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and shoulder, making its body too short, as epoch. Yet, among the Thrakian nation there Evans is therefore a little late in dwelling on Reinagle said, and its legs consequently look were not only Getes, but also Gauds, whose those affinities as against my view. too long.

name corresponds to that of the Scandinavian These are but a few indications, owing to the It is more important that a work should have Geats, Gauts, or Goths.

There were

even restriction of space. But I trust, on another point and character than that it should in non- Thrakians called Drojans, whose name curiously occasion, I shall yet more fully prove that the essentials be a servile transcript of some reminds us of the Trojans. The name of Thrakian, Threikian, Threkian, as well as the specified original, whether it be of man or Spartac(us) also occurs in Thrakian history in Frigian (Phrygian, Brigian) name, which, by beast. There is nothing more childish and the form of Spardak and Sparadok. Some of classical testimony, is, from Lydian speech itself, contemptible than a mere realistic view of the Phrygians, or Frigs, were called Brigs. explained as that of “freemen, or Franks, art. There were parts even in the majestic It would be easy to give plenty of other in- really refers to a Teutonic Frakk, Frank, or, face of Mrs. Siddons which did not seem to stances. After all (and in this I go with Dr. in Anglo-Saxon and Old-English speech, a belong to it, as Sir Thomas Lawrence said, and Guest), the law of letter-change has its excep-Freke” people, a free, bold, manly, and brave which required to be subdued without any risk tions. Those conversant with German dialects people, even as the Thrakians, among whom of detracting from the character of the likeness. -of which I may claim to have made a special Ares had his home, pre-eminently were. Glaring faults in public statues and buildings study-could furnish proofs enough, especially

KARL BLIND. are more serious than in pictures, for we can from that widely distributed Franconian speech put the latter, at all events, "out of sight” which holds the middle place between Netherand so "out of mind,” but we cannot escape German and Upper-German dialects. Now, the

A CORRECTION. from the former. Thrakian nation, “the largest of any nations, the

London: Feb. 11, 1884. People don't seem to understand that we Indians excepted,” necessarily contained tribes

I feel I owe an apology, both to Sir John may have a statue of heroic, nay of colossal, size, differing

in dialect

, and its area must have been Gilbert and to Mr. Alfred Hunt, for my blunder which may yet be so finely proportioned as to correspondingly large. The inclusion of the in calling the latter the President of the Royal give us a true idea of the original. “ There is Danubian Teutoburg, therefore, easily explains Water-Colour Society in my article of last week an erroneous principle,” says Burke, itself.

on Mr. Hunt's pictures. "which seems to be extremely general in the

The whole East, European as well as Asiatic, Will you, at the same time, allow me to point

was of old strewn with Thrakian names of out that the Pall Mall Gazette, in making merry present age, and it is a principal cause of our faulty taste. It is the confounding greatness of clearly Teutonic source.

“ Phrygian graves over the mistake, has fallen into another ? The size with greatness of manner, imagining that were pointed out by the ancient Greeks every

Gazette says that I “ ought to know enough of weight of material can make a statue sublime, where in the Peloponnese. The house of the art matters to be aware that if Sir John Gilbert putting me in mind of Claudian's battle of the Atrides was of Thrakian origin. Agamemnon had been spirited away, and the painter indiGiants, compared with Virgil's battle of the was “ the descendant of a barbarian, a cated had been elected in his room, he would Bees. In the former all the objects are vast, but Phrygian.” In Lakonia we come upon a ex officio become Sir Alfred William Hunt.” I the action and expression extravagant and absurd, “ Teut" name of a town near a gulf strangely was not aware that anyone ever had, or could, and the whole cold and uninteresting. In the latter the objects are minute, but the action and In Asia Minor, Teuthrania was named after a thought it still within the power of the Queen

reminding us of the Gythic, or Gothic, name. become a knight ex officio, and I should have expression bold and animated, and the whole together warm, clear, and spirited."

Thrakian (Mysian) King Teuthras. Such Teut to allow the President of the Water-Colour

names occur in an overwhelming proportion. Society to remain untitled. Mr. Frederick Sir Joshua Reynolds says :

Asia itself was, by the Thrakian Lydians, de- Tayler, the late president, is still unknighted, "I have seen a large cartoon copied from a little clared “to be so called, not after Asiê, the wife and I believe that Mr. John Gilbert did not picture of the vision of Ezekiel," by Raffielle, in of Prometheus, but after As(ios), the son of become Sir John immediately on accepting

copyist thought, without doubt, to ex- Kotys, the son of Man(es). Kotys has been the presidency. Whether, now the society pand and illustrate the idea of the author, but by compared with the Norse Hödur, even by those has become Royal, the Queen will invariably loring the majesty of the countenances, which

who adopt the Lithuanian and Slav theory. knight the presidents, may, I think, be left for makes the original so sublime, notwithstanding its being in miniature, his colossal copy became ri- (The Lithuanians, by-the-by, object to being her own decision. She has not thought it diculous instead of awful.”

And Man(es), necessary to knight the President of the

though an Aryan word in general, is also the Royal Institute of Painters in WaterI am sorry to see that our authorities are to name of the mythic ancestor of the Germans- Colours.

Cosmo MONKHOUSE. vote £6,000 of the public money for probably namely, Mann(us). another abortive attempt to embellish the

River-names, like Strymon (stream), speak metropolis ” with a new statue of the Duke of clearly enough. The Rhyndak(os) and Granik(os) Wellington on horseback. Had he not better river-names may with facility be resolved into

NOTES ON ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY. be on foot this time? We shall escape the Teutonic speech. I hold that the names of The alterations made in the hanging of the

pons asinorum” of the horse difficulty. If deities like Kybele, Ate and Attes, Agdistis, Turners in the National Gallery are to be comwe must have him mounted, let us at least Bendis, Pleistor, and so forth show affinities mended as a sign of good intentions; but no * rest” a little—whether “thankful” or not, with the Teutonic tongue. If the proof cannot satisfactory arrangement is possible so long as bat be sure of having a model which will treat be made complete in each case, let us not the gallery in which they are hung remains in the poor horse with more respect than Wyatt forget how badly the Greeks_transliterated its present condition. It seems singularly condid * Copenhagen,” or we may have reason to foreign names. Only compare Kyros, Xerxes, trary to the fitness of things that “Turner's regret our usual rashness, and be forced against &c., with the original sounds ! But, assuming Gallery, as it is called, should be the our will, like Macbeth and his ghosts, to cry even this difficulty to be removed, not every worst lighted of all the galleries. If Turner * Avaunt! Down! And yet another! I'll see deity's name need be explainable from Germanic loved anything, it was light; if he strove no more."


speech, under penalty of otherwise ceasing to to paint anything, it was light; and here be a Germanic deity. Sometimes the root and are his masterpieces hung at the bottom

the meaning of a name are lost. Moreover, of a gulf of a room, lit by a comparatively THE TEUTONIC KINSHIP OF THRAKIANS AND mythology in all countries is mixed to a certain small and positively murky skylight. If the

degree. Can Minerva be explained from Latin? public are ever to be educated to the point of

London: Feb, 10, 1884. For Thrakian words like glur(os) (gold), refer- admiring Turner's pictures, the first thing I, too, will conclude now. If Mr. Arthur ences have been made to xawpós (pale-green), or necessary is that they should see them, and this Evans has never heard of a Panslavist claim to the Slavic zlato. Why not think of the Norse has been impossible ever since they were housed Turkey on Thrakian grounds, his experience and other Teutonic words expressing the glitter, in the present “Turner's Gallery.” As if to must be of rather recent date. Having followed glare, and glow, such as glóra, glýra, gler (old- aggravate the difficulty, the darker pictures the “freaks” of the Panslavist propaganda for Danish glar), and gles(um), the ancient German are hung on the darker side of the cavern, so more than thirty-five years, I remember too word for the golden-coloured amber? Why that such works as The Shipwreck well what was said on this subject, as well as explain the Thrakian word for king (Ban-nv) Calais Pier" might almost as well be placed on the alleged Slav origin of Alexander the from a Slavic bolji (greater), when à king with their faces to the wall. Similar care is Great. Schafarik, whom Mr. Evans quotes, among the Northmen called baldr, shown in the disposition of the Turners in the anverts Siegfried, the Wölsung, and the people among the Anglo-Saxons baldor ? Or, if we smaller and better lighted room on the top of Wiltshire into Slavs !

were to seek for another Germanic explanation, the staircase. It is difficult to study the In saying that the “High-German form ” of why not think of the Norse ballr, the Gothic Jason" and the “ Garden of Hesperides” in the name of the Aspurg people would be fatal balths, the English bold? These instances, too, their present positions, while room on the line to their Gothic origin, Mr. Evans shows the might be multiplied. That, “like other Thra- is found for two small early works of little filing of those philologists who try to make a kians, the Trojans, in course of time, became interest, and two late ones which are such cast-iron rule for the multifarious, and often partly Hellenised, therefore of mixed culture, complete wrecks as to be utterly valueless and mixed, dialects of a vast race out of the poor probably also of mixed speech," is what I have unenjoyable. On the whole, the water-colours remnants of a written language at a given myself said in Dr. Schliemann's book. Mr. in the cellars have the best of it.





SEVERAL of the most prominent members of At the annual exhibition of the Royal Mr. J. Maas sang in his best manner songs by the Royal Academy, together with Messrs. Scottish Academy, which opens to the public Handel and Meyerbeer. John Burr, R. W. Edis, and E. J. Linton, have to-day, English painters are represented by On Monday evening, February 11, the proconsented to act as jurors in the fine art section pictures that are well known in London. Mr. gramme commenced with Molique's Quintett in of the exhibition to be opened at the Crystal Millais has sent his " Portrait of Mr. Hook;" D (op. 35) for flute, violin, two violas, and Palace on April 23. Mr. Alma Tadema his “In the Tepidarium violoncello (Messrs. Svensdon, Ries, Hollaender

, LAST year Mr. G. F. Watts and one or two

and “ The Torchbearer;


Pettie his Zerbini, and Piatti). The composer, an accomother eminent artists of long standing were, by minster Scholar;” Mr. Oates “The Adder's Violin Concertos which are clever and interest

“James II. and Monmouth” and his “ West- plished player and esteemed teacher, has left their works, the representatives of England at the Paris“ Internationale." This spring the

Pool;” and both Mr. Herkomer and Mr. Holl ing; but, if the Quintett in question be a fair exhibition, of which the locality will be changed have portraits. The Scotch pictures we hope to sample of the rest of his chamber music

, we from the Rue de Sèze to the building of the say something of next week.

fully endorse the opinion given in Sir G. Grove's Arts décoratifs, will contain, in response to LADY RUTHVEN has presented to the Museum from the Concertos, Molique's music bears

Dictionary of Music and Musicians, that, apart invitations recently addressed to them, the con- of Antiquities at Edinburgh the valuable collec- hardly any trace of inspiration, and had no tributions of three younger English painters, tion of Greek antiquities which was formed by great or lasting success. representatives of the newer methods-Messrs. herself and her husband some sixty years ago, Beethoven's Serenade in D major (op. 25) for

Another novelty was Orchardson, E. J. Gregory, and R. W. Mac- and has since been preserved at Winton Castle, Aute, violin, and viola. beth. It is said that Mr. Orchardson has had in East Lothian. The collection includes nearly years since this work was published; and,

It is now eighty-two permission to remove from the South Kensington three thousand coins, many bronze statuettes judging from the style of the music, it was galleries, for the time being, the “ on Board the Bellerophon,” which forms part of But by far the most valuable portion" is the probably composed at a still earlier period. the collection purchased out of the funds of the series of vases, about five hundred in number, what must he have thought of this Serenade! Chantrey Bequest, and that he will likewise which, for their size, their beauty, and their As the work of a new composer, it would send to Paris A Social Eddy,” which is truly rarity, come second (as regards England) only not be considered worthy of production at characterised as a masterpiece of elegant genre. to those in the British Museum. The existing the Popular Concerts, but, historically, the

The issue of Prof. Maspero's new Catalogue building at Edinburgh is altogether inadequate performance was one of great interest." One of the Boolak Museum is, we hear, unavoidably to display the collection.

does not care to listen to the youthful works of delayed in consequence of a change of plan in

At the meeting of the Society of Antiquaries men who may never become illustrious, but it regard of the cover, which is now to be of stout of Scotland held at Edinburgh last Monday, a is instructive and highly encouraging to see boards, instead of a mere paper wrapper, paper was read from the Earl of Southesk, how Beethoven commenced. Compare the

AT Messrs. Dowdeswells’, in Bond Street, are giving an elaborate account of all the Ogham Serenade with the last Quartett, and it seems a collection of drawings and pictures of cathe- inscriptions to be found in Scotland, together scarcely conceivable that the same hand can drals by Mr. Wyke Bayliss, an artist of refined with translations. The other papers dealt with have penned both works. Malle. Janotha gare feeling. In rendering the rich effects of light a recent discovery of bronze spearheads, &c., a very fine rendering of Mendelssohn's "Sonate and colour in "St. Mark's, Venice” (7), he near Loch Awe, and with some of the sculp- écossaise," and she also deserves praise for arrives more nearly at success than in most of tured stone slabs which abound throughout trying to prevent the encore. But she was his oil pictures; but “The Rose Window and Scotland.

called back for the third time, and only then Chancel Screen at Chartres ” will by some be

yielded to the wish of the public. Miss Louise thought his finest work. Of his water-colours

Philipps and Mdme. Fassett sang duets by we prefer “Treves Cathedral” (21) and “The


Hollaender and Schumann, and were accom, Chapel of St. Gabriel” at St. Mark's (20).


panied by Miss Carmichael. Sig. Piatti played M. LEFÈBRE, the well-known painter of On Wednesday evening, February 6, Mr. H. for the fifteenth time an Allemande Largo and

J. S. SHEDLOCK. · La Cigale” and “Chloe,” will not lose repu- Holmes gave the first of his new series of Allegro by Veracini. tation by his chaste figure of “ Psyche on chamber concerts at the Steinway Hall. The a rock with a casket in her hand, which is now programme included Brahms' interesting, if not on view at Messrs. Goupil's, in New Bond Street. altogether satisfactory, Trio in E flat (op: 40)

MUSIC NOTE. The figure is beautifully drawn, and of a design for pianoforte, violoncello, and horn (Mdme. Messrs. GRIFFITH & FARRAN have in preparasimple and elegant. It is about to be engraved Haas and Messrs. Holmes and Paersch). in line by M. François. the slow movements the composer seems strug- tion a volume by Mdme. Viard Louis

, entitled at the sale of Manet's pictures at the Hôtel effort without the requisite rule, and power, expression of an idea, and not merely an inger The following

were the highest prices fetched gling with his thoughts ; there is the feeling of Music and the Piano, the aim of which is Drouot last week : " Argenteuil,” 12,500 frs. ; while in the quick gay movements the subject- nious method of displaying force and skill, 1

Olympia,” 10,000 frs.; "Le Linge,” 8,000 matter is not of special moment. frs.; "Le Bar des Folies-Bergère,” 5,860 trs.; gramme included Beethoven's E minor Quartett is written in three parts. In the first Mdme. Chez le père Lathuille,” 500 frs. ; " Nana à sa (op. 59, No. 2) and Mendelssohn's posthumous Viard Louis shows that the art of music hx


followed the progress of the

age Toilette” and “Faure in the Part of Hamlet," fragments for strings. Mr. E. Howell, accom

human mind. each 3,000 frs. panied by Mdme. Haas, gave an effective

In the second she takes the

and indicates how the A COLLECTION of about one hundred and rendering of Max Bruch’s Adagio, “Kolindividual character of each is set forth in the

Nidrei.” thirty pastels and sketches by M. Cluseret, the . Janotha played in

The third part treats Jeneral of the Commune, are now on exhibition D Top. 289 nast saturday at the Popular Con" style=that is to say, the methods of counting In Dr. Richter's letter in the ACADEMY of two movements, but the first two were hurried, in French, and translated into English by Me certs. She was very successful with the last the ideas of the masters by the execution

their compositions. The book has been writte tie MSS. of Leonardo " a serious imputation is necessary display of vigour. Malle. Janotha Warrington Smith. fjunded upon a statement which, we are assured, also took part in Haydn's charming Trio in C. is entirely erroneous. hiad been true, we recognise, upon reconsidera-ber of Maydn's Pianoforto Tries vast twenty: EYRE & SPOTTISWOODE. tion, that we ought not to have allowed the nine, quoting as authority the Catalogue drawn i nputation to appear. up by Carpani in his book called Le Haydine.

Haydn's Trios are, we believe, thirty-five in num-
NOTES FROM SCOTLAND. bert; at any rate, thirty-one are printed. Little JACKDAW of RHEIMS.
MR. WILLIAM BEATTIE BROWN has been we find, for example, fifteen Piano Sonatas men-
elected a full member of the Royal Scottish tioned in it-less than half the printed number.

Mdme. Néruda was prevented by indisposition We understand that a second loan exhibition from appearing, and her place was taken by of pictures will probably be held at Edinburgh Miss Shinner, the promising pupil of Dr.

Wholesalo-EYRE & SPOTTISWOOUE, Great New-street, London, Ed this summer, following the successful precedent Joachim. It was rather a severe ordeal for the of last year, except that the forthcoming exhi- young lady, but she played with skill and conbition will be confined to portraits. It is to be siderable taste. She deserved the applause ENSOR'S CHRONOLOGICAL CHAL hoped that this is another step towards the bestowed on her, but the audience ought to

Post the of this to REDUCE tbe PRICE formation of a permanent gallery of national have waited till the end of the Mozart Quartett all, and ho opply it hintele to the red rose creare portraits in Scotland.

in D minor instead of encoring the Minuetto. I porn,ado Perices, &c., vent post-free on application to E. J. ESSÓR, MiB

to age

Size 15 inches by 11 inches.

Illustrated by Jessop.
Times.-"Can never fail to amuse."
Saturday Review,-"Very comically illustrated."
Spectator. -"Decidedly good."
Graphic.-" Very cleverly executed."
IUustrated London News. -"Irresistibly oomical."
Standard --" A sem both of illustration and printing."
Morning Post " A series of clever pictures."
Daily Telegraph.-" Both humorous and ornamental."

Rotail of all Booksellers.

SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 23, 1884. jealousy, why the Queen is so fond of Scotland. was inevitable. Peter was but an instrument

This book answers the question. It is because in the hands of that principle of progress No. 616, New Series.

there, and especially in the Highlands, she which-call it historical evolution, the guiding THE EDITOR cannot undertake to return, or can gratify that intense love of nature which action of Providence, or what we will—has to correspond with the writers of, rejected she possesses, and which shows itself in keen been at work civilising and refining the " bar

appreciation, not merely of wild and beautiful barians of the North” ever since the comsvanuscript.

scenery, but also of characters and modes of mencement of the Christian era. It is particularly requested that all business life as yet in somewhat of their primitive Mr. Schuyler's work will help to confirm

simplicity. The Queen, too, is—as she con- this view. From the pages of this impartial letters regarding the supply of the paper, fesses with evident pride—a descendant of the and carefully written book the character of gre., may be addressed to the Publisher, and House of Stuart, and for her each scene she Peter stands out with such life-like truthfulnot to the EDITOR.

looks upon recalls some romantic incident in ness that we seem almost to know the man,

connexion with the fortunes of her ancestors. and to see and hear him walking and talking. LITERATURE.

Heredity asserts itself, Mr. Galton would tell We assist at his drinking bouts, we follow More Leaves from the Journal of a Life in the us, in this particular, but not in this alone. him in his wild game at soldiers, we accom

For we are insensibly reminded of King pany him on his extraordinary travels, we Highlands, from 1862 to 1882. (Smith, George III._" Farmer George”-when we read his private letters, we see him in his Elder, & Co.)

read the Queen's account of "juicing the domestic relations, and we are constrained to Ir is impossible to regard this book otherwise sheep" and the interest she took in the more admit that Peter the Great was not a hero than with feelings of respect, and that not familiar operation of clipping.

after the heart of Carlyle. In coming to this merely on its author's account, but because it But, although the Journal recounts the conclusion we are scarcely assisted by Mr. is exactly what it professes to be. The Queen's participation in many simple pleasures Schuyler, 'who allows the facts to speak for twenty years with which the Journal has to (and none seem too homely for her enjoyment), themselves. Possessed of that simple, lucid do was indeed an eventful period. It was there is throughout her diary an undertone style which has made the works of Dr. marked by such important incidents as the of sadness which the writer never attempts to Smiles so popular, Mr. Schuyler has studied Franco-German and Russo-Turkish Wars, not conceal. Visits paid to old friends and old the literature of his subject most laboriously, to mention the many minor campaigns in places bring back the memories of a happier and has made excellent and judicious use of which our own armies were engaged, and the past, and the very warmth of affection with his material. grave political complications which from time which the Queen speaks of and treats those, That Peter was a genius probably no one to time presented themselves., But with whether gentle or simple, who have attached will care to deny. His education, his, purthese matters the Journal is altogether uncon- themselves to her seems like the yearning of suits, his studies, were of his own choosing. cerned. It deals solely with the Queen's life an empty heart for a consolation still denied. Neglected as a child, and not expected to in the Highlands; and, though it is quite But we are, perhaps, intruding upon matters ascend the throne, being but a younger natural that her Majesty's subjects should with which the reviewer has no concern. The son, Peter found himself elected emperor wish to know what were the Queen's thoughts book is emphatically one to be read rather than at the early age of eleven. But it was in and feelings about things and people outside criticised, and cannot fail to deepen the respect the interests of the Grand Duchess Sophia, the narrow limits thus laid down, we certainly and sympathy already felt towards its author. his sister, the Regent, and of his entourcannot find fault with the almost absolute

CHARLES J. ROBINSON. age to continue the course of neglect. That reticence which is preserved throughout the

he picked up any knowledge at all was volume upon all questions of national import

pure accident. His playing at soldiers, of Such silence seems to us to be as Peter the Great. By E. Schuyler. In 2 vols. which so much has been made by the popular in title of | a , discreet as it is rare; and, as there is nothing (Sampson Low.)

Russian historians, and which subsequently mislead, we are unable to justify a disappoint- PERHAPS history has never produced a char- proved of such value, Mr. Schuyler speaks

to as

follows ment in which we do not share. Having said so much, we shall be understood the Great, a man who possessed all those natural inclination, and had in his head no plan

impersonation of Carlyle's ideal than Peter "In playing at soldiers, Peter followed his when we add that the most remarkable thing qualities which it has been the custom of whatever for

re:organising or putting on a better about the book is that there is nothing very generations to associate with true greatness

. footing the military forces of his country: The tures

. A carriage accident, an arrival without him in those lines in the "Huldigung der Preobrazhensky; but it was not until real war remarkable in it. It records no thrilling

adven- Schiller has crystallised the popular idea of re-organisation of the Russian army indeed bag or baggage, a near chance of being benighted

Künste' so often quoted. It is the Muse began that Peter saw of what service these upon the mountain side—these are almost the only " situations " which the Journal offers to of Architecture that speaks :

exercises had been to him and to others, and its readers. The interest of the book is, if we

" Mich sahst du thronen an der Neva Strom! found that the boy-soldiers could easily be may use a much-abused phrase, subjective

Dein grosser Ahnherr rief mich nach den Norden made the nucleus of an army.”

Und dort erbaut ich ihm ein zweites Rom rather than objective. We look through it Durch mich ist es ein Kaisersitz geworden!

The way this army tumbled into a war and at the writer, and are brought face to Ein Paradies der Herrlichkeit und Grösse laid siege to the fortress of Azof is a striking face with her. As a rule, diaries which Stieg unter meiner Zauberruthe Schlag

instance of the utter absence of all patrioiic record anything more than bare facts betray Jetzt räuscht des Lebens lustiges Getöse

feeling in Peter at that time, and of a devothe self-consciousness of their authors, and

Wo vormals nur ein düsterer Nebel lag;
Die stolze Flottenrüstung seiner Maste

tion to amusement and personal gratification make us feel that we are only so far taken Erschreckt den alten Belt in seinem Meer- scarcely credible. Situated as Peter was, he very into confidence as may be necessary to pro


naturally, preferred the society of the witty, duce a certain effect. An art which strives Opposed by his subjects, discouraged, to say bibulous foreign adventurers among whom he to look like artlessness is their commonest the least, by his relations, dissuaded by his was thrown to the Oriental conventionality of

And the special value of the wife from pursuing the studies that he loved, his surroundings. Already there existed, and Queen's Journal is its genuine simplicity and Peter, an uneducated barbarian, effected the indeed had existed for upwards of a century, perfect candour.

In these pages she is no reformation of a vast and mighty nation a foreign quarter in Moscow, still called the longer the lofty abstraction of royalty who solely by aid of his own indomitable will. Nyemetsky (or dumb) quarter; and in this I.nds dignity to a pageant but otherwise Surely there must be some truth in the reli- part of his capital Peter found congenial comis hedged about with a divinity through gion of hero-worship. But the student of panions and facilities for sowing wild oats

. which it would be profane to penetrate. Here history who will take the trouble to investi- Unlike most Russians, drinking did not imWe are permitted to look upon the woman gate the chain of events preceding Peter's prove his temper; and it was frequently hther than the monarch, and to repay with accession to the throne, the circumstances dangerous to approach his Imperial Majesty rapathy the sympathy which she is so ready attending his early youth, and the state of in his cups. When in that condition, it was to extend towards her subjects.

Europe at the time, must feel that the trans- not unusual for him to belabour his associates It is sometimes asked, with some little formation of Russia into a European Power with his stick, or, more unpleasant still, to



of us.

draw his sword upon them. His behaviour did not sit at the table guzzling the whole day same promptitude, at others he made two interto women was of a piece with his conduct to long. There were intervals for smoking, and preters talk, and assuredly he said nothing that His first wife was confined in a con

the Russians enjoyed the interdicted tobacco. was not to the point on all subjects that were vent, because of her “opposition and sus

There were games at bowls and nine-pins, there suggested, for the vivacity of my mother put to picions ;” and she was so entirely forgotten Healths were proposed and speeches made, the same readiness ; and I was astonished that

were matches in archery and musket practice. him many questions, to which he replied with that she conducted an intrigue with a com- attended with salvos of artillery and blasts of he was not tired with the conversation, for I passionate major with impunity. His second trumpets. A band of German musicians played have been told that it is not much the habit in wife, Catherine, the daughter of a German of at intervals during the feasts, and in the even- his country. As to his grimaces, I imagined obscure origin, was treated to repeated thrash- ing there were exhibitions of fireworks out of them worse than I found them, and some are ings; and on one occasion he smashed before doors, and there was dancing indoors. Lefort, not in his power to correct. One can see also her face a beautiful Venetian looking-glass, in a letter describing one of these nights, says that he has had no one to teach him how to eat :with the observation, “ Thus I can annihilate that half the company slept while the rest properly, but he has a natural, unconstrained the most beautiful adornment of my palace.”

danced. Such feasts as these, so troublesome air which pleases me. Her mother wrote ... The changes that Peter introduced were and we know that Van Keller, and even illustrious Tsar if I should tell you he is sen

and so expensive, were a burden to any host, I could embellish the tale of the journey of the capricious and unscientific, many of them Gordon, were glad to have them over.” sible to the charms of beauty, but, to come to frivolous in nature, and none marked by

, I in to the wisdom and moderation which should Nor can we fail to sympathise with that Tsar gallantry. If we had not taken steps to see distinguish the statesman; and it is certainly who said :

him, I believe that he would never have thought lamentable that his reforms partook a “Precedence was an institution invented by

In his country it is the custom for all great deal of the nature of the revolutionary the devil, for the purpose of destroying Christian

women to paint, and rouge forms an essential measures of the Terror, and, like them, have love, and of increasing the hatred of brother to part of their marriage presents

. That is why left his country in an unsettled state, the brother.'

the Countess Platen singularly pleased the

Muscovites; but, in dancing, they took the fruits of which are still making themselves The picture of woman, too, in the seventeenth whalebones of our corsets for our bones, and the felt. When all his faults have been admitted, century in Russia is as faithful as it is sad.

Tsar showed his astonishment by saying that and the largest deductions from his overgrown

the German ladies had devilish hard bones.... reputation have been made, Peter still re- “The Muscovite ideal of woman, founded on mains a great man among the pigmies of whom the teachings and traditions of Byzantine Schuyler's work will be found both amusing


must say that Mr. theologypurely a monastic the total of human nature is composed, but Socially,'woman was not an independent being; and instructive. We shall not be surprise no longer a hero such as Carlyle would have she was an inferior creation, dependent on her if it takes its place as a standard work of wished us to worship. The Russian nation is husband, for, except as a wife, her existence was reference on the library shelves of the British now slowly awakening to this fact; and it scarcely recognised. . . . The wife should be public.

E. A. BRAYLEY HODGETTS. has become rather the fashion in that country blindly obedient in all things, and for her faults to underrate the Tsar-carpenter, thereby going should be severely whipped, though not in to the other extreme. The merit of Mr. anger (!). Her duty was to keep the house, to Schuyler's work is its very just apprelook after the food and clothing, and to see to The High Alps of New Zealand; or, a Trip to

the Glaciers of the Antipodes, with an ciation of Peter's true'position; all his faults the comfort of her husband, to bear children,

but not to educate them. Severity was inculand shortcomings are faithfully pointed out, cated, and to play with one's children was

Ascent of Mount Cook. By W. S. Green. and his greatness is not detracted from. It esteemed a sin—a snare of the devil. . . . It

(Macmillan.) might have been desirable to give some was believed that an element of evil lurked in Ten years ago the then Governor of New of those anecdotes of Peter which are the female sex, and even the most innocent Zealand, Sir G. F. Bowen, sent a special invicurrent in Russia. The geniality of the sport between little boys and girls, a social tation to the Alpine Club to explore the glaciers Tsar is, perhaps, not sufficiently insisted on, intercourse between young men and women, of the Southern Alps. The Rev. W. S. Green's nor his enormous physical strength and

was severely reprehended. The 'Domostrói,' volume tells us how this challenge has been his immense size. Among the legends and even Pososhkóf, as late as the cighteenth taken up, and Mount Cook, the highest summit still told of him, one is to the effect that and break the ribs of his son whom he found for all, that, even if he did not stand on the

century, recommended a father to take a cudgel of the islands, conquered. For we may say, once he once stopped with his own bands the jesting with a girl. sails of a windmill in full work, another that with regard to women are still found in current highest wave of its snow-crest, the completehe could crush a horse-shoe in his hand, and proverbs. A woman's hair is long, her under- ness of Mr. Green's conquest will hardly be a third that he could roll a silver salver into standing is short, runs one proverb; "The disputed, unless by some victim of a dull form the shape of a horn without any apparent wits of a woman are like the wildness of beasts,' of mountaineering pedantry. cxertion. These are traditions, and, perhaps, says another; while a third says: “As a horse Mount Cook stands about 120 miles west not worthy of a place in history. But we by the bit, so must a woman he governed by of Christ Church, the capital of the Southern cannot help regretting that another portrait sador at Moscow in 1663, writes that, out of a

Island. A railroad with express trains could not have been found than the one which thousand


, there will hardly be found already carries the traveller across the bare prefaces the present work. There are better one who can boast that he has seen the Tsaritsa, broad Canterbury Plains, waving with browa portraits extant, though there may have been or any of the sisters or daughters of the Tsar! grasses, to a point some seventy miles short difficulties in the way of getting specimens. Even their physicians are not allowed to see of the terminal moraine of the Great Tasman This

, however, is a slight shortcoming, amply them. When it is necessary to call a doctor Glacier, which flows out to the edge of the atoned for in other matters; and we think for the Tsaritsa, the windows are all darkened, open country. One of the most striking feathat there is hardly a book' in the English and he is obliged to feel her pulse through a

tures of the range is its singleness and the language dealing with the history of Russia piece of gauzo, so as not to touch her hand! shortness of its lateral spurs, and the conmore attractive than this Life of Peter the of the princesses, that the Russian envoy at sequent absence of long mountain valleys Great This is due not solely to the

excellent Copenhagen, in recounting the good qualities such as the Rhône Valley or the Vispthal description of the man, but also, in a large of Irene, praised her particularly for never get- For it is surely to the narrowness of the belti measure, to the interesting picture which it ting drunk.”

in which the elevatory forces were exercised, presents of Russian life in the seventeenth

The following is a portrait of Peter from rather than to the lack of water-power in the century. It is amusing to read : the point of view of a German lady, Sophia that the absence of deep and long valleya

streams—the cause suggested by Mr. Green“A dinner with some rich provincial merchant, Charlotte of Brandenburg :

Mount Cook itself or a day with some hospitable landed proprietor "My mother and I began to pay him our com- stands on a short and very lofty offshoot of in the South of Russia, would give us typical pliments, but he made Mr. Lefort reply for him, the main chain, like the Swiss Mischabel examples of the heroic meals Peter and his for he seemed shy, hid his face in his hands, and Hörner, and the two troughs at its base are herring, their cabbage and beet-root soup, their him'a little, and then he sat down at the table filled by the Tasman and Hooker Glaciers. iced batvínia and okróshka, the sucking-pig between my mother and myself, and each of us Their streams, which soon unite, form its first salted cucumbers, and the sweets. The guests should have it. Sometimes he replied with the hindrance, or even danger, in the way of

should be attributed.

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supplies being brought up to a party encamped Green exclaims when looking over the wilder- his cry, “Vanity of vanities, all is vanity ;", beside the ice.

ness of icy peaks, “Here is occupation for and cared nothing for what he had to say on For nine miles the Great Tasman Glacier half-a-century for a nation of climbers.” For the pursuit of truth, purity, and virtue. Thus flows in a broad and tolerably level flood from their benefit he gives an excellent alpine they lapsed into a condition of complete inthe heart of the mountains. It cost Mr. Green glossary, and some useful practical hints in difference, and amused themselves with twistand his two Grindelwald guides, Boss and the art of mountaineering. It is a pity he ing round and round the thought that “we Kaufmann, five laborious marches over scrub did not add some skeleton routes, or suggest are of the stuff that dreams are made of.” and boulders to bring on their own shoulders the best points of departure on the west “ Once on a time,” wrote Chwang-tsze,

, their stores up to this point, the meeting-coast, where in all probability the finest

“I dreamt I was a butterfly, fluttering hither place of the upper ice-streams. And here scenery of the range will be found. The and thither, to all intents and purposes a they were still only 3,750 feet above the eastern slope of the mountains seems to butterfly. I was conscious only of following sea, and 8,500 feet from the top of Mount correspond to the Aletsch Glacier face of the my fancies (as a butterfly), and was unconCook-as far below their mountain as Grindel- Oberland; their boldest aspect remains to be scious of my individuality as 'a man. Suddenly wald is below the Wetterhorn. described by those who have approached them I awaked;

and there I lay myself again. I do

not know whether I was then dreaming I was a Two unsuccessful attempts were now made from the opposite direction. by different spurs.

butterfly, or whether I am now a butterfly The third assault was

In the matter of illustrations, the narrative dreaming that it is a man. Between a man more fortunate, in so far that the party suc- has not been done justice to. Mr. Green has and a butterfly there is necessarily a barrier; ceeded in forcing their way through crevasses exhibited in London material which might and the transition is called metempsychosis.” and up ice-slopes to the crowning ridge of have furnished a series of wood-engravings This, in one form or another, is the principal Mount Cook. How first storm and cloud and that would have been a valuable addition to idea which runs through the writings of the then night overtook them on the mountain, our knowledge of the Southern Alps.. In followers of this school. There is a sense of how they clambered down their ice-ladder in their place we find nothing but a sensational emptiness, either real or affected, in all their the dark until forced to halt through the frontispiece, poorly imitated from the illus- utterances, resulting from their inability to small hours on a ledge which barely gave trated newspapers, which will give no satis- grasp higher truths or to clothe their imperstanding-room, and how they finally returned, faction to any sensible reader. safe and sound, to camp, should be read in

fectly clad minds with any width of knowledge. DOUGLAS W. FRESIFIELD.

The influence of these ideas, however, has perthe original narrative. Few more thrilling

meated all Chinese literature, and has given to stories of alpine adventure have ever been

it a tone of desponding weariness. Many of the told; and Mr. Green tells his story well. Gems of Chinese Literature. By Herbert A. later extracts quoted by Mr. Giles are well We have put, as was its due, the moun- Giles. (Quaritch.)

worth reading, and some are decidedly pretty. taineering in the forefront. But Mr. Green is very far from being one of those climbers who The literature of a people who have been The following is a specimen of the poetry of the have no eyes for anything smaller than a busy with their pens for more than five-and-beginning of the Christian era ; it was written,

Mr. Giles tells us, by " an Imperial favourite great peak. His pages are full of notes and twenty, centuries must ever be interesting. observations on general subjects and natural Even if it should be wanting in such inter: who felt that her influence over the Emperor history. In these ranges there is little or no lectual force and vivid imagination as would was beginning to wane,” and is called " The

Autumn Fan animal life. Chamois and ibex have yet to be cause it to be admired for itself alone, yet it

“ O fair white silk, fresh from the weaver's loom, imported. But the birds more than make up must always reflect the intellectual life as

Clear as the frost, bright as the winter snowfor the deficiency. The keas, or Mount Cook well as the manners and customs of the nation.

See! friendship fashions out of thee a fan, parrots, used to collect round Mr. Green No more complete instance of this exists than Round as the round moon shines in heaven when he was alone in camp, and scold him in in the literature of China. We need not now

above; language which, being a clergyman, and not enquire how early authorship began in that At home, abroad, a close companion thou,

Stirring at every move the grateful gale; Aristophanes , he is unable or unwilling to country of scribes, but we know that there

And yet I fear, ah me! that autumn chills, translate . At last he gave way to an unpro- has been a constant stream of literary pro

Cooling the dying summer's torrid rage, temnal impatience of their preaching, and ductions from the time of Confucius to the

Will see thee laid neglected on the shelf, knocked the most forward kea on the head. present day. In the volume before us Mr. Giles All thought of bye-gone days, like them, byeFrom that day the parrots abandoned his begins with quotations from Confucius, and gone. zeiety—a piece of sagacity he attributes to ends with extracts from authors of the six- Although we have not compared this with the abnormal size of their brains as compared teenth century. The ground covered, there the original, we should imagine from its style to those of the “ blue ducks,” which came to fore, is wide, and every important epoch that it is literally translated. This, however, be killed every morning with a readiness between those periods finds expression in its cannot be said of many of the extracts in the andiminished by the slaughter of their rela- pages.

volume—not even of the Chinese Preface, fires. A strange flora, to which Mr. Green The writings of Confucius and his disciples written by a young graduate of Foo-chow, be added a specimen, is brought before us; brought to a close the first period of Chinese which adorns the outside cover. In Mr. Giles's nad it is interesting to find in it, as an excep

literature. In them we have reflected the translation of this Preface both the first tis among a vegetation generally different Chinese mind before external influences and last sentences are omitted; and he adds trom that we are accustomed to in European introduced to it new thoughts and ideas. to the very uncomplimentary description given ayuntains, a species of Edelweiss, closely with the appearance of Laou-tsze, the founder by his friend, the graduate, of our fore

our alpine variety. The curious of Taouism, the Chinese first became ac- fathers, by charging them with having been fact

, that, while the glaciers descend lower, quainted with a philosophy so nearly akin to naked, ' homeless, and dependent for food on the snow-line is higher on the western side of Brahminism that it is impossible not to berries, as well as raw meat. In this par

range, is also noted and commented on. suppose that in some way or other it owed its ticular instance the inaccuracies are of trilling The weak point in Mr. Green's journey, and origin to communication with the Central- importance; but when Mr. Giles calls upon us enrequently

in his book, lies in the misfortune Asian States. One book is left us by to admire with him the works of Chinese 12at the time at his disposal (cruelly curtailed this “old philosopher,” and in it is contained authors we should like to be quite sure of wa lengthy quarantine at Melbourne) did in mystical language a moral teaching of the what we have in every case before us, whether It allow him to attempt any general detailed highest and purest order. We could have an accurate translation or only a paraphrase. they of the snowy chain. Nor has Dr. wished that Mr. Giles had given us quotations

ROBERT K. DOUGLAS. Kat's work been carried on in this respect, from the Taou-tih king, but he puts it aside es far as we are aware, by Herr von Lenden- and goes 1, an Austrian gentleman who, with his works of the so-called followers of Laou-tsze, Teutonic Mythology . By Jacob Grimm.

Translated from the Fourth Edition, with s has followed up Mr. Green's success by such as Lieh-tsze, Chwang-tsze, and others. sabing a summit--the

Hochstetter Dome To these men the deep truths contained in Notes and Appendix, by J. S. Stallybrass. va che watershed at the head of the northern the doctrines

of him they professed to follow

Vol. III. (Bell.) breach of the Great Tasman glacier. Much, were unintelligible, and they seized only those The subject of the third volume of Mr. Stallytherdure, is left to future explorers. As Mr? which lay on the surface. They heard but brass's excellent translation is popular re


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