat few, a very few, owners have not the will, and Lady Stanley of Alderley. It was a dangerous and

flowered waistcoat as fresh and fair as when one or two have not the power, to lend their character for such a lady to assume ; and it Sir he was painted in 1766. On the whole, howancestral treasures. A complete collection and Joshua really intended to give her an expression ever, one is rather surprised to find so large a a perfect anthology being thus alike impossible, "amorous, astute, and treacherous," as the proportion of the pictures in a sound or at least we may well be satisfied with the varied and, Catalogue has it, he can scarcely be accused of onjoyable condition. on the whole, choice assemblage with which Sir Aattering the conscience of bis sitter. On the In concluding those necessarily scattered Coutts Lindsay has been ablo to decorate his whole, this exbibition is peculiarly free from this and inadequate remarks, I would express a fine galleries. It is the largest and probably style of portrait, and it is none the weaker upon hope that little more will be heard of the most representative of any got made, and that account. Nor is it to be regretted that the disparagement of Sir Joshua Reynolds includes examples of his best work at different there are no more classical compositions. The as a painter of fashion. He painted more periods and in different styles. The grand two most important are the Iphigenia " (160), fully than any other artist the world he “Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse,” the belonging to the Queen, and Lady Castletown's lived in ; but, besides being a world of fashion, it superb " Duchess of Devonshire playing with "Nymph" (39), both good examples of what was a world of much taste and refinement, a her Child,” the groups of the Dilettanti Sir Joshua could do in this direction. In world of much culture and manliness, of much Society, the “Oymon and Iphigenia" (one of both be achieves a fine golden glow of wit and wisdom, and of not a little genius. That the best of his pictures of nude beauty), the colour ; but his designs of this order do not rise he should have been able to reflect overy part of wise “Lord Thurlow," “ Lavinia Countess beyond a cortain daintiness and prettiness. this world, and one part as well as another, with Spezieer"-as maid, as wifo, and as mother, Nor, I confess, do I care much for his cele- no small portion of its life and movement is the equally charming, and equally well painted by brated fancy children, his “Muscipula ” and crown of Sir Joshua not only as an artist, but as S“ Joshua—would by themselves make an “Felina," with their affected smirksnot even a man of intellect and a cultivated gentleman. exhibition sufficient to justify the high reputa- greatly for his “Strawberry Girl” or his “ In

Cosmo MONKHOUSE. tion of Reynolds ; and the display, taken nocence,” with their too exemplary (simplicity. altogether, is worthy of one who was certainly One of the best preserved and brilliantly the greatest portrait-painter, and perhaps the executed works hero, “ Lord Harry and Lady

NOTES ON ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY. greatest colourist, of his contury. A word of Charlotte Spencer as the Young Fortune praise should also be given to the taste with Tellers” (46), is greatly marred by affectation. MR. F. G. STEPHENS has just completed a which the pictures have been arranged and Sir Joshua is, as a rule, finest when most memoir of J. C. Hook, R.A., which is to appear hung, and for the learned and interesting notes natural; and it is in such groups as " The in the series of

“Lives of Contemporary with which Mr. F. G. Stephens has enriched Duchess of Devonshire and her Child” (81), English Artists” edited by M. Dumas for M. the Catalogue.

“The Ladies Waldegrave” (27), “Lavinia Baschet. Interest is due to what Mr. Stephens No particular advantage is gained by attempt. Countess Spencer and her son" (60), and his has to say on the work of our modern painters ing the impossible and invidious task of measur- own portrait as President of the Royal Academy owing, to his knowledge of the history of ing the exact height of Sir Joshua às com- that we find his study of the old Masters English art. pared with the greatest of the Old Masters ; Italian, French, and Dutch-turned to the On Friday in this week Prof. C. T. Newton but it is pleasant and safe to assert that he greatest advantage. The first two oocupy delivered the first of a course of seven lectures belonged to that small and choice group of deservedly the places of honour at either end at University College, London, on “ Monuments artists of all time who have done something to of the great room. Reynolds never had a of Lycian Art." The remaining lectures will be enlarge the scope of their particular branch of fresher inspiration than the motive of the first. delivered on the six Fridays following, at 4 p.m. art-who are not only masters, but initiators. The action of the mother and child are 80 The subjects will be “The Harpy Tomb," "The He was born at a time when an artist of perfectly simple and natural, they form 80 Ionic Monument at Xanthos,”* * Rock Tombs” ambition had practically no choice but to justly balanced a composition, the moment of (two lectures), “The Obelisk at Xanthos," and become a portrait-painter, or to wasto his life arrested motion is so finely caught, the design i The Tomb at Jölbashi." The fee for the in rain rivalry with the greatest artists of is so large and the colour so grandly, massed, course is one guinea. Greece and Italy—to wrock himself, in short, that it may be safely named as an achievement

Miss HEATH-WILSON is, we understand, enon the ill-surveyed shores of “high art.” Sir which, of its kind, has never been surpassed. Joshua was the first of English artists to the other is extremely elegant ; the faces, the gaged on a series of genre pictures of a novel comprehend thoroughly how largely the charm costumes, the attitudes, are all choice and

description-Florentine street groups, studied of the masterpieces of pictorial imagination charming ; and in its light key of colour, with characteristic of an Italian city.

on the spot, and illustrative of the outdoor life was dependent on the knowledge of prin- its tonder pinks and delicious whites and graye, ciples common to all pictures without dis- it is a masterpiece. It is, however, too evidently A NOTEWORTHY collection of pictures, the tinction of subject, and to perceive how greatly a composition; the occupations of the ladies are property of a Hungarian nobleman, Count the artistic pleasure of wbich portraits are too plainly make-believe for the work to rank Andor Festetics, is to be sold at Amsterdam on pable could be enlarged by distinction and among the truest inspirations of Reynolds. January 22 and 23. It includes examples of Rem. vivacity of design, by careful schemes of There are some very interesting and well- brandt, Jan Steen, Hobbema, Cuyp, Wouversolour, and by effective distribution of light and preserved examples of his earlier style, none of mans, Berghem, de Hoog, &c. shade. He had the wit to perceive that even a which is better than the " Lady Caroline Keppel.' THE management of the Salon is now in the born painter like himself might find

ample (123)--painted 1755, lent by the Earl of Albe- hands of the artists themselves, or, rather of the mom for the exercise of his special faculty, marlo—who, with her sweet, frank look, well bureau of the Société des Artistes français. But and yet render the principal, if not the only, holds her own, though placed between two later the triennial Salon, which has just closed, is still evice which his contemporaries required of an masterpieces of colour and expression, “ Lavinia under the control of the Government acting artist by the record of the faces and figures of Bingham, Spinster," in 1782 (118), and the through the Conseil supérieur des Beaux-Arts. themselves and their friends. When he went same “ Lavinia Countess Spencer," in 1784 The Government has just decided to hold the to Italy he studied the Old Masters intently; (124). This portrait reminds one of the next triennial Salon during May and June of be examined with the greatest care their absent “ Nelly O'Brien," as the “Miss Jacobs" 1886 in the Palais des Champs-Elysées--the methods and the sources of the effects which he (79), painted 1761, does of "Kitty Fisher same time and the same place as the annual admired, but he made fow copies. Probably no dissolviog the Pearl.” “Miss Jacobs ” would Salon. The artists, of course, have remonstrated; artist ever learnt more from the Old Masters, but be remarkable if only for her dress of and some compromise will have to be effected. all his knowledge went to nourish his own in- blue-a colour which Sir Joshua seldom used üridual artistic faculty. He gathered know- in so large a mass—and for the exquisitely

The last addition to the “Bibliothèque de ledge from Hudson and Michelangelo, but he pearly tones of the flesh. Another time and l'Enseignement des Beaux-Arts” (Paris : Quanwas Reynolds from first to last, from the

dignified spirited early work

(painted in 1764) is the por- tin) is La Peinture flamande by M. A.-J. ittle portrait of " Lady Elizabeth Montagu trait of "Cathcart of Fontenoy with his Patch" Wauters. Duchess of Buccleuch " of 1755 (76), which bears (137) ; another, rivalling in its sweet naturalness MESSRS. FIRMIN-DIDot have published a daar traces of his first master, to the “Mrs. the portrait of her daughter, is " Lady Anne small edition of mezzotints, by Salmon, after Sddons as the Tragic Muse" of 1784 (55), which Lennox” (67), wife of the second Earl of Albe

112 compositions by A. de Stürler, illustrative maly owes some of its grandeur to a lifelong marle and mother of Lady Caroline Keppel. of the Divina Commedia. Stürler was a favourite admiration of the mighty Florentino.

Interesting in spite of its melancholy condition pupil of Ingres. M. Delaborde contributes a It was a fashion inherited from the days of is the early portrait of" Ds. Johnson " (97), with Preface.

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